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The colleges of municipal or common law, professors and students are fourteen, and are still called Inns, the old English word for the noblemen or bishops. There are two Inns of Sergeants, four lons of Court, and eight Inns of Chancery; the Inns of Chancery were probably so named because there dwelt such clerks as did chiefly study the forming of writes; the names of those are Thavies Inn, begun in the reign of Edward III. and since purchased by Lincoln Inn, as was also Furnivals Inn; then there is Bernards Inn, New Inn, Clements Inn, Cliffords Inn, anciently the house of the Lord Clifford ; Staple Inn, belonging to the merchants of the Staple, and Lions Inn, anciently the common Inn with the sign of the Lion. These were heretofore preparatory colleges for young students, and many were entered here before admitted into the Inns of Court; now they are for the most part taken up by attornies, solicitors, and clerks, wko have their chambers apart, and their diet at a very easy rate in an hall together, where they are obliged to appear in grave long robes, and black round knit caps. These colleges belong all to some Inns of Court, who send yearly some of their barristers to read to these. In these Inns of Chancery one with another, may be about threescore persons.
The Inns of court were so named (as some think) because the students therein are to serve the Courts of Judicature, of these there are four. First, the two Temples, heretofore the dwelling of the Knights Templers and purchased by some professors of the Common Law, above three hundred years ago. They are called the Inner, and Middle Temple in relation to Essex house, which was a part of the Knights Templers, and called the Utter or Outer Temple because it is seated without Temple Bar; the two other Inns of Court are Lincolns Inns, and Greys Inn, belonging to the noble family of the Greys; in the reign of King Henry VI. they so flourished that they were in each of these above two hundred students.
These societies are no corporations nor have any judical power over their members, but have certain orders among themselves, which have by consent the force of laws; for lighter offences they are only excommoned or put out of commons, nor to eat with the rest, and for greater offences they lose their chambers; there are no lands or revenues belonging to any of these societies, nor have they any thing for de fraying the charges of the house, but what is paid at admittances, and quit rents for their chambers; the whole company in each society may be divided into four parts, Benchers, Utter Barristers, Inner Barristers and Students. In the four Inns of Court there are now reckoned eight hundred students. There are two more colleges called Sergeants Inn,
where the Common Law student, when lie hath arrived to the highest degree, hath his lodging and diet, and are as doctors in the civil law, out of these are chosen a judge of the King's Bench, and commonpleas.
There are likewise several colleges in and about this city, as the college of Civilians called Doctors Commons, near St. Paul's, for the professors of the Civil Law in this city, and where commonly the judges of the anhos, Admiralty and prerogative court reside, whose office is not far off, and judgeth the estates fallen by will, or by, intestures, and is under the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Canterbury.
There is also the college of Physicians curiously built in Warwick Lane; and likewise a college of Heralds, that is, of such as are to be messengers of war and peace, and are skilful in descents pedigrees, and coats of armories..
Gresham College in Bishopsgate Street_ is another, built by Sir Thomas Gresham, and a revenue left to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen for maintaining four able persons to read within this college, divinity, geometry, astronomy, and music, with an allowance to each of them (besides fair lodgings) of fifty pounds a year ;. and othere rents are left to the Mercer's company to find three able men more, to read Civil Law, Physic, and Rhetoric, with thre same allowance; these several lectures should be read in term time, every day in the week except Sundays, beginning at nine in the morning, and at two in the afternoon, to give notice whereof, the bell in the steeple of the Royal Exchange rings at those times; they are read in the forenoon, in Latin, and in the afternoon in English. I'he music lecture to be read only in English.
There is also within London, another college, called Sion College, aforementioned, founded by Dr. Wbite, near Cripplegate, for the use of the clergy of London, and of the liberties. thereof, and some alms-louses for twenty poor people; to perform all which be gave £3000. and for the maintenance of these poor people £120. a year for ever, and £40. a year for a sermon in Latin at the beginning of every quarter, and a plentiful dinner for all the clergy that shall then meet there. In this College is a fair spacious library, built by John Symson, which hath been well furnished with books, chiefly for divines. This college felt the rage of the late fire, but is since rebuilt. A little without the walls stands another college, or college house called the Charter House, it being formerly a convent of Carthusian Monks. This college, called also Sutton's Hospital, consist of a master or governor, a chaplain, a master and usher to instruct forty-four scho-
lars, besides eighty decayed gentlemen, soldiers, and merchants, who have all a plentiful maintenance of diet, lodging, clothes, physic, &c. and live altogether in a collegiate manner with much cleanliness and neatness, and the forty-four scholars have not only all necessaries whilst they are taught here, but if they become fit for the Universities, there is allowed to each one, out of the yearly revenues of this college, £20. yearly, and duly paid for eight years after they come to the University; and to others fit for trades there is allowed a considerable sum of money to bind them apprentices. There is likewise all sorts of officers fit for such a society, as physician, apothecary, steward, cook, butler, &c. who have all competent salaries. This vast revenue and princely foundation was the sole gift of an ordinary gentleman, Mr. Thomas Sutton, born in Lincolnshire, and it was of such high account as it was thought fit by the King's letters patent under the great scal, divers persons of the highest dignity and quality, in church and state, should always be the overseers, and regulators of this society, as the archbishop of Canterbury, the Lord Keeper, or Lord Chancellor, Lord Treasurer and 13 more.
There are likewise in London, divers public schools, endowed, as St. Paul's free school, founded by Dr. Colet, Dean of St. Paul's, for 153 children to be taught there for nothing; for which was appointed a master, a sub-master, or usher, and a chaplain, with large stipends for ever to be paid by the Mercer's company. This famous school was also burnt down, but is now re-edified in a more magnificent and commodious manner.
In 1553, after the erecting of Christ's Hospital, out of the ruins of the Grey Friars, a great number of poor children was taken in, and a school appointed at the charge of the city. There are in London divers other endowed, or free schools, as the Merchant Taylors, Mercers Chapel, &c.
There are likewise several famous hospitals in this city, as Christ's Hospital, aforesaid, given by King Edward VI, from whence according to the report made at Easter in 1681, there were seventy-six children put forth apprentices last year, ten of them being instructed in the arts of arithmetic and navigation, were placed with commanders of ships, out of the mathematical school, lately founded for the benefit of this kingdom, by his present Majesty King Charles II. And there are now remaining under the care and charge of that hospital, 547 children. There is St. Bartholomew's Hospital, in which according to the former report, there have been cured this half year, 1578 wounded, sick, and maimed soldiers and seamen ; and other diseased persons, who have been relieved with money and other necessaries at their departure, and there are 239 persons now remaining under cure. In St. Thomas's Hospital, in Southwark, of the like sick and wounded persons 1890 have been cured in this last year, and 294 are at present under cure there. In Bridewell Hospital 896 vagrants and indigent persons have been relieved, and sent home with passes to their native country last year, and 128 are now there. The Hospital of Bethlem, for curing lunatics and madmen, hath been lately removed because of the inconveniency of the place; and a stately and magnificent one built for them in Moorfields, which has cost the house above £17000. in which there were brought this last year fifty-three distracted men and women, forty-three have last year been cured of their lunacy and discharged, and there are now remaining under cure, and provided with physic, diet, and other relief at the charge of that hospital,
The Strand, Westminster, and parts adjacent.
IT would too much inlarge this small volume to give an exact account of the City of Westminster, and other parts which now seem swallowed up in London ; we shall therefore only remark some particulars.. Westminster was formerly called Dorney or Thorney, and was an island incompassed by the Thames, overgrown with bryers and thorns, but now graced with fair stately houses and palaces, both public and private. The chief whercof are the two palaces of the King, Whitehall and St. James's, to which is adjoined a delightful park, so named, in which is à Pall Mall, said to be the best in Europe.
Then there is Westminster Háll, where several courts of justice are kept, as the high court of parliament, consisting of the King, the lords spiritual and temporal, and the commons. The court of King's Bench, wherein the King sometimes sits in person, in which are handled all the pleas of the crown, all things that concern loss of life or member of:
any subject, for then the King is concerned, because the life and limbs of the subject belong only to the King, so that the pleas are here between the King and the subject. Here are handled all treasons, felonies, breach of the peace, oppression, mis-government, &c. in this court sit four reverend judges. Then there is the court of Conmon-Pleas, so called (say some) because there are debated the usual pleas between one subject and another ; in this court there are likewise four judges. Next is the court of Exchequer, so called, some think, from a chequer-wrought carpet covering the great table in that court, wherein are tried all causes concerning the King's revenue. There is also another, called the court of the Duchy of Lancaster, which takes cognizance of all causes that concern the revenues of that Duchy.
There is likewise the High Court of Chancery, which is placed next the King's Bench, as mitigating the rigor thereof; this court is the womb of all our fundamental laws, it is called Chancery, as some imagine, because the judge of this court sat antiently, inter chancellos, or within lattices, as the east end of our churches being separated per chancellos, from the body of the church,
as peculiarly belonging to the priest were thence called chancels. This court proceeds to grant writs, according to equity or conscience. Out of this court issues summons for parliament, edicts, proclamations, letters patent, treaties, leagues with foreign princes, &c. There is likewise the Court of Admiralty, wherein all matters concerning the sea are determined by the Civil Law, 'because the sea is without the limits of the common law.
The next thing considerable in Westminster is the collegiate church called Westminster Abbey, or St. Peter's. It was raised out of the ruins of a temple formerly dedicated to Apollo ; wherein there is King Henry the VIIth chapel, a most magnificent and curious edifice; beautified with the stately tombs of the Kings and Queens of England, and many other persons of honour and renown are buried in this church ; and here the Kings of England are commonly crowned.
There is Somerset Honse, a large and stately structure, belonging to the King. Wallingford House, the seat of the Earl of Arlington, Northumberland House, York House, now turned into curious streets .and buildings. The New Exchange, a place well-stored with variety of shops and goods. The goodly statute of King Charles the Ist. lately erected at Charing Cross. Salisbury House, belonging to the Earl of Salisbury, who has likewise built an Exchange near it. Worcester House, Exeter Exchange, the Savoy, Arundel House, Bedford House,