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six palms long, the smaller three, but none of them were less than a palm in thickness, and they were one hundred and seventeen in number: four were of the purest gold, weighing each one talent and a half; the rest were of inferior quality, but of the weight of two talents. He constructed also a lion of pure gold 67, which weighed ten talents. It was originally placed in the Delphian temple, on the above gold tiles; but when this edifice was burned, it fell from its place, and now stands in the Corinthian treasury: it lost, however, by the fire, three talents and a half of its former weight.

· LI. Cresus, moreover, sent to Delphi two large cisterns, one of gold, and one of silver: that of gold was placed on the right hand, in the vestibule of the temple; the silver one was placed on the left. These also were removed when the temple was consumed by fire: the golden goblet weighed


Speak unto Eleazer, the son of Aaron the priest, that he take up the censers out of the burning, and scatter thou the fire yonder; for they are hallowed.

The censers of the sinners against their own souls, let them make them broad plates for a covering of the altar.

The censers had probably run together, and the similarity is very striking.

67 Lion of pure gold.]—These tiles, this lion, and the statue of the breadmaker of Cresus, were all of them, at a subsequent period, seized by the Phocians, to defray the expençes of the holy war.-Larcher.


eight talents and a half and twelve minæ, and was afterwards placed in the Clazomenian treasury: that of silver is capable of holding six hundred amphoræ; it is placed at the entrance of the temple, and used by the inhabitants of Delphi in their Theophanian festival: they assert it to have been the work of Theodorus of Samos 68; to which opinion, as it is evidently the production of no mean artist, I am inclined to accede. The Corinthian treasury also possesses four silver casks, which were sent by Cresus, in addition to the above, to Delphi. His munificence did not yet cease: he presented also two basons, one of gold, another of silver. An inscription on that of gold, asserts it to have been the gift of the Lacedæmonians; but it is not true, for this also was the gift of Cræsus. To gratify the 'Lacedæmonians, a certain Delphian wrote this inscription: I know his name, but forbear to disclose it". The boy through whose hand the water flows, was given by the La

cedæmonians; cedæmonians; the basons undoubtedly were not.--Many other smaller presents accompanied these; among which were some silver dishes, and the figure of a woman in gold, three cubits high, who, according to the Delphians, was the person who made bread for the family of Cræsus 7o. This prince, besides all that we have enumerated, consecrated at Delphi his wife's necklaces and girdles.

68 Theodorus of Samos.]—He was the first statuary on record. The following mention is made of him by Pliny:Theodorus, who constructed the labyrinth at Samos, made a cast of himself in brass, which, independent of its being a perfect likeness, was an extraordinary effort of genius. He had in his right hand a file; with three fingers of his left he held a carriage drawn by four horses; the carriage, the horses, and the driver, were so minute, that the whole was covered by the wings of a fly.-T.

69. I know his name, but forbear to disclose it.]-If Ptolemæus in Photius may be credited, his name was Æthus.--T,

. LII. To Amphiaraus, having heard of his valour and misfortunes, he sent a shield of solid gold, with a strong spear made entirely of gold, both shaft and head. These were all, within my memory, preserved at Thebes, in the temple of the Ismenian Apollo.

LIII. The Lydians, who were intrusted with the care of these presents, were directed to enquire whether Cræsus might auspiciously undertake an expedition against the Persians, and whe


70 Made bread for the family of Cræsus.]—Croesus, says Plutarch, honoured the woman who made his bread, with a statue of gold, from an honest emotion of gratitude. Alyattes, the father of Cræsus, married a second wife, by whom he had other children. This woman wished to remove Cræsus out of the way, and gave the female baker a dose of poison, charging her to put it into the bread which she made for Çresus. The woman informed Cræsus of thiş, and gave the poisoned bread to the queen's children. By these means Çræsus succeeded his father; and acknowledged the fidelity of the woman, by. thus making the god himself an evidence of his gratitude.-T,

ther he should procure any confederate assistance. On their arrival at the destined places, they deposited their presents, and made their enquiries of the oracles precisely in the following terms :“ Cresus, sovereign of Lydia, and of various nations, esteems these the only genuine oracles; in return for the sagacity which has marked your declarations, he sends these proofs of his liberality: he finally desires to know whether he may proceed against the Persians, and whether he should require the assistance of allies.” The answers of the oracles tended to the same purpose; both of them assuring Cræsus, that if he prosecuted a war with Persia, he should overthrow a mighty enpire?"; and both recommended him to form an alliance with the most powerful states of Greece,

LIV. The report of these communications transported Croesus with excess of joy : elated with the idea of becoming the conqueror of Cyrus, he sent again to Delphi, enquired the number of inhabitants there, and presented each with two golden


71 Overthrow a mighty empire.]—It appears, that the very words of the oracle must have been here originally: they are preserved by Suidas and others, and are these:

Κροίσος Αλυν διαβας μεγαλην αρχην καταλυσει : which Cicero rendersCresus, Halym penetrans, magnam pervertet opum vim.

De Div. xi. 56. By crossing Halys, Cræsus will destroy a mighty power.-T.

staters * In acknowledgment for his liberality, the Delphians assigned to Cræsus and the Lydians the privilege of first consulting the oracle, in preference to other nations; a distinguished seat in their temple; together with the immutable right, to such of them as pleased to accept it, of being enrolled among the citizens of Delphi.


LV. After the above-mentioned marks of his munificence to the Delphians, Crosus consulted their oracle a third time. His experience of its veracity increased the ardour of his curiosity; he was now anxious to be informed whether his power would be perpetual. The following was the answer of the Pythian':

When o'er the Medes a mule shall sit on high,
O’er pebbly Hermus?? then, soft Lydian, fly;
Fly with all haste; for safety scorn thy fame,
Nor scruple to deserve a coward's name.

LVI. When the above verses were communia cated to Cresus, he was more delighted than'ever;


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* There was both a silver and a gold coin of this name: The silver weighed four Attic drachms, and was worth about three shillings and a penny. The gold Attic stater was equal to twenty drachms, or fifteen shillings and five pence.

72 O'er pebbly Hermus, &c.]-It bas been usually translated Fly to Hermus : but Trap Eppor certainly means trans Hermum; and when said to a Lydian, implies, that he should desert his country.-T.

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