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with the philosophes, he declared open war against “ L'Ami des Etrangers qui voyagent en Angleterre. ' their principles, by the republication, under the Londres, 1787, 8vo. title of L'Appel au bon Sens, of a pamphlet which

“ Mémoires d'un Voyageur qui se he had previously (1769) published at Rome, en

5 vols, 12mo, 1806. titled Le Tocsin des Philosophes. This excited the The fifth volume of this last-mentioned work is ire of Voltaire, who, in a letter to M. de Chastel- entitled Dutensiana, and is quite distinct from the lux (7th Dec. 1772), acknowledging receipt of a other four. Although tolerably well acquainted copy of the treatise La Félicité publique, by the with the Ana, I must confess that in variety of latter, in which Dutens was spoken of in com- amusing and instructive anecdote I do not know mendatory terms, attacked him violently as any volume in this class of literature that much “ Un demi savant, très méchant homme, nommé excels it. In the preface, Dutens acknowledges Dutens, refugié à présent en Angleterre, qui'imprima, the authorship of the Correspondence interceptée, il y a cinq ans, un sot libelle atroce contre tous les published anonymously, some of the contents of philosophes, intitulé Le Tocsin. Le polisson prétend which are incorporated in the Mémoires d'un que les anciens avoient connu l'usage de la boussole, la Voyageur. The edition in two volumes 8vo. of gravitation, la route des comètes, l'aberration des étoiles, the latter work, to which W. alludes, was comla machine pneumatique, la chimie, &c."

mitted to the flames by the author, as containing This was not, however, the only occasion on

remarks and strictures upon living characters, which Voltaire, forgetful of the Leibnitz, and his which he was led to think might give offence, and

WILLIAM Bates. complimentary letters to its editor and donor, had would be better suppressed. manifested his wrath against M. Dutens. In the

Birmingham. Dictionnaire Philosophique (art. "Système") he went out of his way to attack him:

“ Un des plus grands détracteurs de nos dernier siècles a été un nommé Dutens.

(Vol. vi., p. 291.) Il a fini par faire un libelle aussi infâme qu'ivsipide, contre les philo- In the first part of Christian Monuments in sophes de nos jours. Ce libelle est intitulé Le Tocsin; England and Wales, by the Rev. Charles Boutell, mais il a beau sonner sa cloche, personne n'est venu à M.A., 1849, a work which I regret to say remains son secours, et il n'a fait que grossir le nombre des unfinished, there is a representation of a remarkZoiles, qui, ne pouvant rien produire, ont répandu leur able slab of this description, concerning which I venin sur ceux qui ont immortalise leur patrie, et servi shall quote the author's own words: le genre humain par leurs productions."

“ In the nave of the church at Burwash in Sussex, Dutens was also attacked by Condorcet and there lies a monumental slab of very singular character, others. Upon the publication of the edition of apparently of the latter end of the fourteenth century. Voltaire edited by the latter and Beaumarchais,

The material of which this memorial is conDutens thought it due to himself, as an antidote structed is cast iron. It is a large slab, or rather plate, to the subsequent injuries, to transmit the two measuring in length five feet five inches and a half, by earlier letters he had received from Voltaire; but eighteen inches and three quarters at the head, and the prejudice and injustice of the learned editors eighteen inches and a quarter at the foot ; and it bears prevented their insertion.

in relief a small cross with a legend at its base, in these Dutens was also the author of the following so far as I am aware, this is the only monument of this

words :

P(RO). ANNEMA , JHONE . COLINS.' works :

kind known to be in existence.” “ Traité des Pierres précieuses, et des Pierres fines," Londres, 8vo. : Paris, 16mo.

In a foot-note: “ Explication de quelques Médailles grecques et " It appears that a family named Collins carried on phéniciennes, avec un Alphabet phénicien, et the iron trade in a parish adjoining Burwash, in the Paléographie numismatique.” Londres et Paris, 1776. sixteenth century; and their predecessors were pro

“Euvres mêlées, contenant : l'Appel au bon Sens; bably iron masters, and had some connexion with la Logique ; Lettres sur un Automate qui joue aux Burwash itsell, at the date of the monument. The Echecs, &c." Génève et Paris.

Rev. C. R. Manning, in his List of Brasses, mentions “ Itinéraire des Routes les plus fréquentées de an iron monumental plate at Crowhurst in Surry, the l'Europe, &c." Paris.

date of which is A.D, 1591. Upon this plate there is « ΛΟΓΓΟΥ ΠΟΙΜΕΝΙΚΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΚΑΤΑ ΛΑΦΝΙΝ ΚΑΙ a representation of a shrouded figure.” *XAOHN, BIB. E. recensuit Ludovicus Dutens," Paris,

I may add, that in the churchyard at Broseley, 1776, 12mo.

Manuel d'Epictète, avec un Préface.” Paris, 1776, Salop, there are cast-iron slabs : but these are of 24mo.

W. J. BERNHARD SMITH. “ De l'Eglise, du Pape, de quelques points de Con. Temple. troverse; et des Moyens de Réunion entre toutes les Églises chrétiennes.” Génève, 1781.

modern date.

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year 1649 :

(Vol. vi., p. 340.)

(Vol. vi., pp. 135. 423.) A. A. D. makes inquiry about an epitaph of a about the phrase " I am put to know," may be satis

The doubt your correspondent C. expresses rather curious character liaving a local habitation; which Query I cannot solve, but can give him a few factorily answered from the pages of the poet

, who I think, equally remarkable, whose genuine locai uses similar phraseology in other places. It evihabitations I can vouch for. The two following I dently, signifies “ I am obliged or constrained to have just copied within Ashburton Church, Devon

know." Thus in Cymbeline, Act II. Sc. 3.: shire; and the third had an existence there also

“I am much sorry, Sir, about thirty years ago, since which time, it being

You put me to forget a lady's manners, engraved on slate, it has become almost obliter

By being so verbal.” ated, in consequence of the water finding its way

So in Coriolanus, Act III. Sc. 2. : within the crevices of the stone, becoming frozen “ You have put me now to such a part, which neva in the winter months, and consequently enlarged I shall discharge to the life." in volume, which has caused the slate to desqua

And in 2 King Henry VI., Act III. Sc. 1.: mate in large scales. 1. On Thomas Harris, tanner, who died Sep

“ And, had I first been put to speak my mind, tember 30th, 1637 :

I think I should have told your Grace's tale." « Fear not to die;

I was much pleased to see the Query respecting Learn this of me,

the passage in As You Like It, Act III. Sc. 5., reNo ills in death,

specting the words “ all at once.' It was one of If good thou be.”

the passages I had marked as requiring attention 2. On Thomas and George Cruse, brothers, who I agree with your correspondent in thinking it, as died in the

it stands, “not merely surplusage, but nonsense." “ Within this space two brothers heere confin'd,

It is somewhat singular that it should hitherto Though by death parted, yet by death close join'd: escaped the attention of the two acute and able

have passed unquestioned, and that it should have The eldest of these two, plac'd in his tomb, Greeted the younger with a welcome home.

correspondents who discussed the passage for other They liv'd, they lov’d, and now rest in tomb,

purposes. Together sleeping in their inother's womb."

I now feel assured that it is to be placed in the The third, which is still fresh in the recollection

numerous list of printer's errors, and is not with

out a remedy, and that not so forced and improof the sexton, ran thus (I should have said that a

bable as the substitution of à l'outrecuidance, propart

of the stone (slate) still exists, imbedded in posed by Mr. Forbes. The printer, misled prothe wall, just outside the chancel door):

bably by a blurred or illegible manuscript, has “ Elizabeth Ireland, died in 1779.

substituted the word_all for rail, and we should “ Here I lie, at the chancel door;

undoubtedly read, Here I lie because I'm poor.

“ And why, I pray you ? who might be your mother? The farther in, the more you pay.

That you insult, exult, and rail, at once
Here lie I as warm as they."

Over the wretched ?”
The two following, I am credibly informed, are Should any exception be taken to the phrase
to be seen in the undermentioned churchyards, or, “rail over the wretched," I answer that the poet
I should have said, did exist there a few years

uses to rail on and to rail upon in other places. since.

The printer does not seem to have been more Portsea Cemetery:

vigilant here than elsewhere; for just above, in

Phæbe's speech, he has given us capable instead of “ What was she?

palpable. I read:
What every good woman ought to be,
That was she."

“ Lean but upon a rush,

The cicatrice and palpable impressure Stepney Churchyard :

Thy palın some moment keeps;" “My wife she's dead, and here she lies ;

not being content with the attempts of Johnson There's nobody laughs and nobody cries; and Malone to make sense of " capable impresWhere she's gone, and how she fares,

sure," or with Mr. Knight's gloss which interprets Nobody knows, and nobody cares."

it able to receive ! In worse taste, I fear, than the one forwarded by

Mickleham, A. A. D.

H. H.

As I started the doubt which MR. C. Forbes of the Temple has attempted to clear

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permitted to say that his proposition does not at | inquiring for an explanation of the word Dariall satisfy me.

C. dianus," as well as in seeking for “ any note of the

erection of a church, which would certainly seem to date from the first century." The inscription

observed by A. B. R. in the Church of Bavenno (Vol. vi., p. 391.)

says nothing about that or any other church; it When old London Bridge was standing, there merely informs us that Trophímus Daridianus, a was, very near to the southern extremity, and on

slave of the Emperor Claudius's, dedicated the this sign. Perhaps an inquiry into the history of blunder for Dardanianus, a name which is reguthe western side of the street

, a tavern displaying inscription to Memoria and Tarpeia.

As to Daridianus, I suspect it to be a mason's that bouse may give L. B. some information. I never heard that it had any reference to the Re- larly formed from Dardanius, though I am not storation. The sign merely represented a man

aware that it is to be found in books. falling intoxicated from his chair.

In the latter part of the inscription a proper

It is to be ob. served that the lines quoted from Butler, though

name seems to have been obliterated by time after by no means respectful to Richard Cromwell, do Memoriæ, and perhaps, if this Note comes to the not connect the epithet “Tumble-down" with his knowledge of A. B. R., he may tell us something

F. S. Q.

of the state of preservation in which he found the

inscription : : but, whether it be perfect or not, he Your correspondent L. B. asks if any other may rest assured (unless he can produce further signs called “Tumble-down Dick” are known. evidence) that Trophimus had no more to do with I am familiar with one in Norfolk, at Woodton, on founding the church at Bavenno than M. Ulpius the high road between Norwich and Bungay, Cerdo, Lucretius Lucretianus, and others, who about five miles from the latter place, and I have set up ancient inscriptions now preserved in the heard it spoken of as a memorial of the overthrow British Museum, had to do with erecting that of Richard Cromwell. A few years ago the sign great national building.

L. was repainted ; but with the old design, a very red

P.S. - I subjoin two inscriptions, which I copied waistcoated John Bull, bottle and glass in hand,

some years ago at the British Museum ; the first toppling off his chair, in a fashion indicative of as

on account of its form ; the second, to show that gross a violation of the law of gravitation, as the blunders are not uncommon in ancient inscripact was intended to express respecting the rules of tions : sobriety. In this region, where Puritanism and Nonconformity were deeply rooted, the antagonist spirit was correspondingly strong. The celebration of the 29th of May, in a very High Church

PATPONAE . PIENTISSIMAE." manner, has not been discontinued above a single generation; and the children still observe it, by * bumping," with right rustic good-will, their companions who are unadorned with oak-leaves,

PATER. B. M. F." with the same gusto and ignorance that the 5th of November was kept withal, till the recent movement of Pius IX. revived the ancient spirit. I once saw the children attending an Independent Sunday School, keeping the day in this fashion;

(Vol. vi., p. 142.) and on inquiring, discovered that they had the

The variations noticed by MR. COLLIER between custom from their elders, but what they were cele- his copy of the folio edition of 1632 and other brating they did not at all know; nor did a boy copies of the same edition (proving that correcfrom the Church School, who was joining in the tions were made of the text whilst the edition was sport. This illustrates the existence of the temper actually in the press), reminds me of a similar inwhich would set up a “ Tumble-down Dick" over a tippling house, and would retain the sign thus stance, pointed out to me by Mr. Henry Foss in

his “thro' age after age revolving."

copy of the edition of 1623. The passage B. B. WOODWARD. the Duke says,

occurs in Twelfth Night, Act V. Sc. 1., in which

“O thou dissembling cub! what wilt thou be,

When time hath sow'd a grizzle on thy case?”.

This is the reading of many (how many?) copies (Vol. vi., p. 359.)

of the first folio edition, and has been received I am afraid your correspondent A. B. R. is without suspicion by every modern editor, includputting himself and others to useless trouble in ing MR. KNIGHT and Mr. COLLIER himself, who








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explain case by skin or exterior. The latter notes, | dearer in price, and certainly not more sensitive “ The skin of a fox, or of a rabbit, is called its | than that produced according to the form given in case." The expression, to say the least, is incor- ' your former Number of “N. & Q." (vide p. 277.) rect and forced; but in Mr. Foss's copy, we are I

may here observe that I find the sensitive quaat once led to the true and obvious rendering, for lities of the collodion may, to a great extent, be the text stands thus :

tested without the use of the camera, by looking “ Du. O thou dissembling cub! what wilt thou be,

through the film of collodion on the glass, after When tiine hath sow'd a grizzle on thy cafe ? "

immersion in the nitrate of silver bath, when, if Proving, beyond doubt, that the word in question good, it will be found to be of a bright orange should be face ; but by transposition of the letters through it, the appearance should be a bluish,

| colour, although, looking upon the surface and not became cafe, and was then altered into case. May not this easy confusion of s and f throw light upon

If the collodion is opal-like, semi-opaque tint.

over iodized, it is more opaque, and is apt to flak some other passages, hitherto unsuspected ?

off in small films in the bath, leaving uneven sur F. MADDEN.

faces, and consequent destruction to the picture. I send you an account of a first folio which is The sensitiveness is not increased by carrying the in my possession. It is unfortunately an imper- iodization beyond a certain point.

H. W. D. fect copy, and I should be exceedingly obliged to

Mr. Crookes' War-Paper Process. — There is a you

put me in the

way of perfecting it. I am afraid separate leaves of the first folió slight typographical error in the description of my are difficult to meet with ; but should

wax-paper process, page 443., line 7 from bottom, where any are to be found, perhaps you would where; ". with the addition of as much free iodide inform me. I presume it would be impossible to the addition of as much free iodine as will give it

as will give it a sherry colour," should be, “with procure the title with portrait. I must content myself with a fac-simile.

a sherry colour.”

I should feel obliged by your causing this to be Folio 1623.

corrected, as it is one of the most important points Dimensions.—13} inches by 9.

in the whole process, but, as now worded, might Missing. — Title with portrait ; leaf opposite to title, lead those who are devoting much valuable time to containing verses ; pages 29 to 38, inclusive ; pages this pleasing and important study astray, 389 to 399, inclusive.

WILLIAN CROOKES. Variations from the Collation in Lowndes. Comedies. - Page 237, misprinted 233.

Ross' Lenses. — We have received from H. W., Histories.- Page 37, not misprinted.

a gentleman whose acquirements entitle him to Tragedics.—Page (78), commencement of Troilus speak with authority on a point of science, a letand Cressida, not marked.

ter, praising in the highest terms the lenses inade RICHARD C. Heath. for photographic purposes by Ross of Feather

stone Buildings, Holborn ; and no doubt most deservedly. We do not insert the letter for three

reasons: 1. Because it would have an appearance PHOTOGRAPHIC NOTES AND QUERIES.

which the writer never intended, namely, to puff (Vol. vi., pp. 421. 442.)

a man of science ; 2. Because it contains no new To copy Collodion Negatives on Collodion posi- facts; and 3. Because we fear the closing paragraph tively. Paste two strips of letter paper on the would tend to discourage the practice of an art collodioned side of the negative proof; superimpose which we agree with H. W. in considering “one this on a prepared glass plate, and expose it to the of the most delightful occupations it is possible influence of light, either natural or artificial, to conceive, for an artist or a man of leisure.” during half a second or a second, and develope in the usual manner. If required only for magic

Replies to Minor Queries. lanthorn slides, it is advisable to substitute for the hypo. a solution of common salt, 1 drachm to the

Coins pluced in Foundations (Vol. vi., p. 270.). ounce of water; this leaves the transparent portions The following passage shows this practice to have opalescent, and produces a better effect than prevailed as early as 1658, though it may probably ground glass.

J. B. Hockin.

be traced to an earlier date :

But the ancient custome of placing coyns in conFrench Collodion. — Seeing in your Notices to siderable urns, and the present practice of burying Correspondents last week a reference to the new medals in the noble foundations of Europe, are laud. French collodion, and having tried two bottles able ways of historical discoveries in actions, persois, from different vendors, I venture to assure your chronologies; and posterity will applaud then." inquirer that it possesses no advantages whatever Browne's Hydriotaphia, ch, iv, over the ordinary English-made collodion. It is


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Lady Day in Harvest (Vol. vi., p. 399. &c.). - sing again.' In Queen Elizabeth's injunctions it is The following extracts from Wilkins's Concilia ordered that the sacramental bread shall be of the may, perhaps, be of some use to MR. EDWARDS in same fineness and fashion, though somewhat bigger in determining the day meant by this phrase. In

compass and thickness, as the usual bread and water vol. iii. p. 823. he will find "A copy of the act

heretofore named singing-cakes, which served for the made for the abrogation of certain holydays, ac

use of the private mass.' It was made into small cording to the transumpt lately sent by the king's round cakes, impressed with the cross.” — Page 239. highness to all bishops,” &c., A.D. 1536, which re- Davies, in his Monuments, &c. of the Church of ceived the assent of Convocation, and in which it Durham, 1593, speaks of an almery near one of is said:

the nine altars in that cathedral, “ Also that all those feests or day holydays which “ Wherein singing-bread and wine were usually placed, shall happen to occurre eyther in the harvest time, at which the Sacristan caused his servant or scholar which is to be compted from the fyrst day of July unto daily thereat to deliver singing-bread and wine to the 29 day of Septembre, or elles in the terme time at those who assisted in the celebration of mass,” Westmynster, shall not be kepte or observed from In Strype's Life of Archbishop Parker is given a henceforth as holydayes, but that it may be lawful for

certificate from the Cathedral of Canterbury conevery man to go to his work or occupacyon upon the same as upon

any other workyeday, excepte alwayes cerning the conformity to the rites and ceremonies the feests of the apostles, of our blessed Lady, and of of the church, in which it is stated (inter alia): saynt George,” &c.

For the ministering of the Communion we use Also at page 827. there is an “ordinatio in synodo

bread appointed by the Queen's Injunctions." provinciali, die 19 Julii, anni 1536, edita," wherein A marginal note, referring to the word “bread," it is said,

repeats what has been quoted, viz. that it was to “ Item, quod a festo nativitatis S. Johan. Bapt. usque

resemble the singing-cakes formerly used in prifestum S. Michaelis archangeli nulli dies sanctorum in

vate masses.

J. H. M. posterum celebrabuntur pro festivis aut feriatis, nisi dies apostolorum, Assumptionis, et Nativitatis B.

Profane Swearing by the English (Vol. iv., Mariæ."

p. 37.; Vol. vi., p. 299.).—Long before “ the mass

went down,” our countrymen appear to have been In these passages we have the legal definition of as much addicted to this profane swearing as in harvest time, viz. from July 1st (the octave of St. times of a more recent date. Of this the trial of John the Baptist) to September 29th (St. Mi- Joan of Arc (ann. 1429) affords us a distinct chael's Day), and also two Lady Days, mentioned proof. One of the witnesses, Colette, being asked within that period. The question, therefore, is who “Godon" was, made answer that the term reduced to the selection of one of these two. was a nickname generally applied to the English

F. A. on account of their continual use of the exclama

tion “G-d d-n it,” and not the designation of Quotations in Locke wanted (Vol. vi., p. 386.). Probably the last of these quotations, supposed to

any particular individual. I derive this fact from be taken from Tertullian, is this, which is thus

Sharon Turner's Hist. Middle Ages, 8vo. edit.
vol. ii. P.

W. B. M. quoted by Wilberforce in his Doctrine of the In

Dee Side. carnation, ch. v. p. 114. 3rd edition: « Crucifixus est Dei filius: non pudet, quia pu

Raspberry Plants from Seed found in the Stodendum est; et mortuus est Dei filius : prorsus cre- mach of an Ancient Briton (Vol. vi., p. 222.). dibile est, quia ineptum est : et sepultus resurrexit : Some time ago I put a Query to your readers on certum est, quia impossibile est." Tertull. de Carne the subject of the vitality of mummy wheat, which Christi, sec. v.

had been pronounced by Professor Henslowe to be F. A.

Your correspondent CeridWEN apSinging Bread (Vol. vi., p. 389.). - Amongst

pears, according to the same learned gentleman, the effects belonging to Sir John Fastolfe, one of

to share in another popular delusion; he is rethe heroes of Agincourt (of which an inventory is

ported to have remarked to the British Association given in the Archeologia, vol. xxi. p. 238.), will be

(1852) that found in the chapel, “ One box for syngyng

brede “ The instances of plants growing from seeds found in weyng 4 oz.” To this item the following note is

mummies were all erroneous.

So also was the case, attached by the late Mr. Amyot :

related by Dr. Lindley, of a raspberry-bush growing

from seed found in the inside of a man buried in an * • Pain à chanter,' i.e. the host or unleavened ancient barrow." bread, consecrated by the priest singing. In Caxton's

H. W.G. Doctrinal of Sapyence, there is a direction to the priest, • that if in the host be any form of flesh, or other form Since communicating on the above subject, than bread, he might not to use that host, but ought to have been reading the Atheneum, and find by

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