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the warrants. Sometimes the carts went to the pounds,--and to be imprisoned during the king'a places appointed but found no coals to carry; in pleasure. general, however, it was well understood that the In the reign of Charles the First, a' dispute arose principal object was the preliminary meeting, at concerning the right which that monarch claimed of which the Purveyor would assign the parties over to digging anywhere for saltpetre, in order to provide a person whom he took with him, to compound for gunpowder for his troops. The judges allowed the their carriages. This man would take twelve shillings claim; they held that the king could not "prescribe" for every load; and he at last raised the sum to for the right, because the art of making gunpowder fourteen shillings. The justices of Sussex complained was brought into England within memory, viz. in the of this to the Board of Green Cloth in 1598.

time of Richard the Second, yet, as the same conIn 1604, soon after the accession of James the cerned the defence of the realm, the king might take First, the Commons determined on a representation sufficient for that purpose in the nature of purto the king of the grievances occasioned by the veyance. Purveyors; and Sir Francis Bacon made a long During the Commonwealth the powers of purveyspeech on the subject to the king, in the withdrawing ance fell into disuse; and, in 1661, after the Restochamber at Whitehall.

ration, the grievance was wholly abolished by the There was no grievance, (he told the king,) in his king. 12th of Charles II., the Parliament at the same time dom so general, so continual, so sensible, and so bitter to granting to the king, in satisfaction of the interest the common subject as that which he was then speaking which he conceded, a certain tax upon beer. In the of. They did not pretend to derogate from his prerogative following year, however, the statute was temporarily nor to question any of his regalities or rights; they only relaxed in favour of the king's royal progresses, by sought a reformation of abuses, and a restoration of the laws to which they were born. He complains that the

an act empowering the clerk, or chief officer of His Purveyors take in kind what they ought not to take; they Majesty's carriages, by warrant from the Green take in quantity a far greater portion than cometh to the Cloth, to provide carts, &c. for His Majesty's use, king's use, and they take in an unlawful manner. They and persons refusing to serve were made liable to a extort money in gross or in annual stipends, to be freed penalty. Philips says that it was the want of the from their oppression. They take trees, which by the law ancient purveyance which prevented Charles the they cannot do; timber trees which are the beauty, coun

Second from making a progress which he had detenance, and shelter of men's houses; that are a loss which men cannot repair or recover. If a gentleman is too signed into the country in the Summer of 1661. hard for them whilst at home, they will watch him out and We shall conclude in the words of Mr. Bray, cut the tree before he can stop it. When a poor man hath from whose paper on this subject, in the Archæologia, his goods taken from him at an under value, and cometh to we have derived most of our information. receive his money, he shall have twelvepence in the pound

Thus have we taken some view of the rise, progress, and deducted; nay, they take double poundage, once when the

extinction of an office which subsisted for ages, without debenture is made, and again when the money is paid.

producing to the crown a return at all adequate to the He tells the king also, that “there is no pound of burdens it imposed on the subject. We see Archbishop profit to him, but begetteth three pound damages on Islip's words fulfilled; the abolition of purveyance has not the subject, besides the discontent." By law, the occasioned any want of provisions in the king's house, and

instead of his people flying from his approach, they fly to Purveyors ought to take as they could agree with meet and welcome him whenever he visits the country, the subject; by abuse they took at an enforced price. By law they ought to make but one apprisement by

A WARNING VOICE IN LONDON. neighbours in the country; by use they make a second apprizement at the court-gate; and when the subjects'

In London town wags many a tongue, cattle come up many miles, lean and out of plight by reason

And nonsense much is spoken; of great travel, they prize them anew at an abated price.

In London many a lie is told, By law they ought to take between sun and sun; by abuse

And many a promise broken. they take by twilight and in the night. By law they ought not to take in the highway, by abuse they take in the ways.

But there's a tongue in London town This abuse of purveyance, if it be not the most heinous

Whose voice is grave and true; abuse, yet it is the most common and general abuse of all

Ancient as Time the tale it tells, others in the kingdom.

And yet ’tis always new.

Solemn and loud above the crowd We have other testimony to the abuses arising

It booms both night and day; from purveyance at this period, in the curious con

You hear it when you're close at hand; fession made by one Richards, when he was exa

You hear it, miles away. mined before the Star-chamber, of the rogueries

Measured and grave the note it sounds practised by him and his brethren. He said that

O’er Middlesex and Surry; they charged ten times the quantity wanted, sold the

It lingers not for lagging souls, surplus, and shared the money. They went to the

Nor hastes for those who hurry. most remote places to make their purveyance, in

By day while all the world's agog, order to induce the people to come to a composition.

Amid the city's humming, They conspired with the high-constables to charge

“ Mortals,” it cries, “ Time flies apace, more than enough, and took half the money of them,

Eternity is coming!" but gave receipts for the whole, the constables taking By night while wearied folks repose, the rest. The clerk of the market set the prices

Unwearied still and waking, below the value and shared the gain. This confes

That solemn warning it repeats sion did not, however, save the culprit, who had

The night's dread stillness breaking. likewise extorted money under pretence of having a

St. Paul's ! Thou hast an awful voice, grant for compounding fines on penal statutes, and he

But may I never fear it; was sentenced to stand in the pillory in Westminster,

Ev'n when thou toll'st my dying hour in Cheapside, in three market towns of Dorsetshire,

May I rejoice to hear it.-D. D. S. and in three of Somersetshire,—to lose one ear at Dorchester, the other at Wells,—to ride on a horse

LONDON: with his face to the tail, and papers pinned on him,

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. expressing his crime,-to pay a fine of one hundred

PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PenxY, AND IN MONTHLY PART,

PRICE SixPENCE,

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JOHANNESBERG, AND THE WINES OF THE hills to the northern or right bank of the river, and RHINE.

is known by the name of the Rheingau*. Come with me, your faithful friend,

Among the wines of the Rheingau, the first place On the wings of thought along,

is, by common consent, yielded to those which are To where the Rhine his course does bend Rich vine-covered hills among ;

produced on the far-famed domain of Johannesberg. To his mountains tempest-braving,

This golden_hill, (says the Baron von Gerning,) is the
Isles with gayest verdure clad,
Fields with yellow harvest waving,

crown of the Rheingau, in the midst of which it is most And his woodlands wide outspread.

picturesquely enthroned. In its vicinity, we feel ourselves In former papers, we have taken oceasion, in de- in the very heart of the far-famed Rhine-land. We ascend

imperceptibly this detached vine-hill, which is protected scribing portions of the scenery of the Rhine, to towards the north-east by the wood-covered Rabenkopf, and speak of the vines which are so largely cultivated towards the north by the Taunus mountains. Behind the upon its banks, and to which the fancy of those who priory on the same hill, lies the town or village of Johanhave never seen them assigns a larger share in the nesberg, formerly a colony of servants belonging to the formation of its picturesque attractions than they are

establishment; and at the foot of the hill facing the river, entitled to. In the minds of most persons the Rhine lies the little village of Johannesgrund, and also a nun: and the vine are inseparably associated; indeed, the nery called the Klause, connected with the abbey by a

subterraneous passage, which was founded 1109 by appellation of “Father of Wine,” which the Germans Richolf, the last Rhinegrave, in honour of St. George, the have fondly bestowed upon this magnificent river, then patron of the crusaders. The top of the castle combespeaks as close a connexion between the two things, mands a most beautiful view of the Rhine, from Biebrich as the rhymes of poets have established between the to Bingen, over the nine islands and the twenty intervening

cantons. Slender elms adorn the foot of the golden hill, two names. The wines of the Rhine are chiefly produced along bishopric of Mentz, before the Rheingau came into that

which was an allodial possession belonging to the archthat part of its course which lies between Mentz and see, and before it received the name of Bischoffsberg. Coblentz, and throughout which the river is for the

According to the general account, Rhabanus most part confined on both sides by lofty banks, whose light porous soil and rocky substrata furnish Maurus, previously Abbot of Fulda, first planted this the most avourable sites for the cultivation of the vine-hill, and built a chapel here, dedicated to St. grape. The choicest produce is, however, limited, Nicholas; it is also said that he was here elected not only to a particular part of this course, but also Archbishop of Mentz in 847. This account, however, to one side of it; namely, that fertile and beautiful rests upon scarcely sufficient authority; it is a fact district of Nassau, which stretches from the Taunus

. See Saturday Magazine, Vol. XII., p. 105. VOL. XIJ

378

better established, that, in the year 1106, Ruthard, sovereignty of which belongs to Nassau. The vines Archbishop of Mentz, founded a Benedictine convent consist mostly of riesslinge, which impart the parupon this hill, and dedicated it to St. John ; the ticular flavour that characterizes this “ German convent became enriched with additional endowments Tokay;" they are small round grapes, sweet and until about 1130, under the archbishop Adelbert, savoury, and of a whitish-yellow colour. The wine it was transformed into a Benedictine abbey.

itself is described as being “of a gentle heat, mild During the turbulent times of the middle ages, and strong at the same time, and uniting all the this abbey suffered severely from the calamitous wars good qualities of the juice of the grape, which are to which the country around was constantly exposed; heightened by a late vintage, that generally takes and even in the page of modern history its misfortunes place in the beginning of November, after the grapes have been recorded. In 1525, during the war of the have been completely ripened by the frost.” Boors, it was greatly injured; and seven-and-twenty The riesslinge is the plant generally cultivated in years afterwards, it was plundered and burnt down the Rhinegau; it requires a warm exposure. In some by the markgrave, Albert of Brandenburg. It was places an Orleans grape is grown, and produces a afterwards restored, but again in 1631 was destroyed wine which is much esteemed for its peculiar flavour by the Swedes, whose dreadful ravages in Germany and aroma. The vintage is performed in the most are still to be traced at the present day. In conse careful manner, and at as late a period as the climate quence of these various misfortunes, the establish- and season will permit. For the white wines, which ment became involved in debt, and was abandoned constitute by far the greatest proportion of those after having been mortgaged for twenty thousand made in Germany, the grapes are separated from the rix-dollars by the archbishop, Elector of Mentz, An- stalks and fermented in casks, by which means the selm Casimir, to Hubert von Bleymaun, treasurer of aroma is fully preserved. The wine is freed from the the empire. The Benedictines soon became very lees by successive rackings, and when sufficiently anxious to regain their old possession ; but in the clarified, is introduced into tuns where it is allowed mean while the mortgage had risen to thirty thousand to mellow, and continues to improve during a long rix-dollars, which it surpassed their ability to produce. term of years. Those used in the Rhinegau comFortunately, however, they found a powerful sup- monly hold eight ohms, or three hundred and twentyporter in the Prince Bishop and Abbot of Fulda, eight gallons; but in other parts of Germany they who was of the same spiritual fraternity with the are of larger capacity. Formerly the great promonks of Johannesberg ; that dignitary, after a dex- prietors vied with each other in the magnitude of the terous negotiation at Mentz, succeeded, in 1616, in vessels in which they collected and preserved the recovering their abbey on payment of the mortgage produce of their vines: and as the better growths and an additional sum. Instead, however, of being are valued in proportion to their age, the stock of restored to its conventual state, it was converted into wines in the cellars belonging to the princes, magisa priory.

trates, and richer order of monks, was often enormous. About the same time, the modern castle or palace Most persons have heard of the Heidelberg tun*, and was built by the prince bishop; and two of the other immense casks in which they have been kept ecclesiastics belonging to Fulda constantly resided for whole centuries. here. Portraits of five bishops are to be seen in one At the beginning of this century, (says a native writer,) of the apartments; from which also a view is ob- | Germany saw three empty wine casks, from the construction tained of the mountains of Fulda. Underneath is a of which no great honour could redound to our country cellar, which is said still to exhibit the traces of an among foreigners. The first is that of Tübingen, the attempt made by the French to blow up the edifice second that of Heidelberg, and the third at Grüningen, in 1796, on account of arrears of contribution, different: the Tübingen cask is in length twenty-four, in

near Halberstadt; and their dimensions are not greatly “ An attempt" says Von Gerning," which would have depth sixteen feet; that of Heidelberg thirty-one feet in been realized but for the vigorous interference of the length and twenty-one deep; and that of Grüningen thirty honest bailiff of Rüdesheim, who, on this occasion, feet long and eighteen deep. These enormous vessels spoke his mind in bold Gernian to the plundering were sufficient to create in foreigners a suspicion of our general of the hostile forces." Among other things the year 1725

a fourth was made at Königstein larger than

but to complete the disgrace of Germany, in the bailiff said, “ On beholding these ruins the pass

any of the former. ing traveller will exclaim with execration, “This was

Dr. Henderson rernarks, however, that such a done by that general.'”. The French had emptied mode of preserving certain vintages is not so absurd the cellars of their wine in the year 1792, when they

as some writers have imagined; for the stronger crossed the Rhine as the bestowers of freedom. Johannesberg remained in the hands of Fulda degree, than they could have been by an opposite

wines are undoubtedly improved by it to a greater until 1802 ; for three years longer it was possessed system of management. But in practising this meby Orange Fulda ; and then, in 1805, it passed into thod, it is essential in the first place to keep the the possession of the French, who kept it till the vessel always full; and secondly, when any portion end of the war which liberated Western Germany of the contents is drawn off, to replace it with wine in 1813. It was at length, (says Von Gerning.) taken possession possible.

of the same growth, or as nearly resembling it as

When such cannot be had, the vacant of by Austria in 1815; and on the 1st of August, 1816, one hundred years after it came into the hands of Fulda, space may be filled up by introducing washed pebbles Prince Metternich, the Oxenstiern of our day, received it into the cask. The wine which Keysler drank, from as a fief, burdened with an annual duty of the tenth part a tun which bore the date of 1472, had become thick of the wine produced, by way of reward for his patriotic and acid, because these precautions were neglected. services

Had it been kept in bottle, this degeneration probably The situation of Johannesberg is remarkably fine; would not have taken place. For the more delicate it has a delightful southern aspect, and commands growths, however, it is said that small vessels are an extensive and charming view over a fertile and certainly preferable. varied tract of country. The hill contains about The wines of the Rhine, (says Dr. Henderson,) may be sixty acres of vineyard; and attached to it are seventy regarded as constituting a distinct order by themselves. acres of meadow, four hundred and fifty acres of Some of the lighter sorts, indeed, resemble very much the arable land, and four hundred of forest land, the

* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., p. 140.

vins de graves®; but in general they are drier than the to the favourable exposure, which allows the grapes French white wines, and are characterized by a delicate

to ripen fully, and also to the lateness of the vintage, flavour and aroma, called in the country gäre, which is

which seldom commences till the end of October or quite peculiar to them, and of which it would, therefore, be in vain to attempt the description. A notion prevails that the beginning of November. they are naturally acid ; and the inferior kinds no doubt The vineyard of Grafenberg, which formerly beare so: but this is not the constant character of the Rhine | longed, as well as the Steinberg, to the wealthy conwines, which in good years have not any perceptible acidity vent of Eberbach, but is of much less extent than that, to the taste,-at least not more than is common to them is still distinguished for the choiceness of its growths. with the growths of warmer regions. But their chief dis. The produce of Markebrunne, in the same neighbourtinction is their extreme durability, in which they are not hood, and that of Rothenberg, near Geisenheim, are surpassed by any species of wine. The Rhine wines often possess the valuable quality All these wines are white. The only red wine worthy

highly prized for softness and delicacy of flavour. of durability when they have little else to recommend

of notice among the wines of the Rhinegau is grown them. As they are capable of almost indefinite

at Asmanshausen, a little below Rüdesheim ; in good duration, and as their flavour and aroma are always improved by long keeping, it becomes of essential years it is scarcely inferior to some of the better importance to determine the respective characters of small

, and inferior wines are often substituted under

sorts of Burgundy ; but the quantity produced is the different vintages for a more extended period its name. than is necessary in the case of most other wines, small, and of a blue colour; Charlemagne is said to

The grapes · from which it is made are In favourable seasons the growths of the Rhine are free from acidity, but in bad seasons they contain an

have brought the first vines bearing it from Burgundy.

In speaking of the Rhine wines, it is necessary to excess of what is called malic acid, and are, consequently, liable to the imperfections attendant upon from vineyards lying on the banks of the Maine,

mention those of Hochheim, which, though obtained the presence of that ingredient; and as the moisture

are usually classed with the Rhine wines, as being of of a northern Autumn often obliges the grower to like nature, and nearly of the same excellence. Indeed gather his grapes before they have attained their full all the best sorts of the Rhine wines have long been maturity, it is evident that a large proportion of the

confounded in our country under the general name vintages must be of this description. Hence the of Hock, and Rhenish has become the distinguishing wines which have been made in warm and dry years,

term of disrepute for inferior growths.“ The Hochsuch as that of 1811, or the year of the comet as it

heimer," says Dr. Henderson, “ is, strictly speaking, is sometimes called, are always in great demand, and

a Maine wine ; but a corruption of its name has long fetch exorbitant prices. of preceding vintages, furnished the appellation by which the first growths those of 1802, 1800, 1783, 1779, 1766, 1748, and of the Rhine are ususally designated in this country.” 1726, are reckoned among the best, and among them

Hock is a contraction of Hockamore, which again is that of 1783 is the most highly esteemed,

Of the Johannesberg wine, the choicest produce is evidently an English corruption of Hochheimer. that called Schoss-Johannesberger, which is indebted The little town (says the Author of An Autumn near the for its celebrity to its high flavour, and the almost Rhine), is surrounded by vineyards, with scarcely a tree to total absence of acidity from it. In former days, place, which every alderman flatters himself he drinks, is

obstruct a single ray of sun; but the choice wine of the when the domain was the property of the Bishop of produced on a little hill of about eight acres, behind the Fulda, this precious wine was very rare, and it was ancient deanery, which seems formed to court the sun, and only by favour that a few bottles of the prime vint is protected by the town from the north winds. Each acre ages could be obtained from his lordship's cellars. contains about 4000 vine-plants, valued at a ducat each; During the changes which occurred in the early part large casks of wine, each of which sometimes sells for

and the little hill produces, in a good year, about twelve of the present century, a considerable quantity of the

1500 florins. (nearly 1501.) Hochheim was presented by wine found its way into the market. A portion of Buonaparte to General Kellerman. that which grows at the foot of the hill is always to be had ; even this is said to be preferable in point of

According to Dr. Henderson there are two vineyards flavour to most of the other Rhine wines, and bears

at Hochheim, which yield the first-rate wine; they a high price.

were both in former times the property of the deans Next to the Johannesberger may be ranked the of Mentz. Their united extent does not exceed produce of the Steinberg vineyard, which belonged twenty-five or thirty, acres; but the surrounding to the suppressed monastery of Eberbach, and is now

lands yield an abundant produce, which, as in the the property of the Duke of Nassau. It is the The soils are composed of a white or brown marle,

case of other wines, often passes for the first-rate. strongest of all the Rhine wines, and in favourable years has much sweetness and delicacy of flavour ; the mixed with fine gravel, and reposing in some places vintage of 1811 has been sold on the spot at as high on strata of coal, which in hot and dry seasons is a price as five florins and a half, or half-a-guinea the

said to impart a particular flavour to the wine. bottle. The whole quantity made is about 300 hogs

Some of the Rhine wines fetch exorbitant prices, heads, of which 60 are of first-rate quality. Some especially those of celebrated vintages. The Baron persons, however, dispute the claim of the

Steinberg

von Gerning says, that a cask of Johannesberg wine, to rank second among the wines of the Rheingau, containing eight ohms, or 328 gallons, particularly of placing before it the Rüdesheimer wine, which

the vintage of the “comet year,” 1811, often sells

grows on a hill opposite to Bingen, whose acclivity is so

for from 3000 to 4000 florins, or from 3331. to steep, that its face has been, to a great extent, formed 4441. sterling, which is at the medium rate of nearly into terraces, to which the requisite quantity of

24s. per gallon. Among the prices of some of the

vegetable mould and manure is carried up in baskets. principal Rhine wines, quoted by Dr. Henderson, are The Orleans grape is that chiefly cultivated, yielding

some reaching the amount of 38s., and upwards of a wine which combines a high flavour with much

21. per gallon; there are some even running as high body, and is freer from acidity than most of the

as 18s. the bottle. other growths of the Rhine. This is partly attributed which have led to the degeneracy of some of the

Dr. Henderson observes, that the same The graves are wines grown upon the gravelly lands to the south-east and south-west of Bordeaux ; they are so called from the most celebrated French wines, have operated equally nature of the soil.

on those of the Rhine. The health of the vine, and

causes

the quality of its fruit, are liable to be affected by a THE WOOLLEN MANUFACTURE. variety of delicate circumstances; a single year of

No. III. slovenly culture, an injudicious mode of pruning, or

THE MANUFACTURE OF SHORT OR Cloth Wool. the substitution of new plants for old, may ruin the reputation of a vineyard for ever.

The first operation to which the short wool is subFor a long time the choicest growths, not only in France jected when received by the manufacturer, is that of but in other countries, were raised on lands belonging to opening or disentangling its fibres ; for this purpose the church; the vinum theologicum was justly held to be a machine called a wool-mill, willy, or willow, is emsuperior to all other wines. The rich chapters and monas- ployed. It may be described as a cylindrical or teries were always more studious of the quality than of the conical drum, about three feet long, and two and a quantity of their vintages; their grounds were tilled with half in diameter, thickly covered with sharp pointed the greatest care, and their vines were managed in the most judicious manner; nor did they reject a plant that teeth, or spikes. This cylinder works upon a strong bore but sparingly, provided there was no falling off in the axis, and is enclosed in a wooden frame or box, two goodness of the liquor which it supplied. Moreover, in the ends of which can be opened, being fixed on hinges; middle ages, it is well known that the clergy were almost the bottom of the box is not solid, but formed of the sole depositaries of learning; and the continued oppor- slips of wood with intervals between them, to allow tunities of observation and study which their retired pur

any dust which may be disengaged in the process suits afforded them, had probably brought them acquainted, to fall through. Over the cylinder, its axis being at a very early period, with the best methods of directing horizontal, are five smaller rollers or cylinders, also the fermentation of the grape and meliorating the produce. When the domains passed into the hands of laymen, the furnished with teeth, and turning on their own axes. same assiduity and skill were seldom shown in the culture | The teeth of the rollers and those of the drum, inof the vines, or treatment of the vintage; and, in many tersect each other during the rotation, as do also the instances, the old plants, which yielded the most valued teeth of the rollers themselves. The front door being wines, were rooted out to make room for others that gave turned down on its hinges, a quantity of raw wool is a more abundant supply, but of inferior character.

laid on it; the door is then closed, and the wool by There is, however, another circumstance to be that means brought within reach of the teeth of the urged in explanation of the fact, that the choicest large drum, which carries it upwards so as to work wines, in the middle ages, were raised on lands it between its own teeth and those of the smaller belonging to the church.

cylinders; as the motion is very rapid, the fibres of The monks (observes a writer in the Quarterly Review,) wool are separated and pulled about in all directions. were not only, as depositaries of all the learning of the After being submitted for a certain time to these times, themselves most skilled in the culture of the vine, and the manufacture of its juice; but they were also, in operations, the door on the other side of the case every respect, the best landlords, and maintained the hap- that encloses the drum is opened, and the wool thrown piest dependants. Respect for the church generally saved out by the centrifugal force of the cylinder. The their land from devastation in feudal broils; there was more front door is then opened, a fresh supply of wool is security in their cultivation, and they would naturally com introduced and again thrown out, and so on. This municate some of the results of study and experience in

process is repeated several times according to the rural economy to their vassals.

nature of the wool, or the purpose for which it is At no time, however, can the cultivation of the designed; if the wool is dyed, it undergoes the same vine on the banks of the Rhine have been attended operation after the dying. with much gain and happiness to the labourer. It is The scribbling machine is next employed; this, in true that some countries support a numerous popu- principle and construction resembles the last, but lation, but the poverty and misery of the peasantry instead of the cylinders being covered with strong in them has been long proverbial. Nearly half a | teeth like spikes, their surfaces are furnished with century ago, Dr. Cogan spoke of the axiom, “ that cards like those used in the manufacture of cotton*; poverty is most prevalent where the vine is most cul- by means of this machine the fibres of the wool are tivated,” as being well founded. He said that numer more equally distributed, and the wool passes through ous vineyards, such as those on the banks of the this machine three times. It now is removed to the Rhine, notwithstanding the picturesque scenes which carding-engine. they presented to the eye, or “ the pleasant ideas of

The carding.engine consists of a number of smaller luxurious conviviality" which they excited, were, by cylinders, A B C D E F G, covered with card-cloth, reno means the primary blessings of a country, volving round a larger cylinder h, covered in the Bacchus, whatever, joviality he may occasion, has not

The large cylinder is about thirtythe benevolence of Ceres; although, by exhilarating the six inches in diameter, and thirty-two inches in spirits, he may for a season conceal the distress he occa, length. I is an endless apron on which the wool is sions. or raiment to the peasant, and the real necessaries of life spread equally by hand; this apron is carried slowly are always the dearest where this superfluity becomes

onwards towards the two feeding-rollers k, by which it the chief article of attention and of commerce; they are

is seized and conveyed to the small cylinder G; from purchased as foreign commodities, and consequently at an this it is transferred to the large cylinder H. The advanced price.

three largest of the first six small cylinders are called

workers, and the three smaller, cleaners; the wool, in It is not the business of virtue to extirpate the affections the first instance applied to the large cylinder or of the mind, but to regulate them. It may moderate and drum, is taken off by the first worker, which is in restrain, but was not designed to banish gladness from the its turn rubbed by the first cleaner, this last returns heart of man. Religion contracts the circle of our pleasures, it to the drum ; it is taken up again by the second but leaves it wide enough for her votaries to ex patiate in. The contemplation of the Divine Being, and the exercise of worker, and again removed by the second cleaner, virtue, are in their own nature so far from excluding all and so on, until it reaches the cylinder A, called the gladness of heart, that they are perpetual sources of it. In stripping-cylinder or doffer, which is much larger and a word, the true spirit of religion cheers as well as composes turns slowly. The cards on the doffer do not entirely the soul: it banishes indeed all levity, of behaviour, all vicious and dissolute mirth, but in exchange, fills the mind The wool falls off the doffer in fleeces about four inches

cover its surface, but are placed on in stripes, fig. 2. with a perpetual serenity, uninterrupted cheerfulness, and an habitual inclination to please others, as well as to be

in breadth, and twenty-seven or twenty-eight in length, pleased in itself.-Addison.

See Saturday Magasine, Vol. V., p. 100.

same manner.

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