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Part. The Third.
EDUCATIon of Elizabeth—her LiterARY ATTAINMENTs—HER PortRAIT.
THE Princess Elizabeth, in common with her brother
Edward and her sister Mary, received an excellent.
education; for this she was much indebted to her step-mother Catherine Parr, the last queen of Henry the Eighth. Her instruction was not confined even to what may be called the ordinary learning of the age; for it embraced the Greek language, which, though rapidly rising into cultivation, had not then become an object of general study. Her first master of the learned languages was William Grindal, a pupil of the eminent Roger Ascham; and in 1548, upon Grindal's death, Ascham himself was called to court Vol. XII
to take his place. He had previously been employed in teaching Elizabeth, her brother Edward, and many other illustrious personages, the art “ of writing a fair hand,” an art in which he had attained great excellence, and in which, excellence was then highly valued on account of its rarity. We have, from the pen of Ascham, a very interesting account of the course of study through which he led his illustrious pupil, and of the proficiency which she attained in learning; together with some remarks upon her manners and character at that early period of her life. It is contained in a letter which he wrote to a learned friend in the year 1550:
Never (he says), was the nobility of England more lettered than at present. Our illustrious King Edward, in 361
talent, industry, perseverance, and erudition, surpasses both his own years and the belief of men. . . . . . . Numberless honourable ladies of the present time, surpass the daughters of Sir Thomas More in every kind of learning. But amongst them all, my illustrious mistress, the lady Elizabeth, shines like a star, excelling them more by the splendour of her virtues and her learning than by the glory of her royal birth. In the variety of her commendable qualities I am less perplexed to find matter for the highest panegyric than to circumscribe that panegyric within just bounds. Yet I shall mention nothing respecting her but what has come under my own observation. For two years she pursued the study of Greek and Latin under my tuition; but the foundations of her knowledge in both languages were laid by the dilgent instruction of William Grindal, my late beloved friend, and seven years my pupil at Cambridge. The lady Elizabeth has completed her sixteenth year; and so much solidity of understanding, such courtesy united with dignity, have never been observed at so early an age. She has the most ardent love of true religion, and of the best kind of literature. The constitution of her mind is exempt from female weakness, and she is endued with a masculine power of application. No apprehension can be uicker than hers, no memory more retentive. French and atin she speaks like English; Latin with fluency, and judgment; she also spoke Greek with me frequently, and moderately well. Nothing can be more elegant than her handwriting, whether in the Greek or Roman character. In music she is very skilful, but does not greatly delight.
He then gives an account of the different writings which were the object of her study under his tuition.
She read with me almost the whole of Cicero, and a great part of Livy: from these two authors, indeed, her knowledge of the Latin language has been almost exclusively derived. The beginning of the day was always devoted by her to the New Testament in Greek, after which she read select orations of Isocrates and the tragedies of Sophocles, which I judged best adapted to supply her tongue with the purest diction, her mind with the most excellent precepts, and her exalted station with a defence against the utmost power of fortune. For her religious instruction she drew first from the fountains of Scripture, and afterwards from St. Cyprian, the Common Places of Melancthon, and similar works which convey pure doctrine in elegant language. In every kind of writing she easily detected any ill-adapted or far-fetched expression. She could not bear those feeble imitators of Erasmus who bind the Latin language in the fetters of miserable proverbs; on the other hand, she approved a style chaste in its propriety and beautiful by perspicuity, and she greatly admired metaphors when not too violent, and antitheses when just and happily opposed. By a diligent attention to these particulars, her ears became so practised and so nice, that there was nothing in Greek, Latin, or English, prose or verse, which, according to its merits or defects, she did not either reject with disgust or receive with the highest delight. .
Ascham's employment as tutor to the Princess Elizabeth lasted only two years, at the expiration of which he left her a little abruptly, in consequence of a distaste which he had taken to some persons in her household. “Of this precipitation,” says Dr. Johnson, “he long repented; and as those who are not accustomed to disrespect cannot easily forgive it, he probably felt the effects of his imprudence to his death.” He was restored, however, before long, to the favour of Elizabeth; and when she ascended the throne, he was appointed to the offices of secretary for the Latin tongue, and likewise tutor to her Majesty in the learned languages. In this latter capacity he was
in the habit of constantly reading with her. In his
Scholemaster, he says,
After dinner (at Windsor Castle, on the 10th of December, 1568), I went up to read with the Queen's Majesty; we read there together in the Greek tongue, as I well remember that noble oration of Demosthenes against AEschines, for his false dealing in his embassage to Philip of Macedon.
Elizabeth retained a great regard for her tutor to the last; and when she heard of his death she is said to have exclaimed, that “she would rather have thrown ten thousand pounds into the sea than have
lost her Ascham,”—an opinion which, considering her economical disposition, must be taken to express a very high estimate of his merits. Of the extent to which she profited by his instructions, and of the proficiency which she long retained in the Latin tongue, a memorable illustration was afforded when the Polish Envoy, whom she received in great state, addressed her in a Latin speech, and poured forth, in his master's name, a string of complaints instead of compliments—which caused the Queen, in her own phrase, to “scour up her old Latin which had so long lain rusting,” to rebuke the “malapert orator,” an operation which she performed, according to the testimony of persons present, with great effect. Elizabeth's studious turn of mind, probably contributed much to that peculiar regard which her brother Edward felt for her, and which she reciprocated. “In tastes, feelings, pursuits, and religion,” to use the words of Mr. Sharon Turner, “there was that congeniality of mind which most strongly attracts and perpetuates reciprocal affection.”
Under Edward the Sixth, (says Sir Robert Naunton,) she was his, and one of the darlings of fortune, for besides the consideration of blood, there was between these two princes, a concurrence and sympathy of their natures and affections, together with the coelestial bond (confirmative religion) which made them one; for the king never called her by any other appellation but his sweetest and dearest sister, and was scarce his own man she being absent; which was not so betweene him and the Lady Mary.
Camden tells us that she was in great grace and favour with her brother King Edward, “who called her by no other name than his Sweet Sister Temperance,”—as likewise in singular esteem with the nobility and people. “For she was of admirable beauty and well deserving a crown, of a modest gravity, excellent wit, royal soul, happy memory, and indefatigably given to the study of learning.”
She wrote frequently to Edward; and though not many years older than himself, “strove to exhibit in her style some of the elaborate but least natural embellishments of literary composition.” His affection for her led him to desire her portrait, though with the delicacy of inquiring if he might make the request; and she took some trouble to accompany it with the “artificial flowers of rhetorical diction.” Her letter is an interesting specimen of her style:—
Like as the richeman that dayly gathereth riches to riches, and to one bag of money layeth a greate sort til it come to infinit, so methinks your Majestie, not beinge suffised withe many benefits and gentilnes shewed to me afore this time, dothe now increase them in askinge and desiring wher you may bid and commande, requiring a thinge not worthy the desiringe for it selfe, but made worthy for your Higthnes request. My pictur I mene, in wiche if the inward good mynde towarde your grace migth as wel be declared as the outwarde face and countenaunce shal be seen, I wold nor have taried the commandement, but preuent [prevented] it, nor have bine the last to graunt, but the first to offer it. For the face I graunt I might wel blusche to offer, but the mynde I shal never be asbamed to present. For thogth from the grace of the pictur the coulers may fade by time, may give by weather, may be spotted by chance; yet the other nor time with her swift winges shal ouertake, nor the mistie cloudes with ther loweringes may darken, nor chance . with her slipery fote may overthrow. Of this althogth yet the profe coulde not be greate because the occasions hath bine but smal, notwithstandinge as a dog hathe a day, so may I perchaunce have time to declare it in dides wher now I do write them but in wordes. And further I shal most humbly beseche your Maiestie that when you shal loke on my pictur you wil witsafe [vouchsafe] to thinke that as you have but the outwarde shadow of the body afore you, so my inward minde wischeth that the body it selfe wer oftner in your presence; howbeit bicause bothe my so beinge I thinke coulde do your Maiestie litel pleasur thogth my selfe great good; and againe bicause I se as yet not the time agreing therunto, I shal lerne to folow this
sainge of Orace [Horace] “Feras non culpes quod vitairi non potest,” [Bear not blame what cannot be avoided.] And thus I wil (troblinge your Maiestie I fere) ende with my most humble thankes, besechinge God longe to preserve you to his honour, to your comfort, to the realme's profit and to my joy. From Hatfilde this 15 day of May, Your Maiesties most humbly sistar, ELIZABETH. This letter very well illustrates the remark of her tutor Ascham, that she was a great admirer of metaphor and antithesis. Of the few letters which exist, from Elizabeth to her brother, there is another which commences in precisely the same elaborate manner. Like as a shipman in stormy wether plukes downe the sailes tarijnge for bettar winde, so did I most noble kinge, in my unfortunate chanche a thurday pluk downe the hie sailes of my ioy and comfort, and do trust one day, that as troblesome waves have repulsed me bakwarde, so a gentil winde wil bringe me forwarde to my haven. After her father's death, Elizabeth resided for some time with her step-mother, the Queen Dowager, who married the Lord Seymour of Sudley, the ambitious and unfortunate brother of the Protector Somerset. The palace of Hatfield was afterwards. her residence; and in 1551, Edward granted to her the old abbey of Ashridge, which, at the dissolution of the monasteries, became a royal house. She occasionally visited her brother's court; and Strype records an instance of her riding through London in great state, to the palace of St. James:— March 17, 1551. The lady Elizabeth, the king's sister, rode through London unto St. James's, the king's palace, with a great company of lords, knights, and gentlemen; and after her a great company of ladies and gentlemen on horseback, about two hundred. On the 19th, she came from St. James's through the park to the court; the way from the park-gate unto the court spread with fine sand. She was attended with a very honourable confluence of noble and worshipful persons of both sexes, and received with much ceremony at the court-gate.” A very curious memorial of the domestic affairs of the Princess Elizabeth, about this time, has been preserved—namely, the Household Book for a year, from the 1st of October, 1551, to the last day of September, 1552. It is entitled “Th’Accumpte of Thomas Parry Esquyer, Couferor [Cofferer, to the righte excellent Princesse the Ladie Elizabeth, her Grace the King's Majestie's most honorable Sister.” Every page is signed at the bottom by the Princess herself. The sum total of receipts, including the “remayne of the preceding year,” amounts to 579 ll. 1s. 3}d., with the third part of a farthing. The total amount of the payments within the time of the accompt, is 36291. 18s. 84d. ; and there was left for the wants of the next year, a “remayne” of 15071. 0s. 0.4d., a half farthing and the third part of a farthing, which sum is stated to have been delivered into her Grace's own hands upon the determination of this accompt. The expenses of the house amounted to 3938l. 18s. 7d. ; but deductions for “hides, felles, and intrails of the cattle,” supplied 2071. 3s. 84d. Under the Buttry and Cellar, great quantities of Beer are entered with “swete wine,” “Raynishe wine,” and “Gascoigne wine.” Board wages for servants are continually mentioned. Lamprey pies are once entered as a present. The wages of household servants for a quarter of a year, amounted to 821. 17s. 8d. The “ lyveries” of velvet coats for xiij gentlemen, at xl". The lyveries of the yeomen to 78l. 18s. There is also a sum of 7l. 15s. 8d., mentioned as “given in almes at sundrie times to poor men and women.” Among the entries of the Chamber and Robes are the following:— Paid to John Spithonius the xvijth of Maye, for bokes, and to Mr. Allin for a Bible, xxvijo. iiijd. Paid the thurde of November to the kepar of Herforde gayle for fees of John Wingfelde lying in warde, xiii. iijo.
Paid to Edmunde Allin for a Bible xxs. Paid the xiiijth of December to Blaunche Parry for her half yeres annuitie, co., and to Blaunche Qurtnaye for the like, lxvis. viijd. Paid the xiiijth of December at the Cristening of Mres. Pendred's childe as by warraunte doth appeare, La. Paid in reward unto sondrie persons at St. James, her Grace then being there, viz.:-The king's fotemen xls. The under kepar of St. James xs. The Gardener vs. To one Russel, grome of the Kinge's great chamber xs. John Forman xs. To the Warderobe xls. The Violans xls. A Frenchman that gave a boke to her Grace xs. The kepar of the Parke Gate of St. James x's. Mr. Staunfords serwants xx". The Lorde Russell's minstralls x*. In th' ole, as by warrant appereth, ixli. xvs. Paid in o to sondrie persons the xth of August, viz., to Farmer that plaied on the lute, xxxs. To Mr. Ashfelde servant, with ij prise oxen & x muttons, xxs. More, the harper, xxxs. To him that made her Grace a table of walnut-tree, xliiijs. ix.d. And to M. Cocke's servaunte which brought her Grace sturgeon, vis, viijd. Our engraving contains a portrait of Elizabeth, originally taken from a picture by Holbein, executed in the year 1551, when she was about eighteen years of age. A Venetian ambassador, who was in England a few years afterwards, in the report which, in conformity with the practice of his state, he presented to the Doge and Senate, thus describes her personal appearance: She is a lady of great elegance, both of body and mind, although her face may rather be called pleasing than beautiful. She is tall and well made; her complexion, fine though rather sallow; her eyes, but above all her hands, which she takes care not to conceal, are of superior beauty. Camden, as has been seen, describes her in her youth as being of “admirable beauty.” The simplicity of Elizabeth's costume in this portrait, offers a remarkable contrast to that fantastic style of decoration in which she afterwards delighted to display her person. Holbein was remarkably careful in preserving the features of costume, and we have other testimony to his correctness in this instance. “With respect to personal decoration,” says her tutor Ascham, in the letter before quoted, “she greatly prefers a simple elegance to show and splendour, so despising the outward adorning of plaiting the hair and wearing of gold, that, in the whole manner of her life, she rather resembles Hippolyta than Phaedra.” Dr. John Elmer, or Aylmer, who was tutor to Lady Jane Grey and her sisters, and became Bishop of London in Elizabeth's reign, thus speaks of the taste of the princess in this respect when young, in a work entitled,—A Harbour for faithful Subjects. The king left her rich clothes and jewels; and I know it to be true, that, in seven years after her father's death, she never in all that time looked upon that rich attire and precious jewels but once, and that against her will. And that there never came gold or stone upon her head till her sister forced her to lay off her former soberness, and bear her company in her glittering gayness; and then she so wore it as every man might see that her body carried that which her heart misliked. I am sure that her maidenly apparel, which she used in King Edward's time, made the noblemen's daughters and wives to be ashamed to be dressed and painted like peacocks, being more moved with her most virtuous example than with all that ever Peter or Paul wrote touching that matter. Yea, this I know, that a great man's daughter, (Lady Jane Grey,) receiving from Lady Mary, before she was queen, good apparel of tinsel, cloth of gold, and velvet, laid on with parchment-lace of gold, when she saw it said, “what shall I do with it?” “Marry,” said a gentlewoman, “wear it.” “ Nay," quoth she, “that were a shame to follow my Lady Mary against God's word, and leave my Lady Elizabeth, which followeth God's word.” And when all the ladies at the coming of the Scots Queen Dowager, Mary of Guise, (she who visited England in Edward's time,) went with their hair frownsed, curled, and double curled, she altered nothing, but kept her old maidenly shamefacedness. 361—2
ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BIBLE FROM THE MONUMENTS OF ANTIQUITY.
Potte RY AND GLAss MAKING.
THE art of pottery is closely connected with that of brick-making last described, and many allusions are made to the process by the sacred writers. Most of our readers have probably witnessed this interesting operation. A formless lump of clay is placed on a revolving stone; as the wheel turns, a mere touch of the finger suffices to give it shape, the same process hollows the inside and forms the exterior. The simplicity of this plastic process compared with the beauty of the result, suggests a very vivid illustration of the Power which formed man out of the clay; thus Isaiah says, “But now, O Lord, thou art our father; we are the clay, --- and thou our potter; pottr it ronxiiNG tile CLAY. We all are the work of thy hand." (Isaiah Lxiv. 8). The lesson of our dependence on our Creator is also inculcated by a reference to the same imagery. “Woe unto him that striveth with his Maker! Let the potsherd strive with the potsherds of the earth. Shall the clay say to him that fashioneth it, What makest thou? or thy work, He hath no hands?” (Isaiah xlv. 9). A still more remarkable use of this illustration is in Jeremiah, where, under the type of a potter, God shows his absolute power in disposing of nations. “The word which came to Jeremiah from the Lord, saying, Arise, and go down to the potter's house, and there I will cause thee to hear my words. Then I went down to the potter's house, and, behold, he wrought a work on the wheels. And the vessel that he made of clay was marred in the hand of the potter: so he made it again another vessel, as seemed good to the potter to make it. Then the word of the Lord came to me, saying, O house of Israel, cannot I do with you as this potter? saith the Lord. Behold, as the clay is in the potter's hand, so are ye in mine hand, O house of Israel.” (Jeremiah xviii. 1–6). When the vessels were formed by the potter, they were burned or baked in a kiln. It will be seen from the accompanying engraving, that the fire was kindled at the bottom, and a great heat produced by the draft of hot air through a long and narrow chimney. Several of the vessels were broken in the manufacture, and these, when thrown into a heap, afforded shelter to snakes, reptiles, and disgusting insects, so that the phrase of “being among the potsherds" was frequently used in the East, to signify the lowest degree of degradation. This circumstance may, perhaps, explain a passage, usually regarded as one of the most difficult in the Psalms:—“Though ye have lien among the pots, yet shall ye be as the wings of a dove covered with silver, and her feathers with yellow gold.” (Psalms Lxviii. 13). It only remains to be added, that pottery among the Egyptians was a more honourable employment
than brick-making, and was not attended with such fatigue and injury to the constitution. The Egyptian potters were eminent for their artistic skill; their vases * are fully equal to the most beautiful specimens of Greece and Etruria; indeed, there is every reason to believe, that both these mations originally derived the art of pottery from Egypt. One of the most remarkable inventions of a remote era, was the manufacture of glass, with which the Egyptians were acquainted more than three thousand years ago. Of this we have the clearest possible evidence, not only from numerous specimens of the articles themselves, found in the tombs, and among the ruins of the temples, but also from the painted representations of the processes of manufacture, preserved in the same situations, and from which the illustrations of the whole of this series of papers are copied. They were not only skilled in the art of fusing the materials, but also in the use of the blowpipe, an invention so ingenious that its presence alone indicates a very high degree of civilization. The fusion of glass was closely connected with the art of pottery, for many of the vases and fictile ornaments are glazed over with a vitrefied substance containing the proper proportions of the ingredients for making glass. It was generally believed by the ancients that Egypt produced a peculiar species of earth without which glass of the best quality could not be manufactured; it is not easy to discover the nature of this substance from the loose descriptions transmitted to us, but it is said that the beads and ornaments formed from it possessed all the lustre and brilliancy of the diamond. The specimens of Egyptian beads preserved in the different museums of Europe, show that this description is far from being exaggerated. In some of them colours are blended with more exquisite skill than in any specimens of modern art with which we are acquainted; and in others pieces of coloured glass are made to form beautiful mosaics, an art which is now so rarely practised on account of the great difficulty of finding a proper flux for the glass, that many writers have doubted the possibility of the process. It is singular that glass beads, both round and oblong, were used by ladies in ornamental work so early as the days of Moses just as they are by modern embroiderers. The oblong beads, or as they are usually called, bugles, were strung into a great variety of fanciful patterns. In the Egyptian collection belonging to the king of the French, there is a lady's reticule formed of bugles, whose workmanship is of extraordinary beauty. The sacred beetle is a conspicuous ornament in the centre, and at the sides there are figures of stags, wrought with a life and spirit which could scarcely be expected from such a mechanical process. The glass manufacturers were particularly skilful in the art of counterfeiting precious stones. Specimens of these are frequently found in the tombs, and we find that the artists were most successful in imitating the rich green of the emerald, and the brilliant purple of the amethyst. This manufacture of false stones seems to have been practised, not so much for the purposes of deception, as with the design of enabling persons in the middle and lower ranks of life to imitate, at a cheap rate, the luxuries of their superiors. The Jewellers in the following engraving are probably employed in preparing some of these factitious ornaments which were no where so common as in Egypt. Mr.Wilkinson, whose valuable and interesting work on the Domestic Manners of the Ancient Egyptians has been published since these papers were commenced, makes the following remarks on this subject:—
* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. VIII, p. 32.
Many false stones, in the form of beads, have been met with in different parts of Egypt, particularly at Thebes; and so far did the Egyptians carry this spirit of imitation, that even small figures, scarabaei, and objects made of ordinary porcelain, were counterfeited, being composed of still cheaper materials. A figure, which was entirely of earthenware, with a glazed exterior, underwent a somewhat more complicated process than when cut out of stone, and simply covered with a vitrefied coating; this last could therefore be sold at a low price: it offered all the brilliancy of the former, and its weight alone betrayed its inferiority; by which means, whatever was novel, or pleasing from its external appearance, was placed within reach of all classes; or, at least, the possessor had the satisfaction of appearing to partake in each fashionable novelty.
Such inventions, and successful endeavours to imitate costly ornaments by humbler materials, not only show the progress of art among the Egyptians, but strongly argue the great advancement they had made in the customs of civilized life; since it is certain, that until society has arrived at a high degree of luxury and refinement, artificial wants of this nature are not created, and the lower classes do not yet feel the desire of imitating their wealthy superiors, in the adoption of objects dependent on taste or accidental caprice.
Jewell. Elis Making GLASS OR nameNTs.
Though glass was principally used for fancy works, it was also employed in the manufacture of bottles, vases, and other utensils, but especially wine cups. In the later ages, when the Romans conquered Egypt, the use of glass vases nearly superseded those of gold and silver. Indeed, some of them were so exquisitely wrought, that they were more valuable than if they had been formed of the precious metals. It is said that Alexander the Great was buried in a glass coffin, and there is no doubt that the Egyptian artists could have produced a vitrefied mass sufficiently large for the purpose. But it is more probable that the coffin, or sarcophagus, was only glazed over; because we find that it was not unusual to have a granite sarcophagus after it had been carved, covered with a coating of vitrefied matter, not very different from that used in the manufacture of our common green bottles. This process displayed the sculptures and hieroglyphics carved upon the granite with great clearness, while it preserved their point and finish safe from the injuries of time. The porcelain of the Egyptians was a species of glass very similar to that invented in modern times by the celebrated Reaumur, who, almost within our memory, discovered the art of working glass into a substance not very unlike china-ware. From the great beauty of the Egyptian glass-works, they were esteemed very highly in the remote ages. It is distinctly mentioned by Job, who calls it Zekukith, a word which our translators have rendered “crystal,” because when their translation was made, the antiquity »f glass had not been so decisively proved, as in our times. “The gold and the crystal cannot equal it (wisdom).” (Job xxviii. 17.) The manufacture of caskets and other such articles of combined ornament and utility was very extensive; these, indeed, were, next to the linens and cottons, the most important exports from the valley of the Nile. Some were enamelled, others very elaborately carved and adorned with studs of metal. The peculiar style
of ornamental oordering on some of the caskets, and the spirit of the figures portrayed upon them, could scarcely be paralleled even by the best of our modern artists.
ANCIENT EGY Ptian casket.
Connected with this branch of Egyptian manufactures, we may notice the seal-rings, many of which were made of glass, because the impressions could be carved more easily upon this substance than upon stone. Job speaking of the subjection of the earth to the Almighty, says “it is turned as clay to the seal,” whence we find that even before the days of Moses, the process of taking impressions upon some soft substance with a seal was so common that it was used as a familiar illustration in a poem, whose date is probably anterior to the invention of alphabetic writing. The seal was worn as a ring upon the finger, or as the ornament of a bracelet; the former custom prevailed every where before the invention of watches, and is not yet wholly disused. In the Bible we find the seal of a king, or of a witness to an important deed, frequently substituted for the sign manual. Thus in the case of a royal decree, we read in the book of Esther, “Then were the king's scribes called on the thirteenth day of the first month, and there was written according to all that Haman had commanded unto the king's lieutenants, and to the governors that were over every province, and to the rulers of every people of every province according
to the writing thereof, and to every people after their
language; in the name of king Ahasuerus was it written, and sealed with the king's ring.” Esther iii. 12. It will be remembered by most of our readers, that recourse was had in England to the same expedient when the increasing disease of his majesty George IV., rendered it impossible for him to affix his signature to papers of state. The seal in Eastern nations, indeed, is still frequently used as a stamp, being rubbed over with ink and then applied to the necessary document. The use of the seal by subscribing witnesses to bonds or deeds is mentioned by Jeremiah: “Men shall buy fields for money, and subscribe evidences, and seal them, and take witnesses in the land of Benjamin, and in the places about Jerusalem, and in the cities of Judah, and in the cities of the mountains, and in the cities of the valley, and in the cities of the south : for I will cause their captivity to return, saith the Lord.” (Jeremiah xxxii. 44). The seal was also used, to detect whether any particular door of a box, safe, or building was opened without the owner's permission, and it was also applied to bags for the same purpose. Thus Job, “my transgression is sealed up in a bag, and thousewest up mine iniquity." (Job. xiv. 17). It seems also probable that documents were frequently sealed up like modern wills, in order that they should not be opened until after a certain specified time. Thus in the visions of Daniel we read that the “celestial