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about Collen, and had near finished her business, when Cardinal Mazarine spoils all, and finds other work for that Duke. The King sends also to Denmark, but that King being newly engaged in some differences with the Sweed, his Majesty was forced to make the best provision he could at home, to engage against the new model designed by the parliament.
And thus ends the year 1644. At the beginning of the next, Parliament were busied about framing an ordinance for calling the members of both Houses from all public employments, having been formerly discontented with their General the Earl of Essex, whom they suspected as careless or discontented, because after the second battle of Newberry, he suffered the King to march away without any moles, tation, and after to relieve Dennington Castle, and besides that he had quitted Newberry, and let it fall into the King's hands, &c. This was at last past with exceptions of Cromwell and a few others, and was called, - The Self-denying Ordinance ;" the effect whereof was, “ That all and every the members of either house shall be discharged at the end of 40 days after the passing this ordinance of all their command, military or civil, conferred by Parliament since November 20, 1640. That all other governors and commanders (not members) by land or sea, shall continue in their offices, wherein they were entrusted, March 30, 1644. Provided and excepted, that Lieutenants and their deputies in several counties, cities and places, or of any custos rotulorum, or justices of peace, or stewards, or any commise sioners of oyer or terminer, or goal delivery ; as also that those members of either House who had offices by grant from his Majesty before the Parliament, and were by him displaced before the sitting of the Parliament, and have since by the parliament been restored, shall not be discharged from their said offices or profits thereof, but shall enjoy the same.”
The Parliament being thus resolved to model their army, the Earls of Essex, Manchester and Denbigh surrender their commissions in the House of Lords, desiring the soldiers arrears may be discharged; upon which the Commons vote ten thousand pounds a year to be paid to the Earl of Essex out of the delinquents Estates for his service and losses; and the Earl of Warwick yields up his commission of admiral at sea, which offices are presently intrusted with Commissioners, the Parliament after some jarring of both Houses about it, elected Sir Thomas Fairfax to be general of their army, and had accordingly sent for him out of the north ; the other chief officers of this new model were Philip Skippon, major general of the whole army, Oliver
Cromwell, lieutenant general of the horse, Henry Ireton commissary general of the horse; the colonels of foot were Sir Hardress Waller, Hammond, Harley, Montague, Lloyd, Pickering, Holbourn, Crauford, Berkley, Aldridge, Ingoldsby, Rainsborough, Welden; for the horse were colonels Butler, Sheffield, Fleetwood, Rossiter, Rich, Whaley, Graves, Sydney, Middleton, Vermuden, Levisair, and sir Robert Pye, and John Okey were colonels of the dragoons; after this unhappy model, the king's affairs in all places began fatally to decline.
The parliamentarians having surprised Shrewsbury, Colonel Mitten receives public thanks in the House of Commons for that service, which was very considerable, as being the King's chiefest garrison, wherein were taken eight knights and baronets, 40 colonels, majors, captains, and others of quality, besides common men; 15 pieces of ordinance, many hundred arms, divers barrels of powder, P. Maurice's magazine, and all this without any considerable damage on their side.
About this time Sir M. Langdale with 2000 horse and foot from Oxford, beats the Lincolnshire horse, relieves Newark, Belvoir, and Ashby de la Zouch with provisions, and marched northward to. Pontefract; and notwithstanding the Lord Fairfax's power, relieves the castle also: from hence he returns to Newark, so to Litchfield, then to the Forest of Dean, and beats off Colonel Dean from lying before Lydney. The King at Oxford takes care to furnish his garrisons and fit his army for the field: The Earl of Northampton routs the Parliament's Northampton horse, but Major General Brown, governor of Abingdon for the Parliament, sends out several parties, who return with success.
About this time the House of Lords make the Earl of Northumberland and his Countess, Governor and Governess of the King's children at Whitehall.
The new model being compleated, Sir Thomas Fairfax sets forth for Windsor, where he applies himself to the forming of his new army, wherein Major General Skippon was so active, that the Parliament sent him a letter of thanks for that and all his foriner services. Hither comes Lieut. General Cromwell, whom, after some salutations past, the general ordered to march towards' Oxford with a brigade of eleven hundred horse and dragoons, to intercept a convoy of 2000 horse, which Prince Rupert had sent from Worcester to fetch off the King with his train of artillery, and some foot, so to imbody and take the field ; at Islip Bridge, Cromwell falls upon them and routs: them, takes between Å and 500 horse, and 200 prisoners, with the Queen's standard, the rest betook themselves to Blechinton-house, whither Cromwell pursues them, and sends a sharp summons to the
governor, who doubting of relief from Oxford, thinking that the enemy had a considerable strength of foot, and overswayed by the puling tears of some ladies, got thither to visit his wife, surrendered the house with all the arms and ammunition, which were sent to Ails. bury, and the house demolished, for which the governor, Colonel Windebank, is shot to death at Oxford ; Cromwell improves his success, and falls upon a party of 300 foot, about Banton Bush, whom he defeats, and takes them almost all prisoners, with their arms and ammunition, and sends them with a convoy to Abingdon; and Colonel Fines beats another party of horse, taking 150 horse, three colours, and 50 arms; Sir John Winter being relieved by Langdale, and obtaining from Prince Rupert 2000 horse, and 1500 foot, made such a stir, as drew all the Glocester forces upon him, upon which the Prince, April 22, marches all night to his assistance, and finds Massey before Lidbury, to whom he gives a sudden alarm ; Massey being thus put to it, drew up, and fought the horse, entertaining the royalists with hot charges, whilst the foot might get off; but being overpowered was fain to give way, and the royalists falling on the foot, did much execution upon them. Massey's horse was shot dead under him by Prince Rupert, and Major Backhouse received bis mortal wound, divers were slain, and the rest by flight escaped.
Prince Rupert marches from thence with about 6000 horse and foot towards Ludlow, and so to Shrewsbury, draining the garrisons, and taking to him the lesser brigades ; and so he and his brother Maurice, assisted with Goring's horse and dragoons, fetched off the King from Oxford, who with a numerous army, advanceth towards the siege of Chester ; General Fairfax's army being now fully compleated, he was ordered closely to besiege Oxford, as being the King's chief garrison, where most of the artillery lay; Cromwell and Brown being recalled from following the King, to assist the general therein. May 12, Col. Welden comes to relieve Taunton, of which the royalists being informed, they resolved to give one furious assault, and if it succeeded not, to rise from the seige and be gone, which not taking effect, they presently marched away, and Colonel Welden enters the town, and finds it almost ruined by fire, two long streets of fair buildings being burnt to the ground; and thus was Taunton relieved, after it had endured a hard siege. About this time Major General Massey takes in Evesham by storm, where Colonel William Leg was governor, who was taken prisoner, with 20 officers, 500 foot, and 120 horse, and all the arms and ammunition; Fairfax lying before Oxford, sent out a party of horse and foot, under Colonel Rainsborough, to summon
Gaunt House; the governor whereof, though at first he answered, he liked not Windebank law, yet seeing Rainsborough ready to storm it, he surrendered upon quarter.
The King with his army marching toward Chester, carried such a terror with him, that made Sir William Brereton quit the siege, and so his work being done, he wheels about, and sits down before Leicester, sending a summons to the town, who desires respite till next morning ; the trumpeter returning, a drum was sent, requiring an answer within a quarter of an hour, which time while they within spend in debate, the King's cannons play upon the town from the battery, and all are commanded to their charge in order to a storm; the contest continued a day and a night, and the town was stormed at six or seven places, and May 31st was entered; the committee-men with the governor, Col. Gray, and Hackey were taken prisoners, much ammunition and the plunder of the town sent to the King's garrisons thereabouts, those that escaped fled to Rockingham Castle, and from thence the King triumphant marches towards Northampton, and faces that town. In the west, Goring, Hopton, and Greenvill united their forces, and fall upon Welden's Brigade, whom they forced to retreat to Taunton in great disorder, and where there somewhat streightned. Fairfax was now ordered to rise before Oxford, and Cromwell marcheth into the associated counties, to prevent the King's irruptions into them, and Col. Vermuden was to join with the Scots with a party of 2500 horse and foot, in case the King should advance northward June 5. Their army had a general rendezvous at Great Brickhill, where they kad news the King was about Daventry ; thereupon it was resolved to give him battle, to which end Cromwell is sent for, with 600 horse, and dragoons ; Vermuden likewise returns, and Fairfax sends post for Sir John Gell, Col. Rossiter, and the governors of Coventry, Warwick, Northampton and Nottingham, to march with all speed with their forces to the general, because there was like to be a speedy engagement. The King's forces lay still about Daventry and Burrough-hill, which being a place of great advantage, it was thought he had chosen it to fight upon; but his design was (having relieved Oxford with store of cattle and sheep) to march for the relief of Pontefract, and Scarborough ; but Fairfax marcheth to Gilborough, within four miles of Northampton, and five of Burrough-hill; and both armies lying near each other, the Fairfaxians alarm the royalists, and take some prisoners, the King being then abroad. June 13, the King drew off from Burrough-hill to Harborough, designing for Pontefract, thinking if he were followed, it would be more advantage to fight further north
ward. Fairfax sends out Ireton with a flying party of horse, who fall upon a party of the King's rear, quartered in Naseby town, takes many prisoners, some of the Prince's life-guard, and Langdale's bris gade, and gives such an alarm to the whole army, that the King at midnight leaves his own quarters, and for security hastens to Harborough, where the van of his army was quartered, raises Prince Rupert, and calls a council of war, where it was resolved to give battle, and because Fairfax had been so forward, they would no longer stay for him, but seek him out. Fairfax was come from Gilborough to Gilling, and from thence to Naseby, where both armies drawn up in battalia faced each other.
Saturday, June 14, was fought that unfortunate battle which proved so fatal to the King and his cause. His Majesty commanded the main body ; Prince Rupert, and Prince Maurice the right wing ; Sir Mar. maduke Langdale the left; the Earl of Lindsey, and the Lord Ashley the right hand reserve; the Lord Bards, and Sir G. Lisle the left. Of the Parliament's army Fairfax and Skippon commanded the main body ; Cromwell the right wing, with whom was Colonel Rossiter, who came with his forces but a little before the fight; and Ireton had the left; the reserves were brought up by Rainsborougb, Hammond, and Pride. Prince Rupert charged the Parliament's left wing, commanded by Ireton, who made a notable resistance, but at last was forced to give ground, Ireton himself being run through the thigh with a pike, and into the face with an halbert, his horse shot under him, and himself taken prisoner ; for a while Rupert follows the chase almost to Naseby town, and in his return summoned the train of baggage and provisions, who made no other answer but with their fire. locks; but in the mean time Cromwell chargeth furiously on the King's left wing, and got the better, forcing them from the body, and prosecuting the advantage, quite broke them and their reserve, during which the main bodies had charged with incredible fierceness, often retreating, and often rallying, falling in together with the but ends of musquets, and coming to handy blows with their swords; but Fairfax's foot coming up seasonably to the horse, and Cromwell coming in with his victorious right wing, they all charged together upon the King's main army, who, unable to endure any longer, retired out of the field toward Leicester, and Prince Rupert, who now too late returned from his too eager pursuit, seeing the day lost, accompanied them in their flight, leaving (as Heaven would have it) a complete victory to the Parliamentarians, who pursued them within two miles of Leicester, and the King finding the pursuit so hot, leaves the town, and hastens