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In the sixth year of Edward VI. there was a postern gate made through the city wall on the north side of the late dissolved cloister of Friar's Minors, commonly called Gray Friar's, now Christ Church and Hospital; this was done to make a passage from Christ Church Hospital, to St. Bartholomew's Hospital in Smithfield, and license was given to Sir Ricbard Dobbs, Lord Mayor, to do it, by virtue of an act of common council, August 1, in the sixth year of Edward VI. The next

gate is on the nort!

west and is called New

gate, and is the fift!

principal gate, though

built later than the

rest, being erected

about the reign of

Henry I, or King Ste

phen, upon this occa

sion. The Cathedral

of St. Paul's being burnt

down in the reign of

William the Conqueror,

1086. Mauritius then

Bishop of London,

did not repair the old

church some have

[graphic]

as

thought, but laid the

foundation of a new one,

which

it was judged NEWGATE.

would hardly ever have been finished, it was so wonderful for length, breadth, and height; and likewise because it was raised upon vaults or arches, after the Norman fashion, and never known in England before.

After Mauritius, Richard Beumore, did very much advance the building of this church, purchasing the large streets and lanes round about, which ground he incompassed with a strong stone wall and gates. By reason of this inclosure for so large a church yard, the High street from Aldgate in the east, to Ludgate in the west, was made so straight and narrow, that the carriage through the city was by Paternoster Row, down Ave-Mary-Lane, and so through Bouger Row, (now called Ludgate-street) to Ludgate ; or else by Cheapside, through Watling-street, and so through Carter-Lane, and up Creed-Lane to Ludgate, which passage, by reason of the often turning was very incon

DIET

venient. Whereuport a new gate was made to pass through Cheapside (north of St. Paul's) St. Nicholas Shambles, and Newgate-street to Newgate, and from thence w stward to Holborn Bridge; or turning without the gate to Smithfield, and Islington (or Iseldon) or to any place north, or west. This gate hath for many years been a prison for felons, murderers, highwaymen, and other trespassers, as appeareth by the records of King John and others, and among the rest in the third year of Henry 111. 1218, that King wrote to the sheriffs of London, commanding them to repair the goal of Newgate, for the safe keeping of his prisoners, promising that the charges thereof should be allowed them upon their account in the Exchequer.

In the year 1241, the Jews of Norwich were hanged, being accu. sed of circumcising a christian child ; their house (called the Thor) was pulled down and destroyed ; Aaron, the son of Abraham, a Jew, and other Jews in London, were constrained to pay twenty thousand marks, at two terms in the year, or else to be kept perpetual prisoners in Newgate, at London, and in other prisons.

In 1255, King Henry III. lodged in the Tower, and upon some displeasure against the City of London, for the escape of John Offrem, a clerk convict, prisoner in Newgate, for killing a Prior who was cousin to the Queen ; he sent for the Lord Mayor, who laid the fault on the sheriffs, to whose ccstody the prisoners are committed ; the mayor was discharged, but the sheriffs were imprisoned above a month, though they alledged the fault was in the bishop's officers, who though he was imprisoned in Newgate, yet they were to see that he was kept safe. But however, the King required three thousand marks of the city for a fine.

In the third year of Edward III. 1326, Rubert Baldock, the King's chancellor, was put into Newgate. In 1237, Sir John Poultney gave four marks a year for relief of the prisoners in Newgate. In 1358, William Walworth gave likewise toward their relief, and so have many others since. In 1414, the jailors in Ludgate and Newgate died, and 64 prisoners. In 1418, the parson of Wertham, in Kent, was imprisoned in Newgate. In the first year of Henry VI. 1412, the executors of Richard Whittington, repaired Newgate ; and Thomas Knowles, Grocer, sometime Lord Mayor, brought the waste water from the cistern near St. Nicholas Chapel, by St. Bartholomew's Hospital, to Newgate and Ludgate for the accommodation of tbe prisoners. In 1431, all the prisoners in Ludgate were conveyed to Newgate, by the Sheriffs of London; and soon after they fetched from thence eighteen persons, freemen of the city, who were led pinioned to the counters like

felons, by the false suggestion of the jailor of Newgate ; but Ludgate was awhile after again appointed for freemen who were debtors; and they were all carried back again thither.

In 1427, there was a great skirmish in the north country, between Sir Thomas Percie, Lord Egremond, and the Earl of Salisbury's sons, whereby many were wounded and slain, but the Lord Egremond being taken, was found to give the occasion, and was thereupon condemned by the King's council, to pay a considerable sum of money to the Earl of Salisbury, and in the mean time was committed to Newgate; and awhile after, both he, and his brother Sir Thomas Percie, broke out by night, and went to the king. The other prisoners got upon the leads over the gate, and defended it against the sheriffs, and all their officers a great while, till they were forced to call more citizens to their aid, who at last subdued them, and laid them in irons : Thus much of Newgate. Ludgate

is the next in the west,

and the sixth prin

cipal gate of this city; 2 요

and historians say, 2001 TO

was built by king Lud,

near sixtysix years

before Saviour's

nativity; wbich shews

its great antiquity: this

being built for the west

as Aldgate for the east.

In 1215, aforemen

tioned, being the

seventeenth yearof King

John, when the barons,

who were in arms against

the King, entered this

city,

and pulled down

the Jews' houses, re

pairing the LUDGATE. walls and

gates of the city with the stones thereof; it appeareth that they then repaired or rather new built this gate ; for in 1586 when this gate was pulled down in order to its being repaired, there was a stone found within the wall which seems to have been taken from one of the Jews' houses, there being several Hebrew characters engraven thereon, which being inter

[graphic]

our

preted, are thus in English: “ This is the station or ward of Rabbi Moses, the son of the Honorable Rabbi Isaac.” This it is thought had been fixed upon one of the Jew's houses, as a sign he lived there.

In 1260, Ludgate was repaired and beautified with the images of Lud and other kings, but in the reign of Edward VIth. these images of the kings had their heads smitten off, and were defaced, by such as judged every image to be an idol. In the reign of Queen Mary they were repaired and new beads set upon their old bodies, which remained so, till the twenty-eighth of Queen Elizabeth, 1586, when this gate was quite taken down and nobly rebuilt, with the images of King Lud and others on the east-side, and Queen Elizabeth on the west, which was done at the city charge, being above £1500.

In 1463, Stephen Foster, Fishmonger, and Dame Agnes his wife, added several large rooms to Ludgate, and gave other relief to the prisoners, who are only such citizens as are debtors; all persons for treasons, felonies, and other criminal offences being committed to Newgate. In one of these rooms, there was a copper plate hanging with the following rhimes engraven thereon.

Devout souls that pass this way,
For Stephen Forster, late Mayor, heartily pray;
And Dame Agnes, his spouse, to God consecrate,
That of pity this House made of London in Ludgate :
So that for lodging and water, prisoners here nought pay,
As their keepers shall all answer at dreadful duomsday.

This gate (as well as Newgate) in the late dismal fire in 1666, was burnt down, but they have been since repaired, and very curiously beautified, having a new postern for foot passengers added thereto; with several other conveniences. Thus much for Ludgate.

Next to this before the late fire, there was only a breach in the wall of the city, and a bridge of timber over Fleet Ditch, directly against Bridewell Hospital, but since it is all laid open, and a handsome bridge of stone built in that place, the Ditch being very much enlarged, and a wharf made of stone, and cleared from all houses on each side up to Holborn Bridge. The bridge likewise at the lower end of Ludgate Hill being nobly rebuilt, or rather new built and made much broader, and another gallant bridge is built upon the same ditch almost over against the Fleet Prison. All this has been done since the dismal fire, to the very great charge of the city. And so much for the gates in the wall.

Now for the watergates on the banks of the River Thames, which formerly have been many, though most, or all of them have been ruined by the late fire, however take a brief account of what they were, Blackfriar's stairs is a free landing place, now gallantly rebuilt with a useful bridge by Sir Thomas Fitch, who has built a very curious house upon the wharf, and cleared it, so that now the Lord Mayor, when he comes from Westminster to be sworn, lands there instead of Paul's Wharf, as being much more convenient. Then there is Puddle Wharf, Paul's Wharf, Broken Wharf, besides divers others all along the river, which are made by the citizens for their private use. Next is Ripa Regina, the Queen's Bank, or Queen Hyth, which was accounted the chief and principal water-gate of this city, far exceeding Belin’s-Gate, as it appears in Queen Hithe ward.

Next hereunto is Downgate or Dowgate, so called of the sudden descending or going down of the way, from St. John Baptist's Church upon Walbrook, into the River Thames, whereby the water in the channel runs so strong, that in 1574, after a great shower of rain, a young man about 18 years of age, intending to leap over the stream, tripped up his heels, and he was carried with such great swiftness, that no man could stop him till he came against a cart wheel in the watergate, by which time he was quite dead; this was sometimes a large watergate, frequented by ships and vessels of burthen like Queen Hyth, but now it is utterly decayed.

The next was called Wolfe's Gate in the Ropery, afterward called Wolfe's Lane, but now out of use.

The next was called Ebgate of old time, as appeareth by antient records, and stood near St. Lawrence Pountney's Church, it is now a narrow lane, and called Ebgate-lane, but usually the Old Swan. There was another gate at the bridgefoot called Oyster Gate, of oysters that were there sold, that being the market-place for them, and other small fish; but now there standeth an engine to carry up the water into the city, in the place thereof.

Then there is the Bridge-gate, so called of London Bridge, whereon it standeth. This long before the conquest was one of the four first, or principal gates of the city, where there was only a bridge of timber, and is the seventh and last principal gate mentioned by FitzStephen ; when the bridge was new built of stone, this gate was rebuilt again ; in the year 1436, this gate with the tower upon it, fell down, and two of the furthest arches of the bridge, southward, fell therewith, yet none were killed, or hurt thereby; to the repairing whereof several citizens gave very liberally. When the bastard Fau. conbridge, aforenamed, came with the Kentish mariners into this city,

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