« PreviousContinue »
The legend of the Aspen-tree (Populus tremula) be seen the shape and forme of a Crosse, with a man fasis thus beautifully told by Mrs. Hemans :
tened thereto. Myselfe have seene the fruit and cut it “ Father. Hast thou heard, my boy,
in pieces, which was brought me from Aleppo in pickle.
The Crosse I might perceive as the forme of a Spred Egle The peasant's legend of that quivering tree?
in the root of Ferne ; but the man I leave to be sought Child. No, father: doth he say the fairies dance
by those who have better eies and judgment than Amidst the branches?
myselfe... The Grecians and Christians who inhabit Father. Oh! a cause more deep,
Syria, and the Jews also, suppose it to be that tree of More solemn far the rustic doth assign
whose fruit Adam did taste.” To the strange restlessness of those wan leaves. The Cross, he deems, the blessed Cross, whereon In a work by a bright star of the dreary The meek Redeemer bow'd His head to death, eighteenth century, Jones of Nayland, entitled Was form'd of aspen wood : and since that hour Reflections on the Growth of Heathenism among Through all its race the pale tree bath sent down modern Christians, the following passage occurs : A thrilling consciousness, a secret awe Making them trenulous, when not a breeze
“ Botany, which in ancient times was full of te
blessed Virgin Mary, and bad many religious me Disturbs the airy thistle-down, or shakes
morials affixed to it, is now as full of the heat ben The light lines of the shining gossamer." Wood Walk and Hymn.
Venus, the Mary of our modern virtuosi. Amongst
the ancient names of plants, we found the Calceolas Lightfoot ascribes this legend to the Highlanders Marie, Carduus Mariæ, Carduus benedictus, Our Lady's of Scotland. Another legend runs thus :
Thistle, Our Lady's Mantle, the Alchymilla, &c. ; but “At that awful hour of the Passion, when the Sa
modern improvements have introduced the Speculum viour of the world felt deserted in His agony, when
Veneris, Labrum Veneris, Venus's Looking-Glass,
Venus's Basin, Venus's Navelwort, Venus's Flytrap, • The sympathising sun his light withdrew, and such like; and whereas the ancient botanists took And wonder'd how the stars their dying Lord could a pleasure in honouring the memory of the Christian view'.
saints with the St. John's Wort, St. Peter's Wort, Herb when earth, shaken with horror, rung the passing bell
Gerard, Herb Christopher, and many others, the for Deity, and universal nature groaned; then from modern ones, more affected to their own bonour, bave the loftiest tree to the lowliest power all felt a sudden dedicated several newly discovered genera of plants to thrill, and trembling, bowed their heads, all save the one another, of which the Hottonia, the Sibthorpia, are proud and obdurate aspen, which said, “Why should instances, with others, so numerous and familiar to men we weep and tremble ? we trees, and plants, and flowers of science, that they need not be specified." are pure and never sinned !! Ere it ceased to speak, Sir Thos. Browne, in one of his Dialogues, makes an involuntary trembling seized its every leaf, and the the Puritan Prynne say, word went forth that it should never rest, but tremble on until the day of judgment.”
“ In our zeal we visited the gardens and apothecaries
shops. So Unguentum Apostolicum was commanded to With regard to the Passion Flower, I need but take a new naine, and besides, to find security for its refer to Mrs. Hemans' lines in the poem above good behaviour for the future. Carduus benedictus, quoted. The legend of the Arum maculatum is Angelica, St. John's Wort, and Our Lady's Thiste. similar to that of the Robin Redbreast :
were summoned before a class and forth with ordered to “ These deep inwrought marks
distinguish themselves by more sanctified appellations The villager will tell thee (and with voice
Quoted in Southey's Colloquies, i. p. 373., and in Lower'd in his true heart's reverent earnestness)
Teale's Life of William Jones, p. 367. Are the flower's portion from the atoning blood,
“ Ah! what ravages Botany has made in the poest On Calvary shed. Beneath the Cross it grew,
of flowers! Truly there was exquisite beauty in mars And in the vase-like hollow of the leaf,
of our old-fashioned country appellations. How many A few mysterious drops transmitted thus
a tale of rustic love yet lives in some of their name! Unto the groves and hills their sealing stains
Who can doubt whence arose such * as Sweet Willis, A heritage for storm or vernal wind
Mary-gold, Herb Robert, None-so-pretty, Goldilocks, of Never to waft away." — Wood Walk and Hymn.
Timothy-grass? And by the very name were village
maidens warned against Love-in-idleness and London The beautiful shrub, Cereis silignastrum, or Pride ; and long delicious walks in the deep summer Arbor Juda,
“ Is thought to be that whereon Judas hanged him- * As I have quoted this pretty passage of Warden selfe, and not upon the elder-tree as it is vulgarly | Neale's, I must correct a little error he has fallen into. said." Gerarde's Herbal (by Johnson): Lond. 1633, Some of the plants here mentioned are boly or corsefolio.
crated: the Dianthus barbatus is sacred to St. William
of York, June 8; the Geranium, or Cranesbill, to St. Of Adam's Apple-tree, or West Indian plantain
Robert the Benedictine; the Phleum pratense to St. (Musa serapionis), the same writer says:
Timothy, January 24; and the Anthyllis rulnerana, a “ If it (the fruit) be cut according to the length, Mayflower, was anciently called Our Ladie's oblique, tra curse, or any other way whatsoever, may Fingers."
twilights, and lingerings before the old grey cottage, as well as the Asplenium trichomanes) was anand partings at the wicket — they all live in one little ciently called “Our Ladye's Haire,” and by the plant, Kiss-me-at-the-garden-gate! Some extravagant French to the present day, Cheveur de Notre lover, I suppose, invented the name of Ladies' Finger.
Dame. The Asplenium trichomanes is also styled The Forget-me-not is so called in every Christian tongue. “ St. Martina's Fern." In village botany, too, lingers many a quaint and lovely
Mr. Newman expresses his doubts as to the superstition ; look, for example, at the Fox-glove, that
woodcut given in Gerarde's Herbal for the True is, Folks'-glore or Fairies'-glove. Wbat needed the vil. lager to lament his poverty, when his meadows gave marked that Gerarde and Johnson describe an
Maiden-hair Fern, but seems not to have rehim Money-wort, and Shepherd's-purse flowered in the waysides? Why needed he to envy the skill of the entirely different plant, being ignorant of the true physician, when for his sight he had Eye-bright, for his Adiantum : hurts he had Wound-wort, for ointment Ploughman's. “ Chap. 473. Of true Maiden-haire .... Venusspikenard, for sprains Chafe-weed, against infection Pes- haire, or Maiden-haire, is a low herb growing an hand tilent-wort, in the burning summer Fever-few, in the bigh, smooth, of a darke crimson colour, and glittering unhealthy autumn Spleenwort ; if hurt by poison Adder- withall,” &c. “ It is called Adianton, because the wort, for condiments Poor-man's-pepper, finally, against leafe, as Theophrastus saith, is never wet, for it casteth all possible accidents All-heal? Merrily might the off water that falleth thereon, or being drowned or cotraveller wend on his way when there was the little vered in water, it remaineth still as if it were dry, as Speedwell to cheer him, Waybread to support him, Gold- | Pliny likewise writeth : and is termed Callitricon and of-pleasure to enrich bim, Travellers'-joy to welcome
Polytricon, of the effect it hath in dying haire and him; when, though Dent-de-lion and Wolf's-claw might maketh it to grow thicke." meet his eye, he would find no further trace of those
But for this I should have supposed the epithets evil beasts. Animals, too, have left their names; so
“ Beautiful-haired we have Snake-weed, and from its sweetness Or-lips or
and “Many-haired” to have Cows -lips; and how pretty are the names Day's-eye
been given from the appearance of this lovely and Night-shade! Sage men, too, have given such
fern. In the same way one would suppose that titles as Honesty and Thrift, and Heart's-ease, and the fern Polypody was so styled from the numerous Loose-strife; and even in this cold age we have St. roots, or segments of the fronds; but Gerarde tells John's Wort, St. Peter's Wort, St. Burnaby's Thistle, ay, and best of all, Everlasting !
“ The Grecians call it lourodov, of the holes of the “ Palæophilus. Yes, our boasted wisdom has fallen fishes Polypi appearing in the roots.” very short here in the unpronounceable and hideous names which we fasten on our delicate plants.” - In my next note I shall probably give a list of the Hierologus, p. 171.: Lond. 1846.
ecclesiastical names of plants, with the botanical Another instance of what Jones of Nayland re
appellations, and a selection of the rustic pet marks, is afforded by the Capillus Veneris", which names, if I may so call
them. I shall but add a Query at present. A little
work called The Catholic Florist, edited by the * « Aliud Adianto miraculum : æstate viret, bruma Rev. F. Oakley, appeared last year. In the non marescit : aquas respuit, perfusam mersumve sicco preface the editor speaks of " its excellent predesimile est: tanta dissociatio deprehenditur: unde et no- cessors in the same line of authorship :” will some men a Græcis: alioqui frutici topiario. Quidam Callitri- kind correspondent favour me with a list, which chon vocant, alii Polytrichon utrumque ab effectu. would be much more satisfactory than this bare Tinguit enim capillum : et ad hoc decoquitur in vino mention of the fact? The chief value of the book cum semine apii, adjecto oleo copiose, ut crispum den lies in the copious quotations given from two sumque faciat : defluere autem prohibet.” - Pliny, works, the titles of which are not in a single inlib. xxii. c. 30. ': This Maiden-hair (the chief of the five capillary realis ei Australis, and the Florilegium Sanct. Asp.
stance given at full length: the Anthologia Boherbs mentioned in the Dispensatory) is brought to us
I should be very glad to know something about from the southern parts of France, though it is said to grow plentifully in the county of Cornwall. This, this Anthology and the Aspirations, and if possible being the true Capillus Veneris, is what ought to be procure copies of them; and would express a hope used in making the syrup of Maiden-hair, and every
that if this work reach a second edition, references where else when the true is prescribed. But for want may be appended to the numerous quotations reof it, it not being to be had in any quantity, we gene- | quiring them.
EIRIONNACH. rally use the Trichomanes.” — Miller's Herbal, p. 14.: London, 1722, 8vo.
Mr. Newman mentions St. Ives and Carclew among the Cornish habitats of this fern.
WALWORTH. Gerarde's derivation of Polypody is taken from Pliny. Miller says, « The root is slender, and full of small The accompanying document, as suggestive of knots, which appear like the feet of an insect, whence it more than a single Note, may be not without in takes the name of Polypodium.”
terest to the readers of " N. & Q.":
WILLIAM OF WYKEHAM AND SIR WILLIAM
" As interments and mont
Sir Jolin de Cobeham obtained letters-patent, the Rev. C. Badham of Sudbury, Suffolk, who 10th February, 4 Richard II. (1380-1), “quod stated that he had read my Notices of Sepulchral ipse mansum manerii sui de Cowlyng in Comitatu Monuments and Churchyard Manual with much Kancie muro de petra et calce fortificare firmare pleasure, and had mentioned the former in his et kernellare, &c., possit.” I have numerous re- (forthcoming) book on All Saints' Church, Sudceipts from masons, carpenters, plumbers, &c., for bury, to which he then invited me to subscribe. work done at Cowling Castle for Sir John de Consequently I became a subscriber, and last Cobeham, ranging from 1374 to 1385. Although Saturday received a copy of his work, accomthe following charter bears date a few years earlier panied by a circular, calling on the generosity of than the letters-patent, does it not suggest that the the subscribers to increase their subscriptions. I debt to William of Wykeham was contracted by make no comment on this always unsatisfactory Sir John de Cobebam, for plans and architectural procedure, but pass on to the subject of my indesigns for his proposed works at Cowling, and quiry. On looking over Mr. Badham's work, I furnish a not improbable guess that we may add found at pages 44. 59—62., long extracts from my Cowling to the other works of this great bishop? book on sepulchral monuments appearing as bis Queenborough Castle, situated at no great distance own writing, without the slightest acknowledig. from Cowling, was certainly the work of Wyke- ment of the source from which he had derived his ham. At all events, here is a hint that may be information and observations. Occasionally sligh worked out by abler hands than mine.
changes have been made ; but I ask whether, in Walworth, it appears, was the bishop's agent such as the following instances, I am not justified I am not aware whether any other instance of his in complaining of plagiarism ? signet is known. It is rather less than half an inch
Kelke's Sepulchral Monuments. Badhan's History of All Saints. in diameter-apparently a signet ring—the device beautifully cut; a cock crowing, with the legend,
“ Additional space was soon “Ter gallus cantat (cantet ?).
required as interments multi. men's multiplied, and became St. Peter was, I believe, the patron saint of the plicu, or persons of rank desired inconvenient from the siace
separate burial-places for their they occupied, additional twom Fishmongers’ Company, of which Walworth was a family. To meet such cases, was soon required. member; hence, perhaps, he was induced to adopt added to churches, and exclu- chapels were added to churches,
distinct aisles and chapels were such cases, distinct aisles and this device; but some of your correspondents, sively devoted to this purpose, and exclusively devoted to this better acquainted with Walworth's history, may
and were oftentimes endowed purpose ; oftentimes, as we have
with an annual stipend in per. had occasion to notice, with an supply a more satisfactory suggestion.
petuity, or for a limited period, additional stipend in perpetuity,
to ensure the daily services of a or for a limited period, to ensure “Sachent touz gents moi Willm Walworth scite- priest, to chant requiems for the services of a priest, to chant sein & marchaund de Loundres auoir resseu en le in.” – Page 4.
the souls of those buried there. requiems for the souls of those
buried therein." - Page 44. noū de hono'able Piere en dieux Euesq. de Wyn
“ This destruction of sepul- “This destruction of sepul. cestre, de mons. John de Cobeham Chir. dil Counte chral monuments, which was chral monuments, unsanctioned de Kent, Cent marcs desterling en ptic de paiement principles of the Reformation, moters of the Reformation, was
neither in accordance with the as it was by the leading proe de deux Cent marcs en les quex la’untdit mons. nor sanctioned by its leading effectually arrested in the second John est obliges a hono'able Piere en dieux Euesq. Pested in the second year of proclamation commanding the
year of Queen Elizabeth, by a de Wyncest susdite, come une l're obligat' oue les Elizabeth's reign, by a proclam. severe punishment or such of diffesaunces sur icelle, fet plus pleyn mensioū.
ation commanding the severe
Weever gives a tran.
punishment of such offences. script of the proclamation. Du. Des qeux Cent marcs, en ptie de paiement, come (Weever gives a transcript of ring the ascendancy of the Puria'unt est dit me reconusse estre paietz et moi a'unt
the proclamation.). During the tans at the Rebellion, the harde
Puritanical ascendancy at the was extensive, and unrestrained dit Willm come ato'ne la’untdit hono’able Piere Rebcilion, the havoc ainong se- by the authorities of the line Euesq. susdite me conuz p icestis p'sentes de ac
pulchral inonuments was more - Page 60.
extensive, and sanctioned, or at quiter la’untdit mons. Jolin dil paiement de les Cent least not restrained, by the aum'rcs susditz. En tesmoign' de qele chose a ceste
thorities of the time." Pages
41, 42 lre acq’tance moi a'untdit Willm Walworth ay mys mon seal.
Instances of passages wliich have been copied " Don'a Loundres, le sezime io' de moys de without the slightest variation might be adduced ; Julii, Lan du regne le Roy Edward tierce puis but suflicient has been shown to prove that an act conq' quarante oytisme.” LAMBERT B. Larking. of plagiarism has been committed. Mr. Badham
gives me credit, indeed, for two short sentences
which occur in pages 61. and 62.; but he simply PLAGIARISM.
mentions my name, without reference to the book
from which he quotes; and though the passages Some remarks on this topic have already ap- before and after these two sentences are from my red in “X. & Q.," and I shall be glad of the pen, they appear as the copyist's own.
He has on of more experienced authors than myself also adopted my quotations from Keble, Scott, following case.
Petit, Mrs. Tindal, Weever, Roger's Ecclesiastical at three months ago I received a note from Laws, and Prideaux. That he has copied my
quotation from Weever, although he refers to the that He will, after my death, convince the world that original, is evident, by the quotation beginning I have never merited any of the terrible accusations by and ending precisely as mine, and containing the which my cowardly enemies have sought to blacken same mistakes, in copying Weever's obsolete my character, tarnish my reputation, and trample under spelling
foot my royal dignity. Sire, believe your dying sister, I have two cogent reasons for bringing this
a queen, and, what is still more, a Christian, who with
fear and horror would turn her eyes towards the next subject before the readers of “ N. & Q." In the first place, it appears exceedingly desir- sured I die with pleasure, for the wretched regard death
world if her last confession were a falsehood. Be as. able to cultivate a more generous spirit among
as a blessing. But what is more painful to me even those who are engaged in the same field of litera
than the agonies of death, is that none of the persons ture. Nothing, in my opinion, is lost in the long whom I love are near my death-bed to give me a last run by a candid and generous reference, not only adieu, to console me by a look of compassion, and to to the author's name, but to his specific work, close my eyes. Nevertheless, I ain not alone. God, from which the writer is quoting or deriving value the only witness of my innocence, sees me at this moable assistance; and, if extracts from documents ment, when, lying on my solitary couch, I am a prey or other authors are copied second-hand, reference to the most excruciating agonies. My guardian angel to the originals should be given as cited in such a watches over me: he will soon conduct me where I work.
may in quiet pray for my well-heloved, and eren for my In the next place, I wish to inquire whether executioner. Adieu, my royal brother; may Heaven there is any incans of restraining plagiarism, be
load you with its blessings, as well as my husband, my yond the mere censure of reviewers, who fre- children, England, Denmark, and the whole world! Í quently fail to detect the oflender.
supplicate you to allow my body to be laid in the tomb W. Hastings KELKE. of my ancestors; and now receive the last adieu of
your unfortunate sister.
CAROLINE Matilda. •• Celle (Hanover), May 10, 1775.'”
PHILIP S. Kixg.
THE SISTER OF GEORGE III.
Adopting the suggestion of J. Md., as to “waifs and strays" which are occasionally found in the
CAMPBELL'S IMITATIONS. seat of newspaper print (Vol. vi., p. 385.), I send you the following interesting cutting from The
The adoption, whether unconscious or intenTimes of
uary 27, 1852, which I ihink ought tional, of other men's thoughts and modes of exto be transferred to the pages of “ N. & Q.":
pression, continues to receive much varied illus
tration in the pages of "N. & Q.” Instances of “ The Sister of George III.— The official journal of it, under the heads of “plagiarisms," " parallel Copenhagen of the 17th instant gives an interesting
passages," " borrowed thoughts,".“ poetical coindocument, hitherto unpublished, the original of which is in the secret archives of the State of Copenhagen. It been adduced and commented upon by your cor
cidences," "similarities,” “imitations," &c., have is the letter which Queen Caroline Matilda, wife of Christian VII., King of Denmark, wrote during her respondents. The following are a few samples
from the poet Campbell, which I do not remember exile, and on the day of her death, to her brother,
to have seen noticed elsewhere. George 111. of England. The letter is as follows:
The first is a line in the Pleasures of Hope :
a « • Sire, - In the solemn hour of death I address my. self to you, my royal brother, in order to manifest to “ And Freedom shriek'd as Kosciusco fell.” you my feelings of gratitude for the kindness you have
which has been taken from the following passage shuin me during my life, and particularly during my long misfortunes. I die willingly, for there is nothing in one of Coleridge's sonnets : to bind me to this world — neither my youth (she was “ () what a loud and fearful shriek was there ! then in her twenty-third year) nor the enjoyments which might sooner or later be my portion. Besides, Ah me! they view'd beneath an hireling's sword can life bave any charms for a woman who is removed Fallen Koskiusco." from all those whom she loves and cherishes - her husband, her children, her brothers and sisters ? I, The next occurs in the opening stanzas of the who am a queen, and the issue of a roval race, I have same poein: led the most wretched lise, and I furnish to the world
Why to yon mountain turns the musing eye, a fresh example that a crown and a sceptre cannot pro. Whose sun-bright summit mingles with the sky? tect those who wear them from the greatest misfortunes. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view, I declare that I am innocent, and this declaration I And robes the mountain in its azure hue." write with a trembling hand, bathed with the cold sweat of death. I am innocent. The God wliom I
Garth has the same idea in the following couplet: invoke, who created me, and who will soon judge me, “ At distance prospects please us, but when near is a witness of my innocence. I humbly implore Him We find but desert rocks and fleeting air”
THE ORIGINAL REAPING MACHINE.
And there is a line in Collins's Ode to the Passions, Thomas Yalden, too, has borrowed this from which ascribes to sound the effect attributed by Cowley : Campbell to sight:
“ Parent of day, whose beauteous beams of light “ Pale Melancholy sat apart,
Spring from the darksome womb of night, And from her wild sequester'd seat,
And 'midst their native horrors show, In notes by distance made more sweet,
Like gems adorning of the negro's brow." Pour'd thro' the mellow horn her pensive soul."
To these instances may be added the line in The The passage in Campbell, however, appears to me Soldier's Dream : to have been appropriated from these lines in “ And the sentinel stars set their watch in the sky." Otway's Venice Preserved:
which has been adopted from Lee's Theodisius: “ Ambition is at distance A goodly prospect, tempting to the view;
“ The stars, heav'n sentry, wink and seem to die." The height delights us, and the mountaiu top Mr. R. Montgomery has the same image in ls
Looks beautiful, because 'tis nigh to Heav'n.” Omnipresence of the Deity : Another example is the famous line in Lochiels “ Ye quenchless stars, so eloquently bright, Warning:
Untroubled sentries of the shadowy night." “ And coming events cast their shadows before.” And I have met with it in one of Abbé De La The origin of this will be found in Leibnitz's re
Mennais' works; but having no access to them mark, « Le présent est gros de l'avenir," and in here, I am unable to quote the exact words.
HENRY H. BREEN. the comments made thereon by Isaac D'Israeli;
St. Lucia. the latter, referring to Leibnitz's words, says, “ The multitude live only among the shadows of things in the appearances of the present;” and in another passage he couples the word “shadow”
It may interest your readers, and be worth rewith the word “precursor” in such a manner as cording, that the original reaping machine is the into express, in the clearest language, the whole vention of a Scotch clergyman, the Rev. Mr. Bell
, of thought in Campbell's line. These are his words: Carmylie
, Forfarshire, and that it has been worked “ This volume of Reynolds seems to bave been the by his brother, Mr. G. Bell, on his farm of Inche shadow and precursor of one of the most substantial michael, Perthshire, for more than twenty years. of literary monsters, the Histriomastix, or Player's On the 4th September, 1852, pursuant to a Scourge, of Prynne in 1663."
challenge given by Hugh Watson, Esq., and Mr. An instance of the same thought occurs in Keillor Farm, Forfarshire, when Hussey's Ame
G. Bell, a trial of reaping machines took place Chapman's tragedy of Bussy d'Ambois, his Re
rican machine, and a similar machine, with some venge :
important improvements, exhibited by Lord Kin“ These true shadows of the Guise and Cardinal,
naird, competed with that invented by the Rer. Fore-running thus their bodies, may approve, Mr. Bell, and the decision of the judges at the That all things to be done, as here we live,
trial was unanimously given in favour of the oriAre done before all time in th' other life.”
ginal Scotch machine. It did one-third more A fourth imitation by Campbell is a passage in work than the others, its machinery was considered Gertrude of Wyoming, where he describes the more effective, and less liable to damage; it could white child led to the house of Albert, by an
be managed by a single man, and was propelled Indian of swarthy lineament, as
before the horses, who could thrust it into the “ Led by his dusky guide, like morning brought by feet wide. It also disposed the corn conveniently
heaviest of grain, and at once open a lane six night."
for the shears to cut it, and laid the corn, when Mr. Hazlitt says this is an admirable simile; and cut, so as to be easily gathered into sheaf. Mr. Mr. Jeffrey deems it somewhat fantastical. But Love, as the agent of Mr. Crosskill
, superintended whether it be admirable or fantastical, or neither, the working of Hussey's machine, and Mr. M'Corcertain it is that, in so far as Campbell is con
mack, from America, is said to have witnessed the cerned, it is not original. Two hundred years trial, but the machine which bears his name did ago Cowley, in his Hymn to Light, compared not compete. darkness to an old negro, and light, its offspring, Mr. Bell's original discovery will, no doubt, be to a fair child. He is addressing the light: duly estimated by the agricultural community. * First-born of chaos, who so fair didst come
The fact of its dating so much earlier than the From the old negro's darksome womb,
American inventions, seems to me to be a point 'ish, when it saw the lovely child,
in harmony with other valuable memoranda in inelancholy mass put on kind looks and smild.” “N. & Q."