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made memorable by historical passages, - at the “ Age all things brings -all things bears hence with it. bidding of the photographist All things have time, and time all things fit."

“ Starts into light and makes the lighter start," “ Omnia fert ætas secum, aufert omnia secum.

with a truthfulness which the most skilful artist Oninia tempus habent, omnia tempus habet."

would in vain attempt to rival, enables the antiquary to fill bis portfolio at sınall expense anıl

with little labour. What must Mi. Dawson “ A sparing father is most liberall

Turner's Illustrations of his native county have To his son, for, dying, he doth leave him all.”

cost him, albeit much of the labour was labour of

love from the gifted members of his own family. In gnatum quo, dure pareno, es parcior, lioc es

By means of photography, a few pounds *, comLargior, huic moriens omnia namque dabis."

bined with some small experience, would enable each county historian to be bis own artist, and the

printer of the views which he has himself taken; VIRTUE'S COMPLAINT.

for it inust be remembered that photograpliie • Rare's love of Love, love of Virtue's rare :

sketches may be multiplied by printing with very Price is now priz'd, and honours honour'd are :

little trouble. Riches are prostitute ; coyn money byes [sic];

There is another class of antiquaries and lovers And Virtue's vile, she must her own worth prize.”

of art by whom this marvellous invention may

be applied with great success, -I mean our cola " Rarus amoris Amor, Virtutis nullus amator. lectors who illustrate Pennant, Granger, &c. The

In pretio pretium nunc in honore honor est. manner in which large portraits t or views may Divitiæ prostrant (sic) emiturque pecunia nummis, be reduced, and rare ones copied and printeil, by Et sua jam Virtus premia vilis emit."

some of the various processes now in use, will enable collectors at once to spare their purses and

enrich their collections. I have now before me a “ For injur'd Virtue, trainpled on, revives;

printed copy of a portrait (the original taken cerMore beauteous seems, and by oppression thrives !

tainly from a living subject), the work of an Custom it is, that all the world to slavery brings,

amateur, which as a work of art deserves a place And the dull excuse for doing silly things.

in any portfolio. I have had, too, very recently, Custom, which sometimes Wisdom overrules, an opportunity of inspecting some beautiful and And serres instead of Reason to the ffvols." most interesting photographic views of Pæstum;

J. R. R.

and as I write I have beside me a photograph of Roman remains most admirably represented.

It is of course obvious that photography is appli

cable to many other objects than those to which THE APPLICATION OF PHOTOGRAPHY TO AR

I have alluded. The purpose of this communica

tion is simply to direct the attention of antiquaries The present moment, when Mr. Fox Talbot in- more generally to a matter which, if properly taken vites the emulation and competition of our artists up by them, must lead to the preservation of many by presenting all his patents for improvements in a pictorial record which will be invaluable to those photography to the public, “with the exception of who come after us. And I trust that the suge the application of the invention to the taking of gestion of the subject in “N. & Q." may be the Photographic Portraits for Sale," appears to be a means of procuring for those inclined to practise peculiarly fitting time for calling the attention of all the art many useful hints from amateurs far better persons interested in antiquarian pursuits (and who skilled in it than the present writer. have not the able pencil of an Albert Way) to

WILLIAM J. Tuous. some of the modes in which the photographic process may be applied in furtherance of their take up the practice, what good service they may

P.S.—Is it too much to suggest to all who may favourite studies.

Such studies are at once the least remunerative and the most expensive; for in many of the most

I have the authority of Mr. J. B. Hockin-who important branches of archäology, illustrations announced in the Athenæum of the 14th instant a great and drawings become essential, while the cost of improvement in the manufacture of collodion, and a

reduction in its cost money and time is often too great to admit of nished with a very complete set of apparatus, chemicals,

that the amateur may be fur. their being procured. But this wonderful dis- &c., for ten pounds. covery, by which any object,-from a village church † The Granger or Clarendon illustrator may thus to the crumbling monuments and mouldering place in his illustrated volumes copies of portraits brasses within it,-a Druidical remain, or a scene which have never been engraved.


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do to archæological science by depositing printed the assertion. Do any medical men or quacks of copies of their works in the British Museum and the present day, in their treatment of cancer, prethe Library of the Society of Antiquaries ? scribe “the toad as before"? or is this merely a

bit of Folk Lore? CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A.

Salt-Box, — When entering a house in Wales, Deing most desirous to acquire sufficient know. and purchasing some of the furniture, the property lege of one or other of the various systems of of a former occupant, a Welsh gentleman told me photography, to enable me to take thoroughly I must purchase the salt-box. I bid for that valuarcurate views of certain antiquarian remains, í able piece of furniture, and no one attempted to wished to put myself under the tuition of scme

bid against me. I was afterwards told ill-luck artist competent to instruct me. I called upon

would follow me if I had not bought the salt-box. several, but, upon explaining the object I had in

Whence this association of salt and good fortune ? view, and stating that most of the antiquities I

R. W. F.

Bath. was anxious to copy lay far removed from liuman habitations, a doubt was raised as to the possibility of rendering photography available under such

Burial Superstition. — In removing the old circumstances, unless I carried a tent along with church of Old Swinford, Worcestershire, some me, in which, shaded from the light, the process lady full dressed in ancient costume, and an asto

time ago, a coffin was found with the remains of a of rendering sympathetic any of the various kinds nishing multitude of pins (blackened by age) in of prepared paper, and of afterwards fixing the her dress, and lying strewed about. Was this conpicture, could be performed. This, however,

nected with any charm or burial superstition ? would be extremely inconvenient, and I would

J. N. feel much indebted to any of your correspondents

Worcester. who would do me the favour to point out any system by which the tent could be dispenseil with.

Spitting for Luck, 8c.-During my boyhood it Being a perfect novice in the art, I am not

was a common practice with children, when they aware whether the same objection applies to saw a grey horse, to spit three times,” and “go Daguerre's method; that is, whether such an

wliere the spit goes” (as the initiating phrase examount of shade is necessary ;

but if in this

pressed it), in order to be lucky. The modus respect it were manageable, my feeling would be in favour of employing it, as

, from
all I can learn, perundi was to eject

spittle as far from the opera

tor as possible, and for him to take his stand for an amateur would be much more likely to obtain the second ejection upon the spot where the first good pictures by it, after shorter practice, than by emission fell"; and so for the third. The practice, any of the manifold systems in which prepared notwithstanding the progress of education, has not paper or albumenised glass is used. But, in short, entirely died out, as I find my own children have what I wish to know is, what system would be been taught the charm, or whatever it may be most convenient, most easily acquired, and best called. Can any of your correspondents explain adapted for the purpose I have in view ?. If any the origin of this custom ? gentleman will kindly enlighten me on this point, For two persons to wash their hands in the he will perhaps be good enough also to inform me

same water is deemed a cause of strife, unless the where the best portable apparatus can be obtained, second person spits in the water. "Whence the anil what treatise most clearly explains the pro- origin of this ? cess lie may recommend to me?

A. H. R. It is considered unlucky for a person to walk [We gladly insert this Query, in hopes that Dr. under a ladder, unless he spits three times. Can Diamond, whose specimens exhibited at Lord Rosse's this be explained ? soirées during the last season attracted such general To spill salt on the table is considered unlucky. admiration, will kindly give our correspondent the These matters are curious, and I should much benefit of his great experience upon this very interest- like to see them elucidated.

Ks. ing subject.]




Alinar Notes. The Application of Toads to Cancers.- Are there any well-authenticated cases of cures resulting

Cromwell Family.- A few years since I copied from the application of toads to cancers? The the inclosed from the Register of Burials for the naturalists of eighty years ago considered that the parish of Felsted, Essex : land-toad (Rubeta) possessed the property of suck

« 1623. ing out the poison of the disease; and some re- “ Robertus Cromwell filius honorandi viri Mtis markable “ facts " are brought forward in proof of Olivari Cromwell et Elizabetlıæ uxoris ejus sepultus


fuit 31° die Maii, [et] Robertus fuit eximia spei juvenis, The account proceeds: “ The men lift the women deum timens supra multos.”

on Easter Monday, and the women the men on There was a tradition in the parish that this Tuesday. One or more take hold of eacla leg, and Robert was buried in the church porch, but I one or more of each arm, near the body, and lift could find no trace of a monument.* Was he a son the person up in a horizontal position three times. or nephew of the Protector?

It is a rude, indecent, and dangerous diversion, For the connexion of the Cromwell family with practised chiefly by the lower class of people. Felsted, see Noble's History. Metaouo. Our magistrates constantly prohibit it by the bell

man, but it subsists at the end of the town, and Macaulay's Young Levite (Vol. i. passim). - the women have of late years converted it into a Here are three additional evidences of the truth money job. I believe it is chiefly confined to the of Mr. Macaulay's picture to those given in northern counties.” “N. & Q." The first describes the life at Wrest Mr. Thomas Loggan, of Basinghall Street, inin Bedfordshire, where Carew wrote, the seat of forms the world, through the Public Advertiser of Selden's Countess of Kent:

13th April, 1787, that he was lifted by the female “ The Lord and Lady of this place delight

servants of the Talbot, at Shrewsbury, and that Rather to be in act than seem in sight;

he had to pay a fee on the occasion. This the Instead of statues to adorn their wall,

gentleman at Crewe escaped.

P. They throng with living men their merry hall,

Remarkable Trees. - Affixed to a tree in the Where at large tables fill'd with wholesome meats, The servant tenant and kind neighbour eats.

beautiful and spacious park of Woburn Abbey, is Some of that rank, spun of a finer thread,

the following sonnet; the tree, according to the Are with the women, steward and chaplain fed local tradition, being that upon which the last With daintier cates; others of better note,

abbot of that religious house was hung; or, to Whom wealth, parts, office, or the herald's coat, borrow a pun from Professor Seilgwick, " They Have severed from the common, freely sit

took the abbot from his house, and suspended him." At the Lord's table.”

“O! 'twas a ruthless deed, enough to pale Carew. To my friend G. N., from Wrest.

Freedom's bright fires, that doom'd to shameful death The instances from Gay and Pope, or rather Those that maintained their faith with latest breath, Swift, need no comment:

And scorn'd beneath the despot's frown to quail ! “ Cheese that the tables closing rites denies,

Yet 'twas a glorious hour when from the gaul
And bids me with th' unwilling chaplain rise.”

Of Papal tyranny the mind of man
Gay, Trivia, 1716.

Dared to break loose, and triumph in the ban

Of thunders warring in the distant gale !
“ No sooner sairl, but from the hall

Yes, old memorial of the mitred monk,
Rusli chaplain, butler, dogs and all,

Thou livest to flourish in a brighter day;
A rat, a rat, clap to the door.'”

With seeming joy, that pure and patriot vows
Pope and Swist, Sixth Satire of Second Book of Horace. Are breath'd where superstition reign'd: thy trunk

Peter CUNNINGHAM. Its glad green garlands wears, though in decay,

And pious red-breasts warble from thy boughs. Lifting at Easter. – A gentleman travelling by

B. B. Wiffen." railway, who had slept the previous night at the I am not aware whether these lines have ever hotel at Crewe, was on Easter Tuesday last seized been printed before. by a party of female servants, including an unc

W. SPARROW SIMPsox, B.A. tuous kitchen-maid, forced into a chair, lifted from

a the ground three times, and then kissed by each. The Ember Weeks. — Wheatly says that some

This was in conformity with a custoin in the derive the word Ember “from a Ġerman work northern counties, which awards a similar privi- which signifies abstinence" (what is the German lege to the men on Easter Monday, that is, of word here alluded to ?]; some from embers being lifting and kissing the women.

the symbol of humiliation; others from abstinence The custom is mentioned in Brand's Popular from all food save cakes baked upon embers. He Antiquities, Ellis' edd. vol. i. p. 106., where it is gives the preference to Dr. Mareschal's conjecture, said, on the authority of The Gentleman's Maga- which derives it from the Anglo-Saxon ymbren zine for February, 1784, that lifting was originally (from ymb, audi, "about," and ryne, " to run"), designed to represent our Saviour's resurrection. a circuit or course: Ember days, i.e. fasts in

course. Bishop Sparrow only gives the Ember [* Wright, in his History of Esser, vol. ii. p. 57., cakes derivation, for which he quotes Thomas notices the monument, and has given the extract from

Becon. Mr. Deane (Serp. Wor., p. 329.) suggests the burial register as the inscription on it, bearing the the Egyptian Amber, sacred, as the origin of the date of 1639. Robert was the Protector's first-born word. Others again derive it from quepa. Had son.-ED.)

comparative philology been earlier studied, these



ingenious conjectures might have been saved. The of their reception by a Shoshonee chief, with whom word Ember is really à corruption of Quatuor they sınoked the "pipe of peace :" tempora ( just as Caresme or Carême is of Qua

“ The chief then produced his pipe and tobacco, the dragesima). We have got it through the Dutch warriors all pulled off their mocassins, and our party Quatertemper, or Quatemper, and Germ. Quatember was requested to take off their own,” &c. Woche. I have met some note or other on the I have omitted to note page, but think about 260., word åryapeów, which occurs St. Matt. v. 41., xxvii. 32. ; St. Mark xv. 21., in which it is stated ed. 4to. I have several other notices of American that the Germans call the Ember Weeks Angaries, but cannot just now refer to them.

Indians uncovering their feet on solemn occasions, because on those weeks the vassals


their quitrents, services, &c. to their lords. EIRIONNACH.

If all mankind spread from a common centre, a

centre where this custo:n of uncovering the feet in Shakspeare Folios.—Would it not be interesting token of reverence, &c. prevailed, and had even to the lovers of Shakspeare if there was a record been ordered by the Lord, as above quoted, in your pages of the “ whereabouts” of the first whence does it arise that all European nations folios, with their dimensions and condition? I (and European only), rejecting the usages of their cannot but think the various owners would be forefathers, and the command of God, have adopted gratified to contribute such an account. The so opposite a practice; and whilst polluting their Notes might be kept back until a tolerably com- holy places by standing on them with covered feet, plete list was written, and then inserted in your are further guilty of the indecency (to say no columns. It perhaps might not be displeasing to worse of it), in the eyes of an Oriental, of uncovermany if a list even of the four editions was made ing the head? Why St. Paul should write to the out. I shall be glad to give an account of those in Corinthians that every man praying, &c. with his my possession.

Bonsall. head covererl, dishonoureth his head (1 Cor. xi.

5.), althongh he offers a sort of explanation, Querirs.

verse 7., I do not exactly understand ; unless be

cause it was in the spirit of the people adılressed, UXCOVERING THE HEAD AND UNCOVERING THE for the Greeks prayed with uncovered heads.

Whence comes this practice of uncovering the Amongst many contradictory customs distin- head in our places of worship at any and at all guishing the Oriental from the European, is that times; by what law is it enjoined The 18th of uncovering the feet instead of the head, as a Ecclesiastical Canon (the only one bearing on the mark of reverence or respect.

subject) ordains that all people shall be uncovereil The Orientals have high authority for their during divine service, exce;'t such as be sick, and custom (see Exodus iii. 5.), and we find it widely they shall be permitted to wear "a night-cap or spread; the Levites officiated in the Tabernacle coif;" no other exception, no exception in favour with naked feet; the Druids, I believe, performed of officiating priest; and yet some dignitaries of their sacred duties with naked feet; the Egyptian our church habitually appear in black skull-caps priests allowed no one to enter their temples with- (coif?): out uncovering their feet: whether the Greeks, Much remains to be said on the subject of unRomans, and other nations of antiquity observed

covering heads and feet, but at present I am senthe same rule, I know not. In modern times we sible of having trespasseil so unconscionably, that find it general throughout the East, excepting, I must express as briefly as possible my hope that perhaps, the Hindoo-Chinese nations; though some of your very numerous an:l learned correeven among them I think the Siamese put of spondents will kindly answer the Queries respecttheir shoes on approaching the presence of

A. C. 1. any great man. Traces of it may exist in Europe

Excter. among Roman Catholics, in the form of barefooted friars, pilgrims, and penances, &c., and traces of it

“PARADISE LOST.". have existed even in the New World. The Peruvians, we are told, put off their shoes when ap- It has been conjectured that from a conversaproaching the boundaries of their Sun Temple, the tion with Manso, Marquis of Villa, Milton conInca alone retaining his as far as the door, where ceived the idea of writing an epic poein, and that he also bared his feet before entering the holy Andreini's Adamo afterwards suggested the subplace (See Harris's Collection, vol. i. p. 82. fol.). ject. Who was it first gave to the world the Clavigero tells us that no one could' enter the following piece of romance, which looks as if it Palace of Motezuma without first pulling off his hal been written for some Ladies' Magazine ? shoes and stockings at the gate. (Cullen's Trans- “ Milton possessed a fine figure, and when a young lation, vol. i. p. 211. 4to.)

man was extremely handsome. In one of his wanderIn Lewis and Clarke's Travels is the description ings when in Italy, being of a very pensive cast, he sat

ing it.

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himself down under a tree and commenced reading, lished in 1551. If any of your readers know of an but soon fell asleep. During his slumber two females, earlier edition, I should like to have the particuwho were observed at a distance by two of his com- lars of it. panions, stopped on coming near to him: and one of them wrote on a slip of paper the following lines,

“ Hybernia, quæ et Irlandia insula, ab hyberno temwhich she laid upon his breast, and, with lier companion, pore appellata, maxiine pabulosa, nullum animal noxium immediately disappeared :

gignit, multum fertilis, subest gradibus 100. 54.0. « • Occhi, stelle mortali,

" Anglia, quæ et Albion, insula Britannica, olim

cain inhabitarunt gigantes, populus intrepidus in bello, Ministri de mici mali, Se chiusi m'uccedite

optimique sagittarii, lupos non gignit, nec illatos nutrit,

idcirco vagum pecus et sine custode securum. Ejus Apperti che farete?'

præcipua civitas est Cantuaria, quæ apud Ptole, ex which may be translated :

conjectura Davernum vocatur, subest gradibus 92.50. “ • Beautiful cyes, mortal stars, authors of my misfor

52. 10. Huc adnavigatur ex Callas civit. Flandriæ. tunes ! if you wound me being closed, what would you “ Scotia, pars septentrionalior Albionis insulæ, terni do if open ?'

freto sive fluvio ab Anglia dirempta. Natura insidi et “ It is said Milton was so sensitive on the subject, contemptores cæterorum mortalium, plus nimio nobilithat lic roamed orer half of Europe io search of the

tatem suam ostentantes, mendaces, nec pacem colunt ut fair charmer, but in vain : and that this circumstance Anzli, mendicantes circa divorum templa, lapides in induced him to write that sublime poem, and entitle elemosinam a pretereuntibus colligunt in usum ignis, it Paradise Lost,"

nam lignis caret, habet civitates præcipuas S. Andreas This Query perhaps may merit a place amongst S. Joannes 15. 40. 59. 55." the “Folk Lore" of "N. & Q.” JARLTZBERG.




In one of the carlier editions of Loudon's Ency. Seeing in your list of " Books Wanted" mention madle of Clare's Poems, fcap. 810., last edit., in

clopedia of Gardening (that of 1822), at p. 926., duces me to send the following Notes and Queries paragraph 1600, there occurs the following very


remarkable respecting this gifted but unfortunate man.

passage: his writings I possess : Poems Descriplive of Rural

“ Indeed there is hardly any limit to the extent to Life and Scenery, 18:20 ; The Villuge Minstrel,

which this sort of light roof might not be carried: and other Poems, 2 vols. 1821, (this work was

several acres, even a whole country residence, miglit be bound in 1 vol., and lettered Poetic Souvenir,

covered in this way, by the use of hollow cast-iron a few years since, to make it sell); The Rural for the water which fell on the roof.... The plan

columns as props, which might serve also as conduits MInse, 1835. Have these been republished col

of such a roof might either be flat ridges, or octagon or lectively since 1835, with pieces composed by

hexagon cones, with a supporting columu at each ang'e, Clare in lucid intervals during his abode at raised to the height of a hundred or a hundred and fitis Northampton ?

feet from the ground, to admit of the tallest oriental In the Rural Muse there is a piece called the trees, &c. The great majority of readers will no doubt “ Vanities of Life ?" How far is this original ? In consider these ideas as sufficiently extravagant; but Chambers' Journal for August, 1846, several there is no limit to human improvement; and few stanzas of it are printed as quotations from “ The things afford a greater proof of it than the comforts and Soul's Errand ;” but neither the quotation, nor

luxuries man receives from the use of glass." the collection of ballads from which it is taken, In later editions of the work this passage was are in my possession. Are there any other instances in which John Clare has adopted others suppressed, the author having probably deemed

his idea altogether too extravagant for renlisation; productions as his own? Should other instances be discovered, judg- never met with the above-quoted suggestions

but if the originator of the Crystal Palace had ment must not be severe ; since, sometime ago, of a brother gardener, we must only consider one feature of Clare's a Miction was that he be- his happy idea as one of those stariling “ lieved himself to be the author of all the poems of incidences " so summarily disposed of by Mr. Puff which he had heard, and bitterly complained that in The Critic, and “ all that can be said is, that two his works should be published in the names of people happened to hit on the same thought." Milton, Shakspeare, Byron, &c. A. H. CowPER. Such coincidences are not uncommon among poets.

Virgil, as every schoolboy knows, had reason to SCHOXER'S ACCOUNT OF TUE BRITISHI ISLES.

complain of them, and some very remarkable in

stances of them have at times appeared in your The following account of the Britisli islands is pages. If Shekspeare had the start of Puff, we must fund, n:nd is ill that is found, in the Opusculum accord to Loudon precedency of Paxton ; though Geograp!ricum of Jolin Schoner of Carlstadt, pub- surely, if Sir Joseple was aware of a prior claim


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