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air a great heighth, and in the fall six of the beams, being 27 feet long, were driven so deep into the ground (the streets not being then payed with stone) that not above four foot remained in sight, and yet stood in such rank and order, as the workmen had placed them on the church.

In the ninth year of his reign, a blazing star appeared, with two bushes or tails, and other stars seemed to shoot darts at each other, The last of his reign, the sea breaking over its banks, destroyed a multitude of people, and overwhelmed the lands for sometime of Earl Goodwin, in Kent, which are yet called Goodwin's Sands; there was likewise a well that cast out blood instead of water for fifteen days together, and great flames of fire were seen at divers, times and places. All which prodigies seemed to foretel the King's death approaching, for having kept his Christmas at Gloucester, his Easter at Winchester, and his Whitsuntide at Westminster, notwithstanding he was forewarned by many signs of some great disaster, as in his dream the night before, wherein it seemed to him that the veins of his arms were burst, and abundance of blood streaming on the floor. And of a certain monk who dreamed that he saw the King gnaw the image of a crucific with his teeth, and that as he was about to bite away the legs of it, the crucifix with his feet spurned him down to the ground; and as he lay on the ground there came out of his mouth a flame of fire, with abundance of smoke; this last being told the King, he made a jest of it, saying, well, a monk he is, and he can dream only as monks do, that is for gaini: go give him an hundred shillings, lest he think he hath dreamed unprofitably.

But though he had these warnings, yet the day after Lammas he would needs go a hunting in the New Forest, yet something resenting the many presages, he stayed within all the forenoon ; about dinner time an artificer came, and brought him six cross-bow arrows, very strong and sharp, four whereof he kept himself, and the other two he delivered to S. Walter Tyrell, a knight of Normandy, his bow-bearer; saying, here Tyrell, take you two, for you know how to shoot them ito purpose; and so having at dinner drank more liberally than his custom, as it were in contempt of prodigies, and presages, he rides out in the New Forest, where $. Walter Tyrell shooting at a deer, the arrow glanced against a tree, or as some say, grazed upon the back of the deer, and tying forward, struck the King in the breast, who hastily breaking off so much as stuck in his body, with one only groan

felt down and died; of which sudden mischance his followers having notice, most of them went away, and those that remained, with much

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ado, got his body put into à collier's cart, which being drawn with one lean horse through a very fvul dirty way, the cart broke, and there lay the spectacle of wordly glory all besmeared with his own blood, and filthyły bedaubod with mire, till he was conveyed to Winchester, where he was buried under a plain marble stone in the cathedral:

King Henry the ls: his brother, and the youngest son of William the Conqueror, succeeded him, though his elder bro her Robert Duke of Normandy was living ; which caused great wars, and disturbance. In his time, Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury being returned, called a council of the bishops at London, wherein he offended both the King and clergy, for he excommunicated all married priests, halt the clergy of England at that time being either married, or the sons of married priests; and depending upon the Pope's; assistance, he deprived many great prelates of their promotions, because they were invested in them by the king, but they refused to resign them, since they had them by the donation of their Sovereign, upon which Anselm thinking himself much wronged, appealed to the Pope, and went to Rome in in person soon after.

Î'he King likewise sent flerbert, Bishop of Norwich, and Robert Bishop of Litchfield, privy Counsellors, and William Warwast, his procurator, ás Ambassadors to Rome, and the last being a clergyman of a bold and daring spirit, he in debating his Sovereign's cause

before the Pope and Cardinals, with threatning language and countenance avouched, that the king his master would not lose his right in the investitures of the church, though he lost his kingdom, whereto Pope Paschal being upon his own dunghill, as stoutly answered, If thou sayest the King will not lose his donation of churches for the loss of his kingdom, know thou for certain, that before God, I will not suffer him to enjoy them without punishment, and will venture my head thereupon. But notwithstanding these great words against the King, yet the degraded abbots were restored again through the clemency of the Papal See, which is never wanting to any, as long as the white and red make intercession for them; as the monks own words were at that time.

Awhile after, Cardinal Cremensis came into England from the Pope, and calling a council in London upon the birth day of the blessed Virgin, he made a solemn oration in praise of virginity and chastity, and a terrible invective against married priests, affirming it to be no less that professed adultery. And to anıplify their sin the more, he shewed what great impiety it was to rise from the bed of unlawful - lust (for so he termed chaste marriage) and with polluted hands to


touch the sacrament of the body of Christ; yet but the very night following, this holy cardinal was found in bed with a common whore, having himself consecrated the host that very day; so that he returned to Rome with much shame and but little success in the intended matter. Yea, Anselm himself, the most earnest in favour of single life, did not it seems die a virgin, for else he would never in his writings make such lamentations for the loss thereof. Yet Anselm afterwards called another council at Westininster, where it was ordained, that priests should no longer be suffered to have wives, and that there should be no more selling and buying men in England, they being then sold like horses or oxen. Yet King Flenry afterward suffered priests to have wives for fines, or rather took fines of them, whether they had wives or no, because they might have them if they would. Duke Robert,

his brother, hay. ing found that

force would not prevail to settle

him in his right to the kingilom,

be himself came to King

Henry, referring both his duke

dom and himself and all differ

ences and de. bates to his will


pleasure; but King Henry


vouchsafed to speak

to him, or at least to make him

an answer, but in a sullen bu.

turned away, and so

left him ; which scornful usage

put the Duke into such indig

nation, that he resolved upon

revenge ; and returning into

Normandy raised a great ar

my. But Henry knowing Robert

to be a soldier, and considering

his own estate, called the lords

together to London, and there DUKE ROBERT. tickled their ears with this plea

sing speech. My friends, faithful counsellors, and native countrymen, you know all undoubtedly, that my brother Robert was elected and called by God himself to be the fortunate King of Jerusalem, and how unfortunately, or rather insolently, he refused that sacred estate, whereby he is now most justly reprobated of God. You also know by many other



experiments, his pride and arrogances for being a man of a warlike humour, he is not only impatient of peace, but also earnestly desireth to trample upon you, as men of abject and contemptible dispositions, and upbraid you for idle drones, belly-gods, and what not ? But I, your king, am naturally inclined to be both humble, and peaceable, and take delight in nothing more than in doing you good, and to maintain your tranquility, and antient liberty (as I have often swore unto you) and meekly and willingly to yield myself to your ady ces, whereby 1 may circumspectly govern you as a clement prince. And to that end, even now, will I confirm (if your wisdom think fit) your over-worn and undetermined charters, and will corroborate them most firmly with a new oath and ratification. In the mean time all the laws which the holy King Edward, by God's inspiring did establish, I do here command to be inviolably observed, hereby to move you to adhere stedfastly unto me, in chearfully, willingly, and powerfully repulsing the wrongs offered me; by my brother shall I say? Nay, by the most deadly enemy, both to me, to you, and the wbole nation. For if I be guarded with the valour and affections of Englishmen, I shall scorn the threats of him and his Normans, and count them vain and not to be regarded. With these fair promises (which yet he afterward quite neglected) he so won the hearts of the Lords and the Londoners, that they engaged to die with him, or for him, against any opposition whatever. Duke Robert being gone, and Henry thus settled in the affection of the people, be raised a very great army, and accompanied with divers of the nobility, sailed to Normandy, where falling upon Robert before he was half ready to fight, obtained a compleat victory over him, and won Normandy, with the slaughter of ten thousand men, taking Robert himself prisoner; whom he brought over and committed to Cardiff Castle in Wales, where he remained a prisoner till he died: yet had liberty of walking in the King's meadow and pasture. But being weary of this confinement, he endeavoured to make his

escape, which the King being afraid of, ordered his eyes to be put out, which to avoid the deformity of breaking the eye balls, was done by causing his head to be held to a burning bason till the glassy tunicles had lost the office of retaining the light.

This, though it increased his misery, yet did not shorten his life, for he lived long after; in all, from the time of his imprisonment, twenty-eight years. And thus this great Duke, who in his birth was the joy of nature, in bis Life was the scorn of fortune. And it is worth observing, that the English won Normandy the very same day fortieth year the Normans had won England. Such revolutions

of fortune there are in kingdoms, and so unstable is the state of all worldly greatness. This Robert died 1191, and lies buried at Gloucester. One author writes. That King Henry sent according to custom a robe of scarlet; and putting it first on himself, found that the capouch, or hood, (as the fashion was then) was somewhat too little; whereupon he said, carry this to my brother, his head is less than mine. The messenger delivering the robe, Duke Robert' demanded if any had worn it; and being told the King had first tried it on, and what 'words he had said. The Duke replied, I have too long protracted a miserable life, since my brother is so injurious to me, that he sends me his old cloaths to wear. And from that time he would never taste any. food, or receive any comfort.

This King Henry first instituted the form of the high court of parliament: for before his time, only certain of the nobility and prelates of the realm were called to consultation about the most important affairs of state, he caused the commons also to be assembled, by knights, citizens, and burgesses of their own electing, and made that court to consist of three estates, the nobility, the clergy, and the commons, representing the whole body of the realm, and appointed them to sit in several chambers; the King, the Lords, and the Bishops in one, and the commons in another; and to consult together by themselves. He established likewise several other orders, as they are used to this day. The first parliament that was so held, met at Salisbury upon the 19th. of April in the sixteenth year of his reign, 1019. He forbid wearing of long hair, which at that time was frequent, according to the French mode. He commanded robbers on the highway to be hanged without redemption. He punished counterfeiters of money with pulling out their eyes, or cutting off their privy members; a punishment both less than death, and greater.

In this King's time Guymond one of his chaplains, observing that unlearned, and unworthy men were generally preferred to the best dignities in the church, as he celebraied divine service before him, and was to read these words out of St. James, It rained not upon the earth III years and VI months, he read it thus, It rained not upon the earth 1. 1. 1. years, and 5. 1. months; the King observed his reading, and afterwards blamed bim for it, but Guymond answered, that he did it on purpose since such readers were soonest advanced by his Majesty; the King smiled, and afterwards promoted him. About this time,

Thomas Archbishop of York falling sick, his physicians told him, that nothing would do him good but to company with a woman; to wliom

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