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But the Son (afterwards Lord Treasurer and Earl of Salijbury) was not so civilly treated by the Populace ; and is an Instance, not only that Envy pursues a great Man, but that the highest Post cannot redeem a deformed one from Contempt; it attends him like his Shadow, and like that too is ever reminding him of his ill Figure; which is often objected for want of real Crimes. For the fame Writer [/) fays of the fame great Man; "that the Misfortunes accompanying him from "his Birth did not a little add to that Cloud of Detraction, that fell upon all that he faid or did; "a Mulct in Nature, like an Optick Spectacle, "multiplying much in the Sight of the People "the Apparitions of 111." Nor was this Contempt buried with him: it trampled on his Ashes, and insulted his Grave; as appears by an Epitaph, which OJborn cites, as void of Wit, as it is full of Scurrility; in one Line of which there is an Epithet, not so elegant, as descriptive of his Person, viz. "Little Bojftve Robin, that was so great."

Such Contempt in general, joined with the Ridicule of the Vulgar, is another certain Consequence of bodily Deformity. For Men naturally despise what appears less beautiful or useful; and their Pride is gratified, when they see such Foils to their own Persons, It is this Sense of Superiority, which is testified by Laughter in the lower Sort; while their Betters, who know how little any Man whatsoever hath to boast of, are restrain

[1] Historical Memoirs of King James.

ed ed by good Sense and good' Breeding from such an' Insult. But it is not easy to fay why one Species. of Deformity should be more ridiculous than another, or why the Mob should be more merry •with a crooked Man, than one that is deaf, lame,. squinting, or purblind. Or why should they backbite me (if I may use the Expression) to my Face^. and not laugh at my Face itself for being harrowed by the Small Pox l It is a Back in Alto Relievo that bears ail the Ridicule ; though one. would think a prominent Belly a more reasonable: Object of it; since the last is generally the Effect. of Intemperance, and of a Man's own Creation.. Socrates was ugly, but not condemned; and [/]' Pbilopcemenoi very mean Appearance, and though -contemned on that Account, not ridiculed; for. [u] Montaigne fays, " ill Features are bttt a super"ficial Ugliness, and of little Certainty in the * Opinion of Men; but a.Deformity of Limbs ** is more substantial, and strikes deeper in." As it is more uncommon, it is more remarkable; and that, perhaps, is the true Reason, why it is more ridiculed by the Vulgar*

Skice this is the Case, I appeal to my Fraternity, whether it is not found Policy to use Stra* tagem to guard against their Attacks as much at

[/] Coming to an Inn, where he wasexpected, before . his Attendants, the Mistress of the House, seeing a plain. Person, of very mean Aspect, ordered him to assist in. getting things ready for Philopœmcn. His Attendants finding him so employed, he told them, he was then paying the Tribute of his Ugliness. Plutarch.

[u\ In his Essay on Physiognomy.

may

may be; and, since they are deceived by outward Appearances, to call in the Aid of the"Taylor, to present them with better Shapes than Nataro hasbestowed. Against so unfair an Adverfary such Fraud is justifiable; though I do not approve of it in general. When I was a Child, I was drawn like a Cupid, with a Bow and Arrow in my Hands, and a Quiver on my Shoulder; I afterwards thought this an Abuse, which ought to bo corrected ; and when I fate for my Picture someyears ago, I insisted on being drawn as I am, and that the strong marks of the Small Pox might appear in my Face; for I did not choose to colour over a Lye. The Painter faid, he never was allowed such Liberty before; and I advised him, if he hoped to be in vogue, never to assume it again: for Flatterers succeed best in the World; and of Flatterers, Painters are the least liable to be detected by these they flatter. Nor are the. Ladies the only persons concerned for their Looks.. ** [x] Alexander chose to have his Picture drawn. * by Apelks, and his Statue formed by Lysis pus. m And the Spartan Agcflaus (conscious of his ill "Figure) would never suffer any Picture or Sta** tue of him to be taken. He was one of the most "considerable Persons of his Age both for civil and military Virtues, insomuch that he justly »* acquired the Appellation of' Agcflaus the Great. ** But though Nature had been uncommonly li

tr*] Edicto vetuit, ne quis se, prseter Apellen, Pingeret, autalius Lysippo duceret æra Fottis Alexandri vultum simulantia.—Hor. See too Ckfi a's celebrated Epistle to Luceeius. -. -\ teral ** beral to him in the noble Endowments of the i Mind, she had treated him very unfavourably "ist those of the body. He was remarkably low "of Stature; had one Leg shorter than the other; "and so very despicable a Countenance, that he "never failed of raising Contempt in those, who "were unacquainted with his moral and intellec"tual Excellencies. It is no wonder therefore, "that he was unwilling to be delivered down to * Posterity under the Difadvantages of so unpro"mifing a Figure." I have given the [y] Words of a late very elegant Translation of Cicero's Letters. On the whole, I could wish, that Mankind would be more candid and friendly with us; and instead of ridiculing a distorted person, would rally the Irregularities of the Mind, which, generally, are as visible as those of the Person ; but being more common, they pass with little Notice as well in high as low Life. [z] Mæcenas would laugh at any Irregularity in Horace's Dress, but not at any Caprice in his Behaviour, because it was common and fashionable; so a Man's Person, which is the Dress of his Soul, only is ridiculed, while the vicious Qualities of it escape.—Let me • add, that if ridiculing another's Person is in no

[y] From the Translation, and Notes, of the Epistle I have mentioned.

[z] Si curtatus inzquali tonsore capillos
Occuni, rides; si forte subucula pexæ
Trita subest tunicæ, vel si toga dillidet impar,
Rides; quid, mea cum pugnant sententia secum f
Quod petiit, spernit; repetit quod nuper omisit i
Æstuat, et vitse difeonvenit ordine toto?
Diruit, ædiskat, mutat quadrata rotundis?
Iosanire putas soiennia me ; neque rides.

Cafe to be justisied, the ill Treatment of it must be highly criminal: what then must we think of Balbut, a Roman Quæstor in Spain, who wantonly exposed to wild Beasts a certain noted Auctioneer at Seville, for no other Reason, but because he was deformed. This is related in a [a] Letter to Cicero by Astnius Pollio,- the most accomplished Gentleman of that Age; who calls Balbus a Monster for this and other Acts of Barbarity. I am glad fie ha? preserved the Memory of this poor Man, whom I here consecrate to Fame; and place foremost in the glorious List of our Martyrs.

I will now follow Lord Bacon as my Guide, in tracing out such Passions and Affections, as most naturally result from Deformity : for he fays, i' There certainly is a Consent between the Body "and the Mind; and where Nature erreth in the ** one, she ventureth in the other; and therefore "Deformity may be best considered, in this re"spect, as a Cause which seldom fails of the Ef"sect, and not as a Sign, which is more decelvw able; for as there is an Election in Man touch*' ing the Frame of his Mind, the Stars of natu"ral Inclination are sometimes eclipsed by the "Sun of Discipline and Virtue."

He begins with faying, that "deformed Per"sons are commonly even with Nature; for as "Nature hath done ill by them, so do they by "Nature, being for the most part (as the Scrip"ture faith) void of natural affcclion." I can

[a] The 7th of the # 5 th Book in the Translation

the 23d of the icth in the Original.

neither

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