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realm, and instead whereof introducing that which they call a Free State, or Commonwealth. For constituting of which, the first thing they did, was to vote and publish by proclamation, That whereas several pretences might

be made to the crown, &c. to the apparent

hazard of the public peace, no person

whatsoever should presume to proclaim

or any way promote Charles Stuart, son

of the said Charles late King of Eng

land, or any other person to be King

or Chief Magistrate, &c. by colour of

inheritance, or any other claim whatso

ever, without the free consent of the

people in Parliament; first signified

by a particular act for that purpose, any

law or custom to the contrary notwith

standing; and whosoever sliould con

trary to this order proclaim, &c. shall

be adjudged a traitor, and suffer accord

ingly. This proceeding

was founded upon a maxim which they

had taken up, and agreed on among

themselves, namely, That all power

650 nally in the people.

But well knowing that their councils

had soon been confounded, and them


selves interrupted in the course they had

begun, if they had

with those of their members, which had P. CHARLES. been forcibly kept out by the army, they resolve and decree, 1. That all those members who have assented to the vote of December 5, concerning the King's concessions (for that was the occasion of their seclusion) should never be re-admitted, and those that voted in the negative, should presently enter their said dissent, or before they were to be admitted.

And together with the fortune of monarchy was involved that of the Ilouse of Peers, who having sent to desire a conference about settling the government, in regard the Judges commissions were determined by the King's deatb ; instead of an answer to their message, the Junto of the Commons upon debate voted, the Lords' House to be useless and dangerous, and therefore to be laid aside, as in like manner they declared the Kingly office to be unnecessary and burthensome, and


therefore fit to be abolished; only they allowed the Lords the privilege of being capable to be chosen burgesses in the House of Commons : but the Lords were so highly incensed thereat, that there was suddenly published a declaration in the name of all the Peers and Barons of the realm, wherein they protest against the proceedings of the Commons. And a while after, some of the King's friends in despite of all votes, acts, and orders to the contrary, promoted a proclamation, in the name of all the Nobility, Gentry, and Commonality of the kingdom, for proclaiming Charles our present Sovereign to be King of England.

But little could unarmed declarations prevail against the reigning power of an armed faction, who now assumed new ensigns of sovereignty, cancelling the old, and caused all writs, commissions, and instruments of public concernment, to be issued out under a new stile and test, that is, of the keepers of the liberties of England by authority of Parliament. They ordered the old Great Seal to be broken, and a new one to be made, with the arms of England and Ireland on one side, and this inscription, The Great Seal of England ; and on the other side, the House of Commons, with this inscription, In the first Year of Freedom by God's Blessing restored, 1648; and appointed the money to bear the arms of England and Ireland, with this motto, God with us; and the Great Seal was intrusted with three Commissioners. They likewise caused the King's arms to be pulled down every where, and the King's picture in the old Exchange they caused to be defaced, and the following inscription to be set behind it in golden letters : Exit Tyrannus Regum ultimus, Anno Libertatis Angliæ Restitulæ Primo Anno 1648, January 30.

They next proceed to erect another illegal High Court of Justice, wherein they brought to trial Duke Hamilton, taken at the fight at Preston; the Earl of Holland, at Kingston fight; and the Lord Capell and Lord Goring, taken at the siege of Colchester : the three first were condemned and beheaded at the Palace-yard, at Westminster. After this the Ford Fairfax having laid down bis commission, the Parliament made Oliver Cromwell their General, who, a while after, was sent into Ireland, where he proved very successful.

His Majesty was now in France, and hoped to get aid there, but found none; but the Junto proceeded to make sale of the King and Queen's land, and made a formal act for abolishing Kingly government and disinheriting the royal issue, and setting up a Republic or Free State. This act Alderman Reynardson was commanded to proclaim in the city; which he refusing, was committed to the Tower, with three

Aldermen more; and a new Lord Mayor was chosen by à Common Hall, who attended with several other Aldermen as complyant as himself, readily obeyed the commands of his masters, and proclaimed their edict in several places of the city.

Nor could the possession of one rich kingdom satisfy the aspiring minds of the usurpers ; England was already wholly subjected to their power, Scotland not yet mature for invasion ; Ireland is next the object of their ambition; for the Marquis of Ormond, being made Lord Lieutenant by the late King, and seeing a necessity of closing with the confederated Irish, and uniting all interests there, against the common enemy, he concluded a peace with the most considerable party of the confederates, upon their submission, and the profession of their obedience to his Majesty ; and on the Marquis's part, the concession of certain articles, which, according to the necessity of affairs, yielded them many ample privileges and advantages. Having got together a considerable number of forces, and being also assisted by the Lord Inchequeen, the Marquis of Clanrickard, and the Earl of Castlehaven, the Lord Lieutenant designed to reduce those places in Ireland, which yet held out for the English Republic, which are only Dublin, Londonderry, Trim, and Tredagh, of any regard ; of which the three last upon a defeat, surrendered to the King's forces : but Dublin being of chiefest consequence, the Lord Lieutenant endeavoured to gain if by all means possible. Colonel Michael Jones was Governor, and the Marquis with the conjunction of Taffe, Preston, and others of the confederate Irish forces that had declared for the King, made up a gallant army, a richer having scarce been seen in all the late wars. June 29, 1649, the siege began, and had in all probability succeeded, but for the differences and animosities between the English and Irish commanders; and likewise the Lord Lieutenant's unwillingness to attack the city, out of a tender respect to the Protestants within; the necessity also of drawing off some part of the forces for the defence of Munster against the English ; and on the other side the unanimity among the garrison soldiers within the city, and the vigilance and courage of their Governor ; emboldened by these considerations, the besieged took cou. rage first with slight excursions, and afterwards having discovered the security and careless posture of those that were set to guard a certain fort which they attempted, they with their whole strength sallie out upon them, not fearing to venture even upon the main army; and so far did Fortune favour this their bold attempt, that being encouraged by the weak resistance they met with to venture further on; in a short


while they ntterly defeated them, with little loss on their own side, killing and taking very many prisoners, and possessing themselves intirely of the whole camp, abounding in very rich booty, and plenty of all things, the Marquis himself hardly escaping.

Soon after, the siege of Londonderry was raised by Sir Charles Coot; and Cromwell is sent into Ireland with four regiments of horse, seyen regiments of foot, and one of dragoons, being invested with the title of Lord Governor or Lieutenant of Ireland ; next to whom in power was -his son-in-law Ireton, who, with forty sail of ships, transported the army.

Cromwell after a short_stay in Dublin, marched with great ex. pedition to Drogheda, or Tredagh, which had been reinforced by the Marquis of Ormond with a supply of 2500 foot, and 300 horse of the .choicest of his forces, with divers resolute and stout commanders,

whoin Sir Arthur Aston, heretofore Governor of Reading for the late King, was made Governor : there wanted in the defendants neither .courage nor fidelity for keeping the town; but such was the force and fortune of the assailants, that after several furious and successful onsets, which cost them dear enough, the town was at last taken by storm, and in revenge of their resolute standing out, Sir Arthur Aston, Sir Ed. Vamey, Colonel Warren, Tempest Finglas, with other chief command. ers, and all the rest that were within the town, whether garrison sol. diers or inhabitants, were by Cromwell's order, far unbecoming the zeal and religion he pretended, put all to the sword, except some very few persons who hid themselves till the revenge was over, and the edge of destroying fury abated. Wexford was next surprised by the trea. .chery of one Stafford, the Governor, even in the very sight of the Marquis of Ormond, who came to relieve it. Then followed the taking of Ross, Kilkenny, Canick, and the rest of the most important towns and castles in all parts of Ireland; besides several field fights successfully fought by the Lord Broghil, Sir Charles Coot, Colonels Zanchy, Reynolds, Hewson, and Venables; and no great wonder, since they were continually supplied by their masters in England, a competent number of ships attending on that occasion; on the other side many resolute attempts were made by the Lord Lieutenant, and other maintainers of the royal interest; but through the shortness of pay, increasing of divisions among them, and want of the King's presence, which was much desired, and was judged would have very much conduced to his interest in that kingdom; from those discouragements, not only


great numbers of their men, but towns and cities fell off to the well paid, and therefore prevailing side ; so that in less than a year, all Ireland was in a manner totally subdued to the power of the republic.

About this time the King's fleet under Prince Rupert is ruined by several misfortunes, and Prince Maurice his brother, was cast away in the Vice Admiral.

The Parliament of Scotland had resolved some time since to own and treat with his present Majesty, and he was solemnly proclaimed by their order at Edinburgh, February 3, 1648, and in September following, after great debates among them, Mr. Windram, Laird of Libberton, was appointed Messenger. His Majesty had staid some time at St. Germains, in France, in expectation of some message ; which not receiving, he takes his leave of the Queen mother, and the French Court, and steers his course for the Isle of Jersey, as most commodious for the Scotch Commissioners. Upon his first arrival in the island he was proclaimed King, and the Lord Jermyn was appointed Governor of the island : here the Lord Windram found his Majesty, and presented him with the desires and offers of the States of Scotland, which were to this effect : That his Majesty would sign the solemn league and covenant, and pass an act for all persons to take it throughout the kingdom of Scotland, and confirm all that had been done there concerning the same; that he would withdraw his commissions from the Marquis of Montross; that he would put away all Papists from about him, and let none be of his council but known Protestants, with several other particulars; and at last after many consultations, Breda, in Holland, was appointed for the place of a solemn treaty, where Commissioners from the State and Kirk met the King.

At this time his Majesty had Ambassadors and Envoys residing in the Courts of several great Princes and States, as at Moscow, Venice, Germany, Turkey, and Spain, to solicit their aid and assistance for tho recovery of his father's kingdoms : many compliments no doubt they received, and many fair pretences of their good will to help him, as the custom of the world is, as well among Princes as those of lower degree, but for the most part little or nothing besiile; so little regarded is the condition of a person depressed in fortune, though a Prince; the most solemn embassy, and of which there was most hope, was that to the King of Spain, which how it succeeded will appear by the answer

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