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2014, 1838.



BEFoRE entering upon a description of the Progresses and public Processions of Elizabeth while she occupied the throne, we shall proceed to notice the more prominent events of her early life, which still serve to invest some localities with interesting associations. Concerning the periods of her childhood and youth, in the reigns of her father and brother, a few very interesting details have been handed down to us; while that part of her life which was spent under the rule of her sister Mary, possesses considerable importance in an historical point of view. Elizabeth was born at the palace of Greenwich, on the 7th of September, 1533. Her mother, Anne Boleyn, or more properly, Bullen, the daughter of Sir Thomas Bullen, had been privately married to King Henry the Eighth, some time in the month of January of the same year; and on the 23rd of May, his previous marriage with Catherine of Arragon had been declared by Archbishop Cranmer, to have been from the beginning, null and invalid. The birth of Elizabeth was the occasion of much joy; in the account of a contemporary chronicler, we have a very lively and interesting description of the ceremonies which attended her christening :

The 7th of September being Sunday, between three and foure of the clocke at afternoone, the Queene was delivered of a faire ladie; for whose good deliverance Te Deum was sung incontinently, and great preparation was made for the christning. The maior, and his brethren, and fortie of the chief citizens, were commanded to be at the christning of the Wednesdaie following. Upon which daie, the maior, Sir Stephen Peacocke, in a gowne of crimosin velvet, with his collar of esses, and all the aldermen in scarlet with collars and chains, and all the councell of the cittie with them, tooke their barge at one of the clocke; and the citi

Wol. XII.


zens had another barge, and so rowed to Greenwich, where were many lords, knights, and gentlemen assembled. All the walles between the king's pallace and the Fryers were hanged with arras, and all the way strewed with greene rushes. The Fryers church was also hanged with rich arras; the font was of silver, and stoode in the midst of the church three steps high, which was covered with a fine cloth; and divers gentlemen with aprones and towels about their neckes, gave attendance about it, that no filth should come to the fonte; over, it hung a square canopie of crimosin sattin fringed with golde; about it was a rayle, covered with a redde saie ; between the queere and body of the church was a close place with a pan of fire to make the childe readie. When all things had been thus arranged, the child was brought to the hall, and the procession set forward. First went the citizens two and two ; then the gentlemen, esquires, and chaplains; “next after them, the aldermen and the maior alone, and next the kinges counsell; then the kinges chappel in coaps; then barons, bishops, earles." The earl of Essex,−the last of the Bourchiers who had that title, —bore the covered basons gilt; after him, with a taper of virgin wax, came the marquess of Exeter, who was put to death by Henry three years afterwards; then the marquess of Dorset, (the father of Lady Jane Grey,) with the salt, and behind him the Lady Mary of Norfolk “bearing the crisome, which was very rich of pearle and stone.” The child was borne by the dowager duchess of Norfolk, in a mantle of purple velvet, with a long train furred with ermine. On the right of the duchess was the duke of Norfolk with his marshal's rod, and on her left the duke of Suffolk; before went officers of arms; and afterwards came the countess of Kent, and the earls of Wiltshire and Derby supporting the train. Over the child was a rich canopy, borne by the Lord Rochford,

the Lord Hussey, the Lord William Howard, and the - 356


Lord Thomas Howard the elder.

many ladies and gentlemen.

When the childe was come to the church doore, the Byshop of London" met it with divers byshoppes and abbots mitered, and beganne the observances of the sacrament. The god-father was Lorde Thomas Archbyshoppe of Canterburie i ; the god-mothers were the olde Dutchesse of Norfolk and the olde Marchionesse of Dorset, widdowes; and the child was named Eliza BETH: and after that all things were done at the church doore, the child was brought to the font and christned ; and that done, Gartar chiefe king of armes cryed aloud, “God of his infinit goodnesse send prosperous life and long to the high and mighty princess of England, Elizabeth !” And then the trumpets blew : then the childe was brought up to the altar and the Gospell said over it. After that, immediately the Archbyshop of Canterburie confirmed it, the Marchionesse

And lastly, came

of Excester being god-mother: then the Byshop of Canter

burie gave unto the Princesse a standing cup of golde; the Dutchesse of Norfolke gave to her a standing cup of golde fretted with pearle: the Marchionesse of Dorset gave three gilt boles pounced with a cover; and the Marchionesse of Excester gave three standing boles graven all gilt with a cover. Then was brought in wafers, confects, and ipocrasse, in such plentie, that every man had as much as hee coulde desire: then they set forwarde, the trumpets afore going in the same order towards the Kinges pallace, as they did when they came thitherwarde, &c.

The mayor and aldermen received the King's thanks in his chamber through the dukes of Suffolk and Norfolk; “ and from thence they were had to the seller, and dranke, and so went to their barge."

Elizabeth was not three years old when her mother was beheaded. It was on the 19th of May, 1536, that Queen Anne Boleyn was executed on the green before the Tower of London; the marriage of Henry the Eighth with Jane Seymour taking place on the next day. Very soon after the birth of Elizabeth, an Act of Parliament had been passed, declaring that if her mother should die, without leaving any male issue, the crown should descend, on the death of the king, to her and her heirs; thus the princess was placed in the order of succession, not only before the Princess Mary, the daughter of the degraded Queen Catharine, but likewise before even any male issue of the king by a future queen. This arrangement was speedily disturbed upon the death of Queen Anne Boleyn; an act being passed soon after the king's marriage with Jane Seymour, annulling his second marriage as well as his first, and consequently remdering the Princess Elizabeth, as well as the Princess Mary, incapable of succeeding to the crown, which it settled upon Henry's issue by Queen Jane or by any future wife whom he might marry.

After the execution of her ill-fated mother, the young Princess Elizabeth seems to have been greatly neglected by her father. Some very curious information concerning the condition to which she was then reduced, and the “ill case,” to use Strype's expression, in which she was left, has been handed down to us in a letter printed by Sir Henry Ellis, in his second series of Original Letters. It is addressed by Lady Brian, the governess of the Lady Elizabeth, to Lord Cromwell, from Hunsdon, for instructions concerning her after the death of Queen Anne, her mother. After some preliminary remarks, the Lady Governess thus proceeds:—

My Lord, when my Lady Marys Grace was born, et pleased the King's Grace to appoint me Lady Mastres; and made me a Barones. And so I have been our . . . . . to the Cheldern hes Grace have had sens. Now etes so my Lady Elizabethe is put from that degre she was afore: and what degree she is at now I know not bot be heryng say; therefor I know not how to order her

• Dr. John Stokesley, who held the see from 1530 to 1540. ... t. Dr. Thomas Cranmer, who was primate from 1532 till 1553, and in 1956 suffered at the stake under Mary,

nor my self, nor none of hers that I have the rew of: that is her women and har gromes : besychyng yow to be good Lord to my Lady and to al hers: And that she may have som rayment; for she hath neither gown, nor kertel, nor petecot, nor no manner of linnin for smokes, nor cercheses, nor sleves, nor rayls, nor body-stychets, nor handcerchers, nor mofelers, nor begens. All thys har Graces Mostake, I have dreven of as long as I can, that be my trothe I cannot drive it no longer, besechyng yow, my Lord, that ye wel see that her Grace may have that is nedful for har, as my Trost es ye wel do. Beseeching yow, my owen good Lord, that I may know from yow be conting how I shal order my self; and what es the kyng's Graces pleser and yours, that I shal do in every thing. And whatsom ever it shall ples the kyng's Grace or your Ludship to command me at all teyms, I shal folsel et, to the best of my power.

There appears to have been some misunderstanding between the Lady Governess and one Mr. Shelton, who was chief of the house at Hunsdon. Lady Brian seems to press very strongly for the interference of Lord Cromwell.

My Lord, Mr. Shelton saythe he es Master of thys Hows: what fashion that shal be I cannot tel: for I have not sen et afor. My Lord, ye be so honourable your self, and every man reportethe your Lordsychep lovethe honour that I trust your Lordship will se thys Hows honerabely ordered, how som ever it hath been aforetime, and ef et plese yow, that I may know what your Order is, and if it be not performed, I shal sertify to your Lordship of it. For I fear me it wil be hardly inow performed, for ef the head of . . . . . . knew what honour meaneth, et wel be the beter ordered: ef not it will be hard to bring it to pass.

The next paragraph of the letter displays strongly the anxiety of the “discreet lady Governess,” as Strype calls her, for the health of her charge, and the extreme imprudence of Master Shelton in meddling with matters which did not concern him.

My Lord, Master Shelton wold have my Lady Elizabeth to dine and sup every day at the bord of Astat [board of estate.] Alas! my Lord, it is not meet for a child of har ag [her age], to kepe such rewl yet. I promes you, my Lord, I dare not take et upon me to kepe har Grace in helthe and she keep that rule: for ther she shal se dyvers mets and freuts, and wine: which would be hard for me to refryn her Grace from et. Ye know, my Lord, there is no place of corekcyon ther. And she es yet to young to correct greatly. I know wel, and she be ther I shal nother bryng her up to the king's graces honour nor hers; nor to har helthe nor my pore honesty. Wherfore I shew your Lordship this my descharg, besycheyng you, my Lord, that my Lady may have a mess of met to har owen logyng, with a good dish or two that is meet for her Grace to et of: and the reversion of the mess shal satisfy al her wenen, a gentleman usher and a groom. Which been eleven persons on her side. Suer I am et wil be (in to right little) as great profit to the king's Grace this way as the t'other way. For if al this should be set abroad, they must have three or four mess of meat, where this one mess shal suslice them al with bread and drink, according as my Lady Maries Grace had afore; and to be ordered in al things, as her Grace was afore.

The description which is contained in this letter of the manners and disposition of the young princess at so early an age, is assuredly not the least interesting part of it.

God knoweth (says the governess) my Lady hath great pain with her great teeth, and they come very slowly forth : and causeth me to suffer her Grace to have her wil more than I would ; I trust to God and her teeth were wel graft, to have her Grace aster another fashion than she is yet: so as I trust the King's Grace shal have great comfort in her Grace. For she is as toward a child, and as gentle of conditions as ever I knew one in my leys. Jesu preserve her Grace. As for a day or two at a hey teym or whan som ever it shal please the King's Grace to have her set abrod, I trost so to indever me, that shee shal so do as shal be to the King's homeur and hers: and then after to take her ease again.

The letter then concludes thus:–
I think master Shelton wil not be content with this. He

may not know it is my desier; but that et es the Kyng's plesure, and yours it should be so, Good my Lord, have my Lady's Grace, and us that be her poor servants, in your rememberance. And your Lordship shal have our harty prayers by the Grace of Jesu: ho ever preserve your Lordship with long life, and as myche honer as your nobel hart can desire. From Hunsdon with the evil hand of har that is your daily bead-woman MARGET BRYAN,

The superscription is “To the ryght nobel and my syngeler good Lord my Lord Prive Sel, be thys dely verd.” Of the manner in which the Princess Elizabeth was brought up during the remainder of her father's reign, we have scarcely any information. There is extant a record of that period, which furnishes an interesting memorial of her skill and industry at a very early age. It is to be found among the Cottonian Manuscripts, in a list of New Year's Gifts to Prince Edward, in the 30th of Henry VIII, (1539.) The king and his nobles gave principally plate. The Lady Mary's Grace gave a coat of crimson satten, embroidered with gold, with paunses of pearls, and sleeves of timsel, and four aglets of gold. The LADY ELIZABETH's GRAcE gave “a shyrte of Cam'yke, of HER own E woo RKYNGE.” She was then only in her sixth year. Queen Catharine Parr, the last and most fortunate of Henry's queens, is said to have paid considerable attention to the education of both the young princesses Mary and Elizabeth. Their position was greatly bettered by the act which was passed for the settlement of the Crown, soon after her marriage with the king in 1544, and by which they were both declared capable of succeeding to the throne on certain conditions, after the failure of the king's male issue. Our engraving represents the ancient palace of Placentia at Greenwich, in which Elizabeth was born. Grenewic or Grenevic, as this place was called by the Saxons, is literally the green village, meaning perhaps, as Lysons suggests, the village on the green. We have traces of a royal residence at this place, as early as the year 1300, when Edward I. made an offering of seven shillings at each of the holy crosses in the chapel of the Virgin Mary, and the Prince made an offering of half that sum. Henry IV. dates his will in 1408, from his manor of Greenwich. Henry V. granted this manor for life to Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter, who died at Greenwich in 1426. It was soon afterwards granted by Henry VI. to his uncle Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, (the youngest son of Henry IV.) who, in 1433, had the royal licence to fortify and embattle his manor-house, and to make a park of two hundred acres. Soon after this, the duke rebuilt the palace, calling it Placentia, or the Manor of Pleasaunce; he enclosed the park also, and erected within it a tower on the spot where the Observatory now stands. Upon the Duke of Gloucester's death, which happened in 1447, this manor reverted to the Crown. Edward IV. took great pleasure in finishing and enlarging the palace; and for that purpose, expended a considerable sum. In 1466, he granted the manor with the palace and park, to his queen, Elizabeth, for life. In his reign, the marriage of his youthful son Richard, Duke of York, (afterwards murdered with his brother, Edward V., in the Tower,) with Anne Mowbray, daughter and sole heir of the Duke of Norfolk, was solemnized at Greenwich with great splendour. Henry VII. resided much at this palace; his second son, Prince Henry, (afterwards Henry VIII.,) and his third son, Edmund Tudor, created Duke of Somerset, were born there. Lambarde, the author of the Perambulation of Kent, says that this monarch beautified the palace by the addi

tion of a brick front towards the water side; and Stow mentions his repairing the palace in 1501. Henry the Eighth was born at Greenwich, on the 28th of June, 1491, and was baptized in the parish church by Richard Fox, Bishop of Exeter, Lord Privy Seal; the Earl of Oxford, and Peter Courteney, Bishop of Winchester, being his godfathers. This monarch, from partiality, perhaps, to the place of his birth, neglected Eltham, which had been the favourite residence of his ancestors, and bestowed great cost upon Greenwich, till he made it, as Lambarde says, “a pleasant, perfect, and princely palaice.” During his reign it became one of the principal scenes of tha; festivity for which his court was celebrated. His marriage with his first queen, Catharine of Arragon was solemnized at Greenwich on the 3rd of June, 1509. On May-day, and the following two days, in the year 1511, tournaments were held there; the king himself, Sir Edward Howard, Charles Brandon, and Edward Neville, challenging all comers. In 15 12, the king kept his Christmas at Greenwich, “with great and plentiful cheer;" and again in 1513, “with great solemnity, dancing, disguisings, and mummers in a most princely manner,” among which was introduced the first masquerade ever seen in England. On the 13th of May, 1515, the marriage of Mary queen dowager of France, (Henry's sister) with Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, was solemnized publicly at Greenwich. Tournaments were held there in 1517, 1526, and 1536; the king kept his Christmas there in 1521, “with great nobleness and open court,” and again in 1525. In 1527 he received the French embassy at this place; and the same year kept his Christmas here “with revels, masks, disguisings, and banquets royal;" as he again did in 1533, in 1537, and in 1543. In the last-mentioned year he entertained twenty-one of the Scottish nobility whom he had taken prisoners at Solway Moss, and gave them their liberty without ransom. Edward the Sixth kept his Christmas at Greenwich, in 1552, George Ferrers, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn, being “Lorde of the merrie disporte.” It has been reasonably supposed that the festivities in which he indulged on this occasion, and which were of a character wholly unsuited to his age and constitution, contributed to bring about his death shortly afterwards “; he died at Greenwich Palace on the 6th of July following. Queen Mary was born at Greenwich, in February, 1516; and baptized there a few days after her birth, Cardinal Wolsey being her godfather, and the Lady Catharine and the Duchess of Norfolk her godmothers. Of Elizabeth's birth at this palace, and of the solemnities which accompanied her christening, we have before spoken. When she ascended the throne, Greenwich became her favourite Summer residence; she also visited it occasionally at other seasons of the year. Of the manner in which she kept her court there, and of other particulais concerning this spot, we shall speak hereafter. No part of the Palace represented in our engraving in now standing. Charles the Second pulled it all down, it having become much decayed; he intended to raise a nobler structure on the same spot, but succeeded in erecting only one wing, which forms that part of the present Hospital, commonly called King Charles's Building. * “Their dangerous excitement, their fatiguing joyousness, their late hours and table indulgences, were immediately followed by a consumptive cough, so alarming and exhausting, that the lord of

misrule and his merry tumults may be more justly supposed to have produced the fatal change in the king's ever-delicate health, than

either grief for his lost uncles, or poison from Northumberland in that nosegay of sweet flowers which was presented to him as a great dainty on new year's day.’”—Shanos TuRNER

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The LIFE-BoAte

WE may refer with pride, as well as pleasure, to the almost innumerable contrivances and plans, which have from time to time been proposed by ingenious and scientific persons of our own country, for the purpose of preserving life in cases of danger, whether from shipwreck, fire, or other sudden calamity; in the present paper we shall notice a few of the principal means employed to save the lives of shipwrecked mariners. On account of the exhausted state of the poor creatures on board a wreck, it is natural to look for the greatest amount of assistance from persons on shore, and accordingly we find that, although many lives have been saved by the exertions of the crew themselves, much larger numbers owe their preservation to the perilous exertions of adventurous men on the coast. The Life-boat of Mr. Greathead, of South Shields, has been the most successful of these inventions. A model of this boat was sent to the Society of Arts, and in 1802 this Society presented the inventor with their gold medal and fifty guineas. So highly was it appreciated by government, that a reward of 1200l. was subsequently voted by Parliament, besides other rewards by the Trinity House and Committee of Lloyd's ; this latter institution devoted also 2000l. to the purpose of building boats on Mr. Greathead's plan. Since this time most of the dangerous parts of our coasts have been furnished with life-boats on the same construction. The length of the life-boat is thirty feet, the breadth ten feet, the depth, from the top of the gunwale to the bottom of the keel in midships, three feet three; but from the gunwale to the platform, or boarding within, it is but two feet four inches. The form of this boat is very different to that of those in common use, and from its construction it is impossible it can upset. It is said that its peculiar figure was suggested by the properties possessed by the sections of an oblate spheroid, a globular figure, flattened on two of its opposite sides, a form exactly resembling that of an orange. Indeed the figure and power of this boat may be popularly illustrated by means of a simple operation upon this fruit. Take an orange, and divide the skin by two circular incisions, as in the annexed figure; this will divide the rind into

four portions, each a miniature life-boat, when separated carefully from the fruit. If either of these pieces are thrown into a vessel of water, it will be seen that, although by overloading it may be sunk, it never can be overturned by any weight placed within it. Its shape then giving the boat this property, to guard against its sinking, the sides, from the under part of the gunwale along the whole length of the regular shear, extending twenty-one feet six inches, are cased with layers of cork, to the depth of sixteen inches downwards, the thickness of this casing being four inches.

The boat being of the same form at both ends, can be rowed in either direction; the rowing oars are short; but those employed for steering, for there is no rudder, are one-third longer.

The cork weighs nearly seven hundred weight, and from this it may be well understood, what an immense accession of buoyancy is gained; so light is she, and so well formed, that even when full of water she is rowed with ease, and obeys the helm with the greatest quickness.

Second in importance to the Life-boat alone, in the humane cause of saving life from shipwrecks, are the ingenious inventions of the veteran philanthropist, Captain Manby. This worthy gentleman has devoted a considerable portion of his long and active life to devising and perfecting the means of forming a communication between the crew of a vessel in danger and the persons on shore, by conveying a rope from the shore to the ship, or from the ship to the shore. This Captain Manby accomplishes by affixing a shot to a rope, discharging it

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from a gun, a mortar, or some other piece of ordnance, so that the rope should become entangled with the rigging of the ship, and thus lay the foundation for a more secure communication. His first object was to coil the rope in such a manner, that, in uncoiling, there shall be no danger of entanglement, as a very slight hitch would alter the direction of the shot, or, perhaps, break the rope. The following method, fig. 1, is recommended as one of the best, particularly on account of its allowing the eye to run rapidly over the coils, for the purpose of ascertaining whether it has been disturbed by the storm. The rope is arranged in what

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what are called French fakes, or tiers. Other methods are also resorted to, as a whale-laid coil, or a chainfake, fig. 2. But as all these methods require time and care, they are likely to fail in the hurry of the moment, and a rope kept ready coiled in a basket, so that it could be carried on the back of a man like a knapsack, is considered the most certain. The difficulty of fixing the shot so that the flame of the gunpowder might not burn its attachment to the rope, was next to be overcome, and it was found that a thong of stout platted hide, woven extremely close, was capable of most resistance, being, at the same time, not easily inflamed and very elastic, for chains of every description were snapped in two by the sudden jerk. The shot employed was of two sorts, round shot

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each extremity of the cot, so that it may be hauled on board the ship and back again to shore: this cot is intended more particularly for women and children, and is furnished with lashings all round, while the bottom is made of strong netting to allow the water to run out. In order to render the passage of the shot visible at night, a shell instead of a shot is fixed to the rope; this shell has four holes, in which are fixed

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as many fuzes. The shell itself being filled with the most brilliant combustible composition, its effect when passing through the air, is surprisingly bright.


THE Atmosphere is an element which we cannot see, but which we feel investing us wherever we go; whose density we can measure to a certain height; whose purity is essential to existence; whose elastic pressure on the lungs, and on and around the frame, preserves man in that noble attitude which lifts his head towards the skies, and bids him seek there for an eternal home. The atmosphere is neither an evaporation from earth nor sea, but a separate element bound to the globe, and perpetually accompanying it in its motions round the sun. Can we for an instant imagine that we are indebted for the atmosphere only to some fortuitous accident? If there were no atmosphere, and if we could possibly exist without one, we should be unable to hear the sound of the most powerful artillery, even though it were discharged at the distance of a single pace. We should be deprived of the music of the sea, the minstrelsy of the woods, of all the artificial combinations of sweet sounds, and of the facinating tones of the human voice itself. We might make our wants and our feelings perceptible to each other, by signs and gesticulations, but the tongue would be condemned to irremediable silence. The deliberations of assemblies of men, from which laws and the order of society, have emanated, could never have taken place. The tribes of mankind would wander over the earth in savage groups, incapable of civilization, and the only arts which they could ever know, would be those alone that might enable them to destroy each other.—Quarterly Review.

THERE are habits, not only of drinking, swearing, and lying, and of some other things, which are commonly acknowledged to be habits, and called so, but of every modification of action, speech, and thought; man is a bundle of habits. There are habits of industry, attention, vigilance, advertency; of a prompt obedience to the judgement oc. curring, or of yielding to the first impulse of passion; of extending our views to the future, or of resting upon the present; of apprehending, methodizing, reasoning; of indolence, dilatoriness, of vanity, self-conceit, melancholy, partiality; of fretfulness, suspicion, captiousness, censoriousness; of pride, ambition, covetousness; of overreaching, intriguing, projecting; in a word, there is not a quality of function, either of body or mind, which does not feel the influence of this great law of animated nature.—PALEY.

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