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to Litchfield. The battle was exceeding bloody, both armies being very courageous and numerous, and not 500 odds, fought in a large fallow field on the north-west side of Naseby, about a mile broad, which ground was wholly taken up. On the Parliament's side were wounded and slain above 1000 officers and private soldiers. Major-Gen. Skippon (who was an old experienced soldier, and was ordered to draw up the battle) fought stoutly that day, and though he was so sorely wounded in the beginning of the fight, and the General desired him to go off the field, he answered, “He would not stir so long as a man could stand.” Ireton was dangerously hurt, and taken prisoner for a while, after he had done his part; but in the confusion of the fight got loose again, and saw the victory achieved. The General and LieutenantGeneral performed their part with sufficient resolution (had their cause been as good), and by their own examples infused valour into their followers; so likewise did the other officers, of whom divers were wounded.
On the other side the King shewed himself that day a courageous general, keeping close with his horse, and himself in person rallying them to hot encounters; the Earl of Lindsey, Lord Asbly, Colonel Rastol, and others, were wounded ; 20 colonels, knights, and officers of note, and 600 private soldiers slain ; but much more was the damage the King sustained by what was taken, that is, 6 colonels, 8 lieutenantcolonels, 18 majors, 70 captains, 8 lieutenants, 200 ensigns, with divers other inferior officers, 4500 common soldiers, and many women; 13 of of the King's household servants, 4 of his footmen, 12 pieces of ordnance, 8000 arms, 40 barrels of powder, 200 carriages, all their bag and baggage with store of rich pillage, 3000 horses, the King's standard, one of the King's coaches, and his cabinet of letters and papers, which not without indecency were afterwards published by the Parliament. Sir Marmaduke Langdale hastened away the same night to Newark. The next day the General sent up Colonel Fines with the prisoners and colours taken in the fight; and with this comes news of several other successes, as the gaining of Houghton garrison, near Grantham, and Sir William Brereton's beating a party of the King's forces in Cheshire, and taking 150 prisoners; and 400 prisoners taken in fight by a party from Shrewsbury, and the taking Major Fenningham, and divers others by Captain Stone. Sir John Gell marching with 2000 horse, in his way took 90 prisoners of the King's scattered horse, and some Newark garrison, and then joining with Fairfax, they șat down before Leicester, which after several assaults was surrendered by the Lord Hastings, governor, upon honourable terms. In it were
pieces of ordinance, 30 colours, 2000 arms, 500 horse, 50 barrels of powder, and other ammunition proportionable. And June 28, Sir Thomas Glenbain after a long siege despairing of succour, yields up Carlisle to the Parliament. But however Taunton was yet in a low condition, and therefore Fairfax was ordered thither, who by the way meets with a multitude of rustical people called Clubmen, declaring themselves Newters, and desired safe passage for the commissioners to go both to the King and Parliament, to which the General returned à civil answer, but that not satisfying them, Fairfax having joined with Massey, soon frightened them into more moderation, so that the army passed quietly on their journey.
Gen. Goring hearing of the approach of Fairfax,drew off from Taunton, having received considerable loss from Colonel Robert Blake the governor, and soon after Fairfax following Goring, puts the royalists to a disorderly retreat, and pressing fiercely upon them, pursues them almost to Bridgwater, and in Sutton Field, near Langport, July 10, there was a sharp engagement, in which there was not much odds in the number slain, they being in all judged to be about 1100; of the King's party there were 1400 prisoners taken, about 1200 horse, Colonel Feningham, Colonel Slingsby, divers officers of quality, and 30 prisoners. Soon after Sir Thomas Fairfax sat down before Bridge water, and after summons be assaulted the town very desperately, winning the lower part thereof, and then sends a second summons, telling them, That their denial wrought no other thoughts of compassion in him but only to women and children, who might suffer by the Governor's obstinacy, and so divers ladies, gentlewomen, and children came out of the town; and then the General being better provided with materials for his work, gave the second assault, some stormed, others fired with granadoes, and slugs of hot iron ; and the wind serving their turn, it wrought such effect, that the Governor, Colonel Windham, moved therewith, surrendered the town upon condition only of fair quarter, and the town to be preserved from plunder. This was done July 23, 1645, there being 2000 officers and soldiers prisoners, 44 barrels of powder, 1500 arms, 44 pieces of ordnance, and 400 weight of match. In the north, Pomfret Castle, and Scarbotough were taken by the Parliament's forces, and soon after the town of Bath was surrendered to Colonel Okey. In the mean time the Clubmen continued their meetings, and Colonel Fleetwood seized 50 of the ring leaders at Shaftsbury, yet this would not reduce them, they being still about 4000, whereupon Cromwell endeavours by parley to reduce them to reason which not succeeding, he falls upon them, kills
some, disperseth the rest, and takes 400 prisoners, which defeat utterly quelled them.
About this time the King marching up and down Wales to raise supplies, he comes thence to Litchfield, and by the way fights a party of Scotch horse and dragoons, then marches to Ashburn, beats Sir Jobn Gell, and carries some prisoners with him to Welbeck house, and so ranging up and down with a flying army, takes Huntingdon, Cam. bridge, and St. Ives, which last place he fined 5001.; thence he went to Oweburne, and so to Oxford, August 28, where he staid not long, but advanced to Ludlow, earnestly intent upon the relief of Chester, then close besieged by Sir William Brereton. Mr. G. Poyns with a party of horse was appointed to attend the King's motion, and folIowed him so close, that on Routon Heath, two miles off Chester, they came to a fight, where Poyns was forced to give ground, and had been utterly overthrown, if Colonel Jones had not come in with a new supply from Brereton, which encouraged Poyns to rally, and so the King being beset both rear and front, forsook the field, and betook himself to Chester, which finding much weakened by batteries, and the assailants ready to storm, he went from thence to Wales. Fairfax was now before Sherborn Castle, and the Governor, Sir Lewis Dives, not hearkening to any summons, endured a furious storm, and after an extreme cruel fight, and much bloodshed on both sides, the castle was yielded upon quarter, August 15, with 400 prisoners, many of them persons of quality, 18 pieces of ordnance, and a mortar-piece. Then Nunney Castle, and Portsliead Point were surrendered to the Parliament; and Fairfax besieged Bristol, sufficiently provided with all necessaries, and defended by Prince Rupert, to whom Fairfax sends a summons to deliver the city, for preventing bloodshed; Prince Rupert desired leave to send to the King, which being denied, he offers to surrender up the place upon condition, That every man should march away in the beight of honour, with their arms ; colours flying, drums, trumpets, and as much powder and match as they could carry about them, with bag, baggage, hotse, arms, 10 guns, and 50 barrels of powder ; lastly, the lines and fortifications to be sliglated, and the city to be no more a garrison.
Fairfax sends answer satisfactory enough, but not in reference to the dismounting the place; so that Prince Rupert baving by several attempts done as much as possible for preserving the place, was forced at last to surrender. In this city were found 140 pieces of cannon mounted, 100 barrels of powder, victuals in the royal fort for 150 men for 320 days, the castle victualled for nearly half so long; the Prince
had in garrison 2500 foot, 1000 horse, besides the trained bands and auxiliaries above 1000, so that the gaining thereof was of great consequence to the Parliament. Soon after, the Devises, Winchester, Basing-house, Lameck-house, Barkley-Castle, and Chepstow were taken; so that in earnest, the King's condition being very low, for having again got together a good body of horse out of Wales, hé resolved to send the Lord Digby, and Sir Marmaduke Langdale with 1600 horse to join with Montross, who had of late much prevailed in Scotland against the Covenanters ; they accordingly marched into Yorkshire, and near Sherborn surprised 800 foot of the Parliamentarians, with their arms; but staying for carriages, Colonels Copley, Lilburn, and others, came upon them with their' forces and routed them, recovered all, and took 400 prisoners, and 600 horse, Digby's coach and cabinet of letters. Digby with the rest fly northwards, and at Carlisle-Sands are the second time defeated, by Sir John Brown, 100 of them slain, 200 horse taken, and many prisoners. In their flight toward Beeston Castle, they were again met with, by Colonel Briggs, who took 200 of them, besides 150 of them flying through Westmorland were seized by Vandrusk; so that the Lord Digby, with a very small retinue, fted over to the Isle of Man, and thence into Ireland, to the Earl of Ormond. Thus the Parliament thrived every where, for Tiverton, Longford-bouse, Carmarthen, Monmouth, Shelford-house near Newark, Worton, Wiverton, and Welbeck were about this time taken by their forces. And Hereford having been long besieged, was, December 18, thus taken by surprize ; the Governor had issued out warrants for the country people to come in to work in the town, which Colonels Morgan and Birch understanding, they march from Gloucester to Hereford in one night, with about 2000 horse and foot, and picking out some lusty fellows, they clothed them in the habit of country labourers, and one of them seemed to be a constable with a warrant in his hand, to bring these fellows to work according to the Governor's orders; 150 firelocks were lodged in the dark as near the city as possible, and another body to second them; so the bridge is let down, the supposed constable and his consorts enter, and presently take an occasion to quarrel with the guard, and kill three of them. Then come in the firelocks, and after Colonel Birch, and lastly Colonel Morgan with the whole body; these soon mastered the unaware surprized garrison, with small loss on either side, wherein were 11 pieces of ordnance, much arms and ammunition, the Lord Brudenel and Judge Jenkins, 14 knights, 4 lieutenants, 3 captains, 100 other officers and gentlemen, with which action Morgan and Birch gained much honour.
Chester had been long besieged, and much of the King's hope was reposed in that city, the Lord Byron was Governor, and Sir William Brereton lay long before it, but now is taken by the Parliamentarians, after a resolute fight, 100 royalists being slain, and 400 taken prisoners; whereupon the town was surrendered upon honourable conditions, About which time the Court of Wards and Liveries is voted down by the Parliament. The King being come to Newark as a place of greatest security, a strange quarrel happened amongst the great ones there, concerning the Lord Digby, lateiy defeated at Sherborn, whom Major-General Charles Gerard charged with treason; with himn sided the two Princes Rupert and Maurice, the Lord Hawly, and Sir Rich. Willis ; but Bellasis, the Governor, stood up for Digby, with divers others. The contention grew hot, from words they came to swords, and the King coming in to part them, increased the feud by siding for Digby ; whereupon Prince Rupert, and the rest of the contrary party, to the number of 400, in much disgust laid down their commissions, and depart to another place, where they stand upon their guard, and so the King departs for Oxford with a guard of 300 horse, whom Poyns meets with at their return, and routs them, and then takes in Belvoir Castle, and not long after the Countess of Derby surrenders up her house at Latham to the Parliament. The King at Oxford, with Princes Rupert and Maurice now reconciled, was blocked up by the Parliament's forces ; whereupon he commands a fast to be observed every Friday during his troubles.
In the mean time a treaty was agitated between the King and Parliament, the King desiring to come to a personal treaty with the two Houses at Westminster, and with some likelihood of a good effect; when all was blasted on a sudden by a discovery of certain
transactions between the King and the Irish, gathered out of several letters taken at Sherborn, in the Lord Digby's coach, and others found in the pockets of the Bishop of Traine, slain at the battle of Sligo in Ireland; all which transactions were represented with very untoward reflections upon the King's honour and credit, as if the king to get supplies from the Irish rebels, resolved to make peace with them upon any terms, though ever so dishonourable, that is, The granting them an absolute toleration of religion, the allowing them to chose a governor of their own, the intrusting them with several castles and forts for their caution. And to aggravate the matter the more, a commission directed to the Earl of Clanrickard is produced, which made shew of some clandestine negociations between his Majesty and the Earl about conclud. ing a peace with the rebels.