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signed some of their chosen citizens as his guard ??, armed with clubs, instead of spears. These seconded the purpose of Pisistratus, and seized the citadel. He thus obtained the supreme power; but he neither changed the magistrates nor altered the laws: he suffered every thing to be conducted in its ordinary course; and his government was alike honourable to himself 78 and useful to the


to dress themselves in their habits, caps, and shoes. Thus with weapons concealed under their clothes, they were to dance and play by the sea-side, till the enemy was landed, and the vessel near enough to be seized. Matters being thus ordered, the Megarensians were deceived with the appearance, and ran confusedly on shore, striving which should first lay hold on the women. But they met with so warm a reception, that they were cut off to a man, and the Athenians embarking immediately for Salamis, took possession of the island.

77 As his guard.]—The people being assembled to deliberate on the ambuscade which Pisistratus pretended was concerted against him, assigned him fifty guards for the security of his person. Ariston proposed the decree; but when it was once passed, the people acquiesced in his taking just as many guards as he thought proper. Solon, in a letter to Epemenides, preserved in Diogenes Laertius, but which seems to be spurious, says, that Pisistratus required four hundred guards; which, notwithstanding Solon's remonstrances, were granted him. Polyænus says they assigned him three hundred.-Larcher. A similar stratagem was executed by Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse, and with similar success. The account is given at length by Diodorus Siculus, book 21 and 95.

78 Honourable to himself.] --Pisistratus, says Plutarch, was not only observant of the laws of Solon himself, but obliged

city. The factions of Megacles and Lycurgus afterwards united, and expelled him from Athens.

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LX. By these means Pisistratus became for the first time master of Athens, and obtained an authority which was far from being secure.

The parties, however, which effected his expulsion, presently disagreed. Megacles, being hard pressed by his opponent, sent proposals to Pisistratus, offering him the supreme power, on condition of his marrying his daughter. Pisistratus acceded to the terms; and a method was concerted to accomplish his return, which to me seems exceedingly preposterous. The Grecians, from the remotest times, were distinguished from the Barbarians by their acuteness; and the Athenians, upon whom this trick was played, were of all the Greeks the most eminent for their sagacity. There was a Pæaniean woman, whose name was Phya79; she wanted but three digits of being four cubits high, and was, moreover, remarkably beautiful. She was dressed in a suit of armour, placed in a chariot, and decorated with the greatest possible

splendour, his adherents to be so too. Whilst in the enjoyment of the supreme authority, he was summoned before the Areopagus, to answer for the crime of murder. He appeared with modesty to plead his cause. His accuser did not think proper to appear. The same fact is related by Aristotle.Larcher.

79 Phya.]-There is here great appearance of ficțion. Phya means air, or personal courage. Ειδος τε, μεγεθος τε, φυην τ' αγχιστα εoικώς.

Il. 2d. T. Vox, I.


splendour. She was conducted towards the city; heralds were sent before, who, as soon as they arrived within* the walls of Athens, were instructed to exclaim aloud-"Athenians, receive Pisistratus again, and with good will; he is the great favourite of Minerva, and the goddess herself comes to conduct him to her citadel.” The rumour soon spread amongst the multitude, that Minerva was bringing back Pisistratus. Those in the city being told that this woman was their goddess, prostrated themselves before her, and admitted Pisistratus 80.


* This farce brings to recollection the equally foolish and atrocious one which was played at Paris by Robespierre and his monstrous gang. In the festival of the Goddess of Liberty, a beautiful courtezan was chosen to represent the goddess, and conducted in a triumphal car, with ceremonies similar to what are here described, to the church of Notre Dame. Not very unlike this also, is the following extract from one of Gray's Letters to Mr. West:

“ In the mean time, to employ the minds of the populace, the government has thought fit to bring into the city, in a solemn manner, and at a great expence, a famous statue of the Virgin, called the Madonna del Impruneta, from the place of her residence, which is upon a mountain seven miles off. It has never been practised but in times of public calamity, and t was done at present to avert the ill effects of a late great inundation, which it was feared might cause some epidemical distemper. It was introduced a fortnight since in procession, attended by the Council of Regency, the Senate, the Nobility, and all the religious orders, on foot, and bareheaded, and so carried to the great church, where it was frequented by an infinite concourse of people from all the country round."

† Was done at present is not English, and is an oversight of which it is surprising that Gray should be guilty.

Admitted Pisistratus.]—The ambitious in all ages have . 3


LXI. By these means the son of Hippocrates recovered his authority, and fulfilled the terms of his agreement with Megacles, by marrying his daughter øl. But, as he had already sons grown up, and as the Alcmæonides were stigmatized by some imputed contamination 83, to avoid having children by this marriage, he refused all natural communication with his wife. This incident, which the woman for a certain time concealed, she afterwards revealed to her mother, in consequence, perhaps, of her enquiries. The father was soon informed of it, who, exasperated by the affront, forgot his ancient resentments, and entered into a league with those, whom he had formerly opposed. Pisistratus, seeing the danger which menaced him, hastily left the country, and, retiring to Eretria®3, there deliberated with his sons concerning their future conduct. The sen



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made religion an instrument of their designs, and the people, naturally superstitious and weak, have always been the dupes.— Larcher.

81 By marrying his daughter.]-Her name was Cæsyra, as appears from the Scholiast to the Nubes of Aristophanes.--*Palmerius.

82 Imputed contamination.)—Megacles, who was Archon in the time of the conspiracy of Cylon, put the conspirators to death, at the foot of the altars where they had taken refuge. All those who had any concern in the perpetration of murder were considered as detestable.-Larcher.

83 Retiring to Eretria.]— There were two places of this name, one in Thessaly, the other in Eubæa: Pisistratus retired to the latter.

timents of Hippias, which were for attempting the recovery of their dignity, prevailed. They met with no difficulty in procuring assistance from the neighbouring states, amongst whom a prejudice in their favour generally existed. Many cities assisted them largely with money; but the Thebans were particularly liberal. Not to protract the narration, every preparation was made to facilitate their return. A band of Argive mercenaries came from the Peloponnese; and an inhabitant of Naxos, named Lygdamis, gave new alacrity to their proceedings, by his unsolicited assistance both with money and with troops.

LXII. After an absence of eleven years, they advanced to Attica from Eretria, and seized on Marathon, in the vicinity of which, they encamped. They were soon visited by throngs of factious citizens 84 from Athens, and by all those


84 Fuctious citizens.]— The whole account given by Herodotus, of the conduct of Pisistratus and his party, bears no small resemblance to many circumstances of the Catilinarian conspirators, as described by Cicero and others. Two or three instances are nevertheless recorded, of the moderation of Pisistratus, which well deserve our prąise. His daughter assisted at some religious festival: a young man, who violently loved her, embraced her publicly, and afterwards endeavoured to carry her off. His friends excited him to vengeance. “ If,” said he in reply, “ we hate those who love us, what shall we do to those who hate us ?”—Some young men, in a drunken frolic, insulted his wife. The next day


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