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language.* And, as descriptions of places and sant consequences. The truth is, a man, proprio persons are transcribed for the most part from one motu, may not lawfully divest himself of his pasuch document into another, this error is per- rental surname; it descends to him as an indepetuated, to the infinite bewilderment and discom- feasible inheritance; and, till within the last few fiture, not only of the etymologist, but also, which years, no less a sanction than that of a solemn act is of far more consequence, of the conveyancer and of the legislature was necessary to enable him to the genealogist.

change or modify it, though now the licence of the Although it must be admitted that, when rightly crown alone suffices for that purpose. understood, the vulgar provincial sound of a word, The still prevailing custom referred to by if it be one of native growth, is frequently our W.L. (Vol. v., p. 424.), of distinguishing an insafest clue to its unde derivatur, still the misspel. dividual by the addition of his father's or mother's ling, mispronunciation, and other changes surnames

Christian name to his own Christian name, and are perpetually undergoing, as they spread them- which, I may remark, is by no means confined to selves over a country, present obstacles in the way the locality indicated by that correspondent, will of tracing personal designations to their true in itself immediately account for the anomalous origin, which demand much diligent inquiry and personal description to which he alludes as occurlocal information to surmount. I have met with ring temp. Car. I. I could readily exemplify this many a man who could not give me what I knew custom by innumerable instances, some of them to be his own proper name with any approach to suficiently curious, Matty Johan Ned," correctness; and thus, as my own experience “ Dick o' Dick o' Dicky's," &c., and point to other testifies, Edmondson is transformed into Emmer- similar peculiarities of a highly suggestive chason, Immerson, and Impson ; Parrington into racter. It is enough, however, to invite especia! Parnton, Panton, and Barnton ; Peremore into attention to these accidental names, in the use of Perramore and Palmer, &c. Still, such like acci- which multitudes of existing surnames had their dental and unintentional effects of blundering ig- origin; and the places to look for them in most norance, for similar variæ lectiones rarely exist in

abundance are those where the same family dereference to the patronymics of the educated signations largely prevail, as in Wensleydale, classes, are not, I would suggest, sufficient to amongst the Metcalfes and Dinsdales, and in justify Mr. Lower's remark (Vol. v., p. 509.), Weardale amongst the Featherstons and Waltons. " That family names have scarcely become here- Old parish registers, again, will amply reward the ditary, in some parts of England, even now in the labour of investigation ; they are full of illustrative middle of the nineteenth century.” The right matter.

CowgILL. name is still there, and is meant to be expressed, if its owner did but know how. But until we can A. C.'s excellent observations on the assumption all of us " speak, read, and write with propriety," of surnames embolden me to offer a suggestion such like variations must continually occur; nor, which, I conceive, if commonly adopted, would I would beg W.L. (Vol. v., p. 424.) to observe, do tend to clear up family history very remarkably. they at all invalidate the somewhat indefinite Suppose that every child was given as a second statement made by me (Vol. v., p. 290.), that name (between his Christian and surname) that of "surnames were not completely arlopted by the his mother's family. By this means the cotemmass of the people until the close of the fourteenth porary branches of each family would be instantly century.”

distinguished, and after the lapse of a few geneWe find, however, “in many isolated parts of rations, the clue to the maternal lines would be of the country," as that statement asserts, occasional incalculable service. Thus, three brothers, Charles, instances of " a total change from one designation Robert, and Thomas Russell

, marry respectively to another," that is to say, a person obtains a nick- Mary Howard, Anne Somerset, and Jane Cavenname, and this, here and there, as in the case re- dish. The children of Charles Russell and Mary ferred to by E. S. (Vol. v., p. 425.), may haply Howard are Charles Howard Russell, William supersede bis paternal name, and be transmitted Howard Russell, and Mary Howard Russell. to his children. But this is an unwarranted irre- Their cousins, the children of Robert Russell and gularity, for, after all, the newly adopterl appellative Anne Somerset, are Richard Somerset Russell does not legally belong to him ; and its use, in and Charles Somerset Russell. The third branch certain proceedlings, might subject him to unplea- similarly are Cavendish Russells. By this means

there can be no confusion between cousins, even * What would the sharpest London reporter make if two or more should bear a favourite Christian of the following, when spoken by a native of the Fells,

name; and in speaking of the various branches “En udder blae el deat?” What again of the ex: collectively, there would be great convenience in clamation of an

“Owdlium” gossip, ** Farttle be ith' designating not only the family but the generation, Pyar?" But both these expressions are pure English as the “Somerset Russells," the “ Howard RusHeless.

sells," &c. Of course in the second generation

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the grandmother's name would be dropped for the merous to be counted. The practice, however, mother's, and Charles Howard Russell's son by his does not appear to be a very ancient one, and I wife Jane Percy will be Thomas Percy Russell. should like to know what is the earliest instance

URSULA. on record ? At first, I presume, it was a special

favour; at present, any one that is able and willing to pay the fees may, I believe, obtain it.

How long has this been the case ? How long, (Vol. vi., p. 97.)

too, has it been the custom for a person of equesThere is one practice of this kind not adverted trian rank, who has assumed a second surname, to by A. C. which strikes me as peculiarly unjust,

to prefix to it his original surname, as if it were when the heirs-general assume a name that is not

a Christian name, after the title “Sir?” The ertinct. I know a case where a sister inherited dates of these innovations are worth being re

D. x. her brother's estate ; and wishing to take the corded. name, was for the time prevented by the male heir ; but during the minority of his son, her son assumed it by act of parliament. The descend

(Vol. vi., p. 100.) ants of the latter having again failed in the male line, the name has been a second time assumed

English Bishops deprived by Queen Elizabeth in by their heirs-general, and these now call them

June, 1599 : selves the elder brunch of the family, whose

1. John White, Bishop of Winchester, died at name ey have taken. In the same family, the South-Warnborow, Hampshire, Jan. 11, 1559-60. eldest of the remaining male line having left a

Some account of him will be found in Cassan's daughter, it is said that her descendants are also Bishops of Winchester, 8vo., 1827, vol. i. pp. 544– to assume the name, while there is still a direct 551. See also Wood's Ath. Oxon., by Bliss, male beir, who, if he does not inherit the estates,

vol. i. col. 311. ought surely not to be deprived of the representa- crowned Queen Elizabeth, died Dec. 31, 1559, and

2. Owen Oglethorp, Bishop of Carlisle, who tion of his ancient and honourable name. I know no remedy that would be effectual, un

was buried in the church of St. Dunstan's, Fleet less it were permitted to the real representatives Street, London. Wood's Ath. Oxon., vol. ii. c. 792. of families who ranked as European nobility in

Le Neve's Fasti Ecclesia Anglicanæ, fol. 1716, the Middle Ages, to call themselves by some such p. 335. honourable distinction as “noble gentleman," or

3. Cuthbert Scot, Bishop of Chester, died at the like, their wives having the designation of Louvain. Fuller's Church History by Nichols, what they are entitled to as hereditary esquires. by R. Tracke, in his Antiquities of the City of ** dame." I would give them no rank beyond 8vo., 1842, vol. ii. p. 449. Le Neve, p. 341.

4. Jumes Tuberryle, Bishop of Exeter, is said But when it is considered that the name and arms (for example) of Chaworth are on the tombs of Exeter, 8vo., 1677, to have died Nov. 1, 1559. the Dukes of Burgundy, among the greatest | Wood's Ath. Oxon., vol. ii. c. 795. princes of Europe ; that Sir Philip Sydney is said 5. Ralph Bayne, Bishop of Lichfield and Covento have had the offer of the crown of Poland; and try, died at Islington in 1560, and was buried in that English families, many of which remain, were

the church of St. Dunstan's in the West, London. admissible as knights of Rhodes and Malta, which Zoucli's Works, 1820, 8vo., vol. ii. p. 283. Le required nobility of four descents, it must seem

Neve, p. 125. Fuller's Worthies, by Nuttall, 8vo., rather incongruous that their direct representa- 1840, vol. ii. p. 410. tives might now write themselves “Rentier," and

6. Francis Mallet, Canon of Windsor, Chaplain be supposed by foreigners to be of the same rank to Queen Mary, and Dean of Lincoln, 'died Dec. which we now understand in England by the 1570. Le Neve's Fasti, p. 146. Wood's Ath. term " Gentleman Farmer."

O.con., vol. ii. c. 781.; and Wood's Fasti, vol. i. If the eldest representatives of such families would combine for such an object, as the baronets

7. Thomas Goldwell, Bishop of St. Asaph, was did a few years ago, I think they might gain tlieir living at Rheims in 1580, being then about eighty point. And even those of them who possess rank years of age ; and is said to have died shortly and title would not be sorry, I think, to be thus afterwards at Rome. Wood's Ath. O.con., vol. ii. distinguished from the new-inade aristocracy. 0. c. 822,

8. Henry Morgan, Bishop of St. Daviil's, died I will not discuss with A. C. the propriety of the at Wolvercote, Oxfordshire, Dec, 23, 1559. Le practice which he censures, but which is now fully Neve's Fasti, p. 514. Wood's Ath. Oron., vol. ii. sanctioned by custom. The instances in which a c. 788. Fuller's Church Hist., vol. ii. p. 419. change of surname, or an additional surname, has 9. Richard Pate, Bishop of Worcester, died at been authorised by the crown, are far too nie Louvain. Thomas's Survey of the Cathedral Church

c. 48.



of Worcester, 4to., 1736, Part II. pp. 209-10. on the “Prolusiones Academica"; in the first of Wool's Ath. Oxon., vol. ii. c. 794. "Le Neve's which he says, Fasti, p. 299.

“ Strada's Prolusion on the style of the most famous 10. Nicholas Ileath, Archbishop of York, died among the ancient Latin poets who are extant, and at Cobham, in Surrey, 1579. Nichols' Progresses have written in Epic verse, is one of the most entertain. of Queen Elizabeth, 4to., 1823, vol. i. p. 250. Le ing as well as the inost just pieces of criticism that I Neve's Fasli, p. 310, Wood's Ath. Oxon., vol. ii. have ever read." c. 817.

The Prolusions were first printed at Rome in 11. Gilbert Bourne, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1617, in a handsome volume in small 4to.; but died at Silverton, in Devonshire, Sept. 10, 1569. that edition is very rare, and Chalmers and others Cassan's Bishops of Bath and Wells, 8vo., 1829, bave erroneously stated it to have been first printed Part I. pp. 462—467. Le Neve's Fasti, p. 33.

at Cologne in 1617, 8vo. 12. David Pole, Bishop of Peterborough, died

The verses containing the relation are a lappy in 1568. Le Neve's Fasti, p. 239. Wood's Ath. imitation of the style of Lucretius, and are thus Oron., vol, ii. c. 801.

inscribed : “Rationem expeditissimam absentes a !13. Thomas Watson, Bishop of Lincoln, is said monendi nullis eo missis tabellis, nullis tabellariis." in Chalmers's Bing. Dict. to have died in 1582. He concludes thus with the “ Commoda hujus inThis however is unsupported by his authorities, venti": unless Dodd's Church Hist., to which I am unable

“O utinam hæc ratio scribendi prodeat usu! to refer, gives this date. According to the following authorities, he died at Wisbeach Castle, Cam

Cautior, et citior properaret epistola, nullas

Latronum vcrita insidias, fluviosque morantes. bridgeshire, in 1584; and was privately buried in

Ipse suis Princeps manibus sibi conficeret rein: the church of that town, Sept. 27. Philpot's Nos soboles scribarum emersi ex æquore nigro, Examination and Writings, edited for the Parker CoNsEcRAREMVS CALAMVM, MAGNETIS AD ORAS." Society, 8vo., 1842, p. 168. Hutchinson's Dur. ham, 4to., 1787, p. 141. Wood's Fasti, vol. i.

How far from dreaming that it could be ever sa

nearly realised, as it is in the electric telegraph, c. 145.

must the poet have been when concluding his inEnglish Bishops deprived, Feb. 1, 1691 :

genious fiction with these lines ! 1. Thomas Ken, Bishop of Bath and Wells, died The Prolusions have been frequently reprinted, at Longleat, March 19, 1710-11, aged seventy- and were long a favourite academical book. In three; and was buried at Frome Selwood, Somer- the same chapter we have the well-known “consetshire, March 21. Cassan's Bishops of Bath and tention between the nightingale and the musician," Wells, Part 11. pp. 83–101. Lathbury's History written in imitation of the style of Claudian. of the Nonjurors, 8vo., 1845, p. 225.

In a pleasing miscellany, published periodically 2. Francis Turner, Bishop of Ely, died Nov. 2, in 1750, entitled The Student, or the Oxford and 1700; and was buried in the church of Therfield, Cambridge Miscellany, is given the following verHerts

. Chalmers's Biog. Dict. Lathbury's Non- sion, which, as the book is not common, nia; be jurors, p. 183.

worthy of transposition into your pages: 3. Robert Frampton, Bishop of Gloucester, died in 1708, aged eighty-six ; and was buried pri (From Strada ; Mugnesi genus est lapidis mirabile," &e.) vately at Siandisli, in Gloucestershire. Lathbury, With magic virtues fraught, of sor'reign use,

4. William Lloyd, Bishop of Norwich, died at Magnesia's mines a wondrous stone produce : Hammersmith, where he bad lived privately for

To this applying slender bars of steel,

Sudden new motion and new life they feel; twenty years, Jan. 1, 1709-10; and was interred

Nor to the Bear alone, whose splendours burn in the belfry of the chapel. Britton's Cathedral

Around the freezing role, instinctive turu; Antiquities of Norwich, p. 74.

But each fond needle mutual motion proves, 5. Thomas White, Bishop of Peterborough, died Each to the rest in sure direction moves. 1698; and was buried in St. Gregory's church- Thus, if at Rome thy hand the steel applies, yarı, or vault, at St. Paul's, June 5th. Lathbury, Tho' seas may roll between or mountains rise, p. 179. Evelyn, vol. iii. p. 364. .

To this some sister needle will incline,
John I. DREDGE. Such Nature's mystic pow'r and dark design!

Thus, to thy distant friend, if fate denies

To breathe in missive intercourse thy sighs, STRADA'S SYMPATHETIC MAGNETIC TELEGRAPH.

Mindful, a flat and spacious orb provide, (Vol. vi., p. 93.)

And let thy ready pencil on the side

Th' expressive elements of childhood trace, Addison has repeated his account of Strada's And in due rank each order'd letter place. mathetic magnetic telegraph in No. 119. of

In the mid orb thy needle next be shown; Onurdian, in which work he has three papers Strong with magnetic force, and virtue not its own.


p. 203.


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Which quivering still, in changeful turnings tost, nose, lips, and beard remain ; and in one, the features
May touch the letter, which shall please thee most. were so little disturbed, that
Emblem of this a second orb compose,

• All unruffled was his face, Alike with letters grac'd in order'd rows;

We trusted his soul had gotten grace.'
Next place the steel, to thy first pattern true,
From the same stone whose pow'r attractive grew,

Round others, the dust lies where it had fallen as it This faithful instrument of love sincere,

had dropped, grain by grain, from the mouldering To distant climes thy parting friend shall bear,

cheeks; and the head grins from beneath the cowl At first inform'd on what peculiar day

nearly in the state of a skeleton. The garments are To mark th' instructive steel, and note its varied way.

almost in the same unequal degree of preservation ; If to your distant friend, due terms agreed,

for in many the white material is still firm, though You long the secrets of your soul to speed,

discoloured; while in others it is dropping away in The letters mark successive as they stand,

fragments. The shoes of all are wonderfully perfect. The ready needle move with meaning hand;

“ The last person buried in this vault was one who And as just thought requires, not wanton chance,

acted as gardener to the community. His head is Now here, now there, direct the slender lance ;

crowned with a wreath of flowers, which still preserves To each the motion of thy steel dispense,

its general form; nay, the largest blossoms may yet be Lo, letters leap obedient into sense!

distinguished from the smaller ones; but the withered

leaves lie inixed with his fallen hair on either side.”Meantime thy distant friend, with conscious eye, Perceives the fond spontaneous sympathy;

Paris edition, vol. i. p. 158. While his own steel in like rotation flies,

H. W. G. And bids the gradual syllables arise :

Each word he marks to full perfection brought,
And eyes th'expressive point, interpreter of thought.

He, too, wben rests unmov'd his potent spell,
Each sentiment responsive can retell;

(Vol. vi., p. 86.)

p Rouses alike his letters from their rest, And in return unloads his grateful breast.

Your correspondent R. G. wishes me to verify a Ob! that this tale would grow to lasting fame,

severe criticism which he transcribes from a work And practice authorise the letter'd frame !

entitled The Scholar armed against the Errors of Then might the kind epistle safely stray,

the Time, 1795, and in which it is said that, instead Nor fear the frowning thief nor wat'ry way: of the kingdom of heaven," as it is in the ScripPrinces might deign to form the gay device, ture, Baxter calls it “ parliament of heaven." While we dull scribes from sable seas arise,

Now, for your correspondent's information, I may

I Wash'd from our ink, nor doom'd to write again, be allowed to state that Baxter has done nothing Place on Magnesia's shores the votive pen.

of the kind. He never throughout the Saint's ΜΙΣΟΓΡΑΦΟΣ.”

Nest fails to employ the Scriptural representations S. W. SINGER. of the heavenly world; and though he uses the

plirase “parliament of heaven,” it is merely in a figurative sense, not instead of the “ kingdom of

heaven," but as a figure which it would be necessary (Vol. vi., p. 53.)

to adopt in contrasting the inhabitants of heaven

with those who were wont to meet in the ParliaIn Mrs. Trollope's Belgium and Western Ger- ment that then existed. It is further said that into many, the following passage is found touching the this “parliament of heaven” he puts some of the Kreutzberg monks :

regicides; that is, I suppose, Brooke, Pim, Hamp" The wonderful state of preservation in which these den, White, &c. But these were not regicides ; at bodies remain, though constantly exposed to the atmo. least not in the opinion of very many who were sphere by being thus exhibited, is attributed by good thoroughly competent to judge of their characters. Catholics to the peculiar sanctity of the place; but to Some think Oliver Cromwell was a regicide, but those who do not receive this solution of the mystery, not so others, — Thomas Carlyle to wit, and no it is one of great difficulty. The dates of their inter

mean authority. The men whom Baxter put in ment vary from 1400 to 1713; and the oldest is quite heaven were those whom he fully believed to be as fresh as the most recent. There are twenty-six, worthy of a place there; whom he looked upon as fully exposed to view, and apparently many more beneath them. From the elder ones, the coffins have

having wrought righteousness and peace upon the eitlier crumbled away, or the bodies were buried withe earth. That he should have left them out of the out them. In some of these ghastly objects the flesh later editions of his work was a sad defection of is still full, and almost shapely upon the legs; in others judgment; for it was like blotting them out of the it

appears to be gradually drying away, and the bones book of life. He did this, not because his views of are here and there becoming visible. The condition of their history and acts were altered, but that in the the face also varies very greatly, though by no means omission he would be enabled to please the enemies in proportion to the antiquity of each. In many, the of Puritanism. Of course this failed, and he did



violence to his own feelings ; for his judgment re- rous are the cases on record, and so distinct from specting them remained the same, and he rejoiced any other disease the characters which they prein the prospect of meeting them in heaven. Per- sent. It is true that tetanus and hydrophobia are haps the following extract from the first edition of nearly allied; and, like all other named diseases, the Saints Rest may still further elucidate the are merely the most prominent forms of infinitely verification of the criticism referred to.

varied morbid gradations, which we make absolute “ I think, Christian, this will be a more honourable by specific description and set terms; but if these assembly than you ever beheld, and a more happy prominent forms are to be distinguished at all

, if society than you were ever of before. Surely Brooke, typhus be distinct from synocha, spedalskhed from and Pim, and Hampden, and White, &c. are now struma, or hysteria from epilepsy, then surely members of a more knowing, unerring, well-ordered, hydrophobia is an affection different from tetanus. right-ayming, self-denying, unanimous, honourable tri- Such at least is the generally received and estaumphant senate, than this from whence they were taken blished opinion of the medical profession, with is, or ever Parliament will be. It is better to be door which the miscellaneous readers of " N. & Q." are keeper to that assembly, whither Twisse, &c. are trans. most concerned. The doubts and peculiar opinions lated, than to have continued here the Moderator of of individual medical men are best discussed among this. That is the true Parliamentum Beatum, the Blessed themselves, as in the case of any other profession ; Parliament; and that is the only church that cannot and the curious can always gain ample informerre."

ation on such subjects, orally or in print, from To hang a severe criticism on a few isolated professional sources. passages from a book, is unjust to its author. To prevent possible misconceptions, I may state


that the established practice of the medical proNorth Brixton.

fession in bydrophobia is the same as their duty I beg to thank your correspondent A. N. for his prescribes in all other diseases, viz., to endeavour notice of my Query with respect to Baxter; and suffering. In popular talk, with which they have

to find a cure, to lengthen life, and to diminish as to his question concerning the antiquity of sup- nothing to do, two ways of dealing with hydroposed miraculous hosts, I would refer him to the phobic patients are mentioned. One is to smother fourteenth chapter of the treatise by Paschasius them between two feather-beds; the other is to Radbertus " De Corpore et Sanguine Domini” give them their quietus with a dose of laudanum, (Martene et Durand, Vet. scriptt

. ampliss. Collect., I never knew or heard of either being done, and tom. ix. col. 433.; Paris, 1733). He may find as many extraordinary narratives connected with this sincerely hope they are fables ; at all events, no

respectable medical man would allow them to be subject as he can reasonably wish for, in the second volume of the Thesaurus Catholicus of Jo attempted, even with the sufferer's consent. Such docus Coccius ; lib. vi. De Eucharistia, Colon, it, even by suggestion, would be liable to a crimi

an act would be MURDER; and all concerned in 1620. So far as I am aware, the most extended nal prosecution. If such things have really ever account of any particular prodigy of this descrip- been done in this country, or in earnest suggested, tion is contained in the Thaumaturgus Eucharis- I hope the instances will be communicated to your ticus of Anastasius Vochetius, 8vo. Aug. Vind. 1637; my copy of which book belonged to the but it is hardly to be credited that we are so little

pages, authenticated with name, time, and place; College of the Jesuits at Brussels in 1653. The

removed from barbarism. "rubea carnis species ” is herein said to have subsisted in a host preserved in a church at Augsburg, medical profession which do not belong to then,

Many things are popularly attributed to the for more than four hundred years; and one of the and for which they are not responsible. Such, for verses of the sequence publicly chanted in its instance, as that it is the invariable rule to bleel honour was as follows:

after a fall or an accident, whereas this is very “ Ecce signum, Deo dignum,

seldom done. It would be beneficial to all parties, Signum clarum, signum rarum,

if the public would more frequently inquire of In Augusta claruit."

medical men what is the received opinion and R. G. practice of the profession on this or that point.

It will often be found to vary from what is cur. HYDROPIIOBIA.

rently believed to be the case. (Vol. v., p. 10.; Vol. vi., p. 110.)


28. Bryanstone Street. The

pages of “ N. & Q." are hardly suitable for discussing the question whether there be such a Smothering between Two Feather-beds. - A cordisease as hydrophobia or not. It is better fitted respondent of yours (Vol. v., p. 10.) makes inquiry for a medical journal. I never heard the doubt if it were the practice formerly to smother pastarted before, nor does it seem tenable, so nume- tients in decided cases of hydrophobia. I cannot

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