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they burnt this gate, and thirteen houses besides on the bridge, and likewise the brew-houses at St. Catherines, and many others in the suburbs.

Next hereunto was a gate, commonly called Buttolph's Gate, of the parish church adjoining. This was given or confirmed by William the Conqueror to the monks at Westminster. Then there is Belin's gate, which is much used by small ships and barges, so that Queen Hyth is almost forsaken. It is somewhat uncertain why this gate was so named, only Jeffrey of Monmouth writes, “ that Belin, a king of the Britons, about 400 years before Christ's nativity, built this gate, and called it after his own name, and that when he was dead, his body was burned and the ashes were put in a vessel of brass, and set over that gate upon an high pinicle of stone;" yet it doth not appear to be so ancient, but rather to have taken the name from some late owner, called it may be) Beling or Billing, as Somer's Key, Smart's Key, Fresh Wharf, and others have done. Then there was a water gate on the south end of Water Lane by the Custom House Key, but of all these more hereafter. One other watergate there was more by the bulwark of the Tower, and this is the last, the farthest gate eastward on the river Thames, as far as the city of London extends within the walls.

Besides these common water gates, there were formerly divers private wharfs, and keys all along from the east to the west of this city, on the Thames side, where merchants of all nations landed their goods, and had warehouses, cellars, and stowage for them. And in the forty. second year of Henry III. 1258, it was appointed that the ports of England should be strongly guarded, and the gates of London should be newly repaired, and diligently kept in the night for fear of French deceits,

Of the Tower of London, and other ancient towers and castles of this city, with several remarkable accidents

happening therein.

THE City of London (saith Fitz Stephen) hath in the east a very great, and most strong Palatine Tower, whose turret and walls do rise from a deep foundation, the mortar thereof being tempered with the boold of beasts,

It is the common opinion that Julius Cæsar the first conqueror, or indeed discoverer of Briton, was the original founder thereof and of many other towers, castles, and great houses. But there is little reason for it, in regard of his short stay here, having other things to think on, designing only to dispatch his conquest over this barbarous country, and then to perform greater enterprises ; neither do the Roman historians mention any such buildings erected by him here.

The more probable opinion thereof is, that William the Conqueror built the great white and square Tower thereabout the year of our Lord 1078, as appears by ancient records, and that made Gundulph Bishop of Rochester principal surveyor of the work. The wall of the City of London (as it is aforementioned) was furnisbed formerly with towers and bulwarks in due distance from each other; and the River of Thames with its ebbing and flowing bad overthrown the walls and towers on the banks thereof, whereupon William the Conqueror for the defence of the city which lay open to the enemy, having taken down the second bulwark in the east part of the wall toward the Thames, built the great White Tower, which has been since enlarged at several times with buildings adjoining thereto; this Tower in the fourth of William Rufus, 1092, was much shaken and defąced by a great tempest of wind, but was again repaired by William Rufus, and Henry I. who likewise built a castle on the south side thereof toward the Thames, intrenching the same round about. Historians say of this William Rufus, that he challenged the investiture of prelates, he pilled, and shared the people with tribute, especially to spend about the Tower of London, and the Great Hall at Westminster.

The four first constables or keepers of the Tower were Othowerus, Acolinillus, Otto, and Jeffry Magnaville Earl of Essex, who was also Sheriff of London, Middlesex, Essex and Hertfordshire; he fortified the Tower of London against King Stephen, but the King seizing him at his court at St. Albans would not discharge him, till he had delivered it up, together with the Castles of Walden, and Plastow, in Essex. In 1153, the Tower of London, and Castle of Windsor were delivered by the King to Richard de Lucie, to be safely kept. In 1155, Thomas Becket, Chancellor to Henry II. caused the Flemings to be banished out of England, their castles lately built to be demolished, and the Tower of London to be repaired.

In the second year of Richard I. 1190, William Longshamp Bishop of Ely, Lord Chancellor, (by reason of some difference between him, and Earl John the King's Brother, who was in rebellion) inclosed the Tower and Castle of London with an outward wall of

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stone embatailed; and likewise caused a deep ditch to be made about the same, designing (as it is aforementioned) to have invironed it with the River of Thames. This inclosure and ditch took away some ground from Trinity church in London, which King Edward recompenced. And a great quantity of ground likewise was taken from the city upon this account, yet the citizens had no recompence, nor were they offended thereat, since it was done with their liking, as being for the defence of the city.

But another historian saith, that in 1239, Henry III. fortified the Tower of London to another purpose, and the citizens fearing it was intended to their detriment, complained to the King; who answered, that he had not done it to their hurt, but (saith he) I will do from henceforth as my brother doth, (in building and fortifying castles) who beareth the name of being wiser than 1. But the next year, all these noble buildings of the Stone gate and bulwark, were shaken as with an earthquake, and fell down, which the King commanded to be again built better than before. And in the year 1941, though the King had bestowed twelve thousand marks in the work, yet the wall and bulwarks irrecoverably fell down ; at which the citizens were very well pleased; for they were threatened, that when this wall and bulwarks were built, if any of them should contend for the liberties of the city they should be imprisoned therein.

Yet were they again rebuilt and finished by Edward I. and the bulwark at the west-gate, now called the Lyon Tower, added; the original of which name, and of lyons in England, we read was thus. Henry 1. built the manor of Woodstock, and walled the park about with stone, seven miles in compass, destroying to that purpose divers villages, churches and chapels, and this was the first park in England, and as the record saith; he appointed therein (besides great store of deer) divers strange beasts to be kept and nourished, such as were brought to him from far countries, as lyons, leopards, linxes, porcupines, and such other, for such was his estimation among out-, landish princes, that few would willingly offend him.

In the year 1235 we read, that Frederick the Emperor, sent Henry Ill. three leopards in token of his regal shield of arins, wherein they were pictured; since which time, the lyons, and other creatures have been kept in a part of this bulwark now called the Lyon's Tower. In the sixteenth year of Edward Ill. one lyon, one lyoness, one leopard and two cat-lyons were committed to the custody of Robert Boure. Edward IV. fortified the Tower of London, and inclosed a piece of ground (west from the Lyon Tower)

upon Tower-hill with brick, now called the bulwark. And in the sixth year of his reign, he ordered a scaffold and gallows to be set upon the hill for the execution of offenders, upon which the Lord Mayor and Aldermen complaining to the King, but were answered, that it was not done in derogation of the city's liberties, and caused proclamation to be made thereof accordingly..

Richard 111. and Henry VIII. repaired this Tower; but in the second year of Edward VI. 1548, November 22d. a Frenchman lodging in the round bulwark, between the Westgate, and the postern, by setting fire to a barrel of gunpowder in the night, blew up that bulwark, yet burnt none but himself; this bulwark was soon rebuilt again. This west gate of the Tower is the principal gate, for receiving, and delivering all manner of carriages, and without it, there are divers bulwarks and gates turning to the north, within this gate to the south is a strong postern for passengers, by the ward-house, over a draw.. bridge, which is let down, and pulled up at pleasure.

Next to this on the south side east-ward, is a large water.gate (commonly called Traitors Gate, because some have been carried in that way) this gate is partly under a strong stone bridge from the river of Thames. Beyond which was a small postern with a drawbridge seldom let down but for receiving in some great persons prisoners ; further to the east was a great and strong gate called the Iron Gate, but not usually opened. And so much for the foundation, building and repairing of the Tower, with the gates and posterns. There are many fair houses within the walls of the Tower, wherein theofficers belonging thereto, and other inhabitants live, there is also a chapel.

In the year 1196, William Fitz Ozbet, a citizen, seditiously moving the people to stand for their liberties, and not to be subject to the rich and mighty, was taken, and brought before the Archbishop of Canterbury in the Tower, where he was condemned by the judges, and being drawn thence by the heels to the Elms in East-Smithfield, he was there hanged. In 1214, King John wrote to Jeffery Magnaville to deliver the Tower of London with the prisoners, armour, and all other things found therein belonging to the King, to William Archdeacon of Huntington. In the first year of Henry III. 1216, the Tower was delivered to Lewis of France, and the barons of England. In 1206, pleas of the crown were pleaded in the Tower, and divers times afterward. In 1222, the citizens having made a tumult against the Abbot of Westminster, Hubbert of Burg, Chief Justice of England, sent for the Lord Mayor and Aldermen to the Tower of London, to

enquire who were principal authors thereof. Amongst whom, one named Constantine Fitz Aelufe boldly avowed, that he was the man, and had done much less than he thought to have done; whereupon the Chief Justice sent him, with two others to Falks de Brent, who with armed men brought them to the gallows, and hanged them.

In 1244, Griffith Prince of Wales, being a prisoner in the Tower, attempted an escape, and having in the night tied the sheets and hangings together he endeavoured thereby to slide from the top of the high Tower, but being a fat man the weight of his body broke the rope, and he fell; the next morning he was found dead, his head and neck being driven into his breast between his shoulders. In 1253, King Henry III. imprisoned the Sheriffs of London in the Tower above a month, about the escape of a prisoner out of Newgate, as is aforementioned. In 1260, this King with his Queen (for fear of the barons) lodged in the Tower; and the next year he sent for his Lords, and held his parliament there.

In 1263, as the Queen was going by water from the Tower toward Windsor, several citizens got together upon London Bridge, under which she was to pass, who not only used reproachful words against her, but threw stones and dirt at her, forcing her to go back again, but in 1265 they were forced to submit themselves to the King for it, and the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriffs were sent to several prisons ; Othon, constable of the Tower, being made Custos, or keeper of the city.

About this time, Leoline Prince of Wales came down fom the mountain of Snowdon to Montgomery, and was taken at Bluith castle, where using reproachful words against the English, Roger le Strange fell upon him, and with his own sword cut off his head, leaving his dead body on the ground; Sir Roger Mortimer caused his head to be set upon the Tower of London, crowned with a wreath of ivy; and this was the end of Leoline, who was betrayed by the men of Bluith, and was the last Prince of the British blood who ruled in Wales.

In 1290, several judges as well of the King's bench as the assize, were sent prisoners to the Tower, and with great sums of money obtained their liberty; Sir Thomas Weyland had all his estates confiscated, and himself banished; Sir Ralph Hengham Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench paid seven thousand marks; Sir John Lovet Chief Justice of the Lower Bench, three thousand marks; Sir William Brompton six thousand marks; yea their clerks were fined also, as being confederate with their masters in bribery and injustice; Robert Littlebury, clerk, paid one thousand marks, and Roger Leicester as

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