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the level of the surface. The Flesk is crossed by a bridge over which runs the road to the town of Killarney, bordered by tall lime-trees. From the river Flesk to the road leading from the town to Ross Castle, the flat is occupied by small fields, bare of trees, and mostly divided by stone fences, and on the opposite side beyond the road, are the gardens and pleasure-grounds attached to the mansion of the Earl of Kenmare.
These pleasure-grounds are not, however, wholly on a low level surface. The flat ends at the little stream called the Deanagh, which, running from the north and passing almost close to the town, bends suddenly off and empties its waters into the lake. Beyond, or on the north of this river, the ground is diversified with gentle knolls covered with verdure, and adorned with some fine trees, beneath which there are walks commanding very charming prospects of the lake.
Upon the low flat which we have thus described as stretching inland for some distance from the eastern shore of the Lower Lake, stands the town of Killarney, about a mile from the water. It is comprised within the parish of the same name, in the barony of Magunihy, in the county of Kerry, and in the province of Munster; it lies to the south-west of Dublin, at a distance of 224 miles; its distance from Cork is only 45 miles. It boasts of two broad streets, called respectively the Old street and the New street, besides several smaller ones, more deserving of the appellation of lanes. The public buildings are not worthy of any particular notice. Mr. Wright mentions a public reading-room, to which strangers are politely invited by a singular announcement, to the effect that none but members or strangers are admitted. The mansion of Lord Kenmare, with its park and grounds, of which we have already spoken, adjoins the town, and generally attracts some of the attention of the visiter. The linen manufacture has made considerable progress under the patronage of the noble proprietor of the town, and the inhabitants derive great benefit from the visits of strangers during the Summer and Autumn.
The first object (says Mr. Barrow,) that catches the eye of the stranger on driving into the town, is the prodigious number of idlers lounging at every corner of the streets. The town itself, at least the main street, is pretty enough, but on either side the lanes and alleys have a dirty appearance, and the people strolling about were not at all prepossessing. There was stirring enough, however, as we drove up to the Kenmare Arms Hotel, where the coach stopped; here I found myself instantly surrounded, jolted, and Jostled by a set of hungry-looking feliows, who all at once began to assail me with open mouths. One offered himself and his boat, the best in all Killarney,+another his pony to take me to the gap, a third slily recommended the other two “to get out of that, for shure the gintleman knows what he likes best, and then confidentially whispering in my ear, —'Shure, your honour, mine's the best pony in the world to carry you to the top of Mangerton. Escaping from this troublesome group comes a fellow directly in front, with his pool. full of divers-sized packets of Arbutus-seed, which e assures,-' there's niver the gintleman comes to Killarney that doesn't buy some to take home wid him." Add to all these some dozen or two beggars, male and female, who fill up the outer circle, and the whole time chime in with their pious ejaculations, blessing, and praying, and preserving his honour's long life, and his honour's father and mother, and his wife and children; and these again are interrupted by a heap of ragged errand-boys, offering to go to the post-office for his honour's letters, or, in short, to do anything in the world for sixpence; and, lastly, come the pressing and polite invitations of the waiters of the respective inns, which, however, is not peculiar to Ireland. From this specimen you may form some slight idea of the hearty and welcome reception a stranger meets with on his arrival at Killarney.
The greatest inconvenience, however, chargeable
upon Killarney, as Mr. Wright says, is the distance of the town from the lake. It was not possible to have fixed, in all the neighbourhood, upon a worse situation for the site of a village; the backs of the houses are turned towards the lake, the view of which is totally excluded by Lord Kenmare's woods, and but for the supply yielded by a few wells, there would not be any fresh water in the village, although there are rivers at a short distance on every side. Not far from the town, two small rivers, the Deanagh and the Flesk, fall into the lake. If the town had been built at the mouth of either of these streams, and especially at the mouth of the latter, it would have enjoyed advantages of which it is now deprived, and visiters would have them had little ground of complaint. The inns in the town are generally crowded during the lake season. Mr. Barrow gives an amusing picture of the scene which one of them presented. I had no sooner (he says) taken my seat in the coffeeroom, than I found myself in the very midst of tourists. In one corner sat half-a-dozen noisy and merry looking fellows, clustered together, with an array of maps stretched out before them, talking over the exploits of the day, and making arrangements for the morrow. In another might be seen some solitary tourist (like myself), poring over a well thumbed “Guide to the Lakes," and ever and anon seeking information or explanation from the waiter. Some
were busily employed with their knives and forks, in dif-,
ferent parts of the room; while others were amusing themselves with reading over the names of the numerous visiters contained in the book that is kept for their insertion, and in which may be found what are intended for flashes of wit. I once peeped into this general consignment of experimental efforts of genius, and having i.e. amongst some other equally valuable information, “that the port at the Kenmare Arms was," in the opinion of the writer, “finer than any port on the lakes," I felt satisfied, and hastily closed the volume.
On account of its low situation, as well as the intervening woods, the town of Killarney commands no prospect of the magnificent lake scenery; indeed, from no part of the flat in which the town stands, can any considerable portion of the lake be seen. But if the spectator advance inland across the flat and ascend the hills which bound it, he soon obtains some very charming views, perpetually varying in the most striking manner. The contrast between the confined glimpses obtained from the low plain and the broad expanding prospects which the rising hills command, will impress him with increasing force the higher he mounts. From that part of the flat which lies adjacent to the river Flesk, the small patches of the lake which he beholds appear like the windings of that stream. On ascending the rising ground, the wooded islands become more distinct; and the lake, instead of appearing like a dilution of the Flesk, rather wears the aspect of “a majestic navigable river, which received its tributary stream while rolling on through a spacious valley." Higher still on the hills, the view opens wider, and the actual form of the lake is fully displayed. From several positions on the hills, particularly from parts of the extensive deer park of Lord Kenmare, the prospect of the flat shore between the spectator and the water is effectually excluded by the trees on the slope beneath him ; his eye therefore looking over his own wooded foreground, and lighting in the distance upon the woods of Mucruss on the one side, and those stretching along the western border of the lake to the river Laume on the other, he might imagine that the shores of the lake were covered with a vast forest from end to end.
The river Laune is the only outlet of the Lakes of Killarney, their superfluous waters flowing through its channel into the Atlantic at Dingle Bay. Its source, or rather commencement, is at the northwestern corner of the Lower Lake, whence it runs in a rapid course between the end of the hills on the northern bank, and the end of the vast mountain mass which lies on the western bank. Soon after leaving the lake it is crossed by a bridge; near which stands Dunloh Castle, the remnant of an ancient fortress, which seems to have been originally erected for the purpose of guarding the river, and a defile in the great chain of mountains. It stands on the summit of a small conical hill, whose apex has been cut away to afford a more convenient space for building; and its position must have rendered it, until the introduction of cannon into modern warfare, a place of great strength. It suffered considerably in the wars of the Earl of Desmond, during the reigns of Henry the Eighth and Queen Elizabeth ; but it was rebuilt about the period of Sir George Carew's administration in Munster. Subsequently, when the forces of the Parliament came into this part of Ireland, the castle was again attacked, and a great part of it demolished by a bombardment. The only part of the edifice now standing is a square tower, which constituted but a small portion of the original fabric; this has been converted into a dwelling-house, “which affords more room and convenience than could be expected from the exterior aspect.” Owing to the extraordinary thickness of the woods covering the hill upon which the building stands, no part of the lake or of the surrounding country is seen from the area in front of the castle, and even the windows afford but a very confined view ; the battlements, however, command a noble prospect of the lake, and of the windings of the river Laune. Our engraving represents the castle as it appears from the banks of the river; in the distance appears the defile or opening in the mountains already mentioned. This defile, which lies between Tomies Mountains and Macgillicuddy's Reeks, is called the Gap of Dunloh. The entrance is formed by the Holly Mountain and the Bull Mountain, which are shoots from the two larger masses above mentioned. Amidst the vast mountainous region on the western side of the county of Kerry, there is no scene which exhibits a more varied and sublime combination of the boldest features of uncultivated nature than the Gap of Dunloh. By some terrific and mighty operation, the chain of mountains at this place seems to have been abruptly severed, and the stupendous rocks of which it was formed rent asunder and dispersed in wild disorder through the chasm. On the brow of the mountain which guards the entrance on the right hand, immense projecting masses of stone, suspended in their lofty beds, overhang the pass, threatening destruction to all who approach this savage solitude; and the vast fractured stones which are observable at the base of the cliff, plainly indicate that the danger has not always been imaginary. One almost shudders at thinking of the horrible crash which must have been produced by these ponderous stones Tumbling all precipitate down dashed, Rattling round loud thundering to the moon, whilst the echoes in the still of retirement repeated the tremendous sound through the windings of the vale. A clear stream at the bottom of the defile winds amongst the rocks, - - - - - - - - - - - .....now rapid and now slow, Now murmuring soft, now roaring in cascades.
This stream forms a communication between a chain of small lakes, some of which are very deep, but others seem only to be a dilatation of the stream, where it has been obstructed in its course by the accumulated ruins of the impending precipice.
The entrance to the gap is very narrow; and the
mountains on each side rise perpendicularly. At a short distance within is a little wild romantic glen, containing a small lake, the waters of which, from the shade cast upon them by the enormous mountain which hangs above, assume a peculiarly dark hue. As the visitor penetrates further into the defile, his admiration of the wild and savage scenery which surrounds him gradually gives way to a feeling of awe. At one point the defile becomes so narrow that there is space merely for the scanty road and the little dark gloomy lake beside it; on either side are steep precipitous crags, while in every direction are seen enormous masses which have been detached from the body of the mountains. Such, indeed, is the fearful sublimity of the pass at this particular spot, that instances have been known in which persons became so paralyzed with terror on reaching it, that nothing could induce them to advance further and brave the apprehension which had seized them, that the mountain might fall and overwhelm them. There are two small bridges thrown across the stream which runs through the defile, at the narrowest parts of the channel; they are of very simple though solid structure, and are in good keeping with the character of the scenery. One of them situated at the head of a cascade, and resting at each end on a single stone, has a very romantic appearance. The object of the bridge is to carry the road from one side of the defile to the other, where the obstacles on the former happen to be insurmountable. The road itself has been formed with considerable skill. In some places it passes along the edge of precipices where the way has been with difficulty cut through the solid stone; in others between immense detached rocks which have fallen from the mountain, and which are just sufficiently separated from each other to admit a single carriage, thus affording a natural passage that could not have been opened elsewhere without prodigious labour and expense. At one particular part of the pass the road runs along the margin of a black pool, “and is so unprotected as to inspire the equestrian traveller with fears that should his horse trip he might be precipitated into the lake.” But a scene of this description (says Mr. Wright), defies the address of the most expert tourist and the pencil of the ablest master: it must be seen to be understood. Those who have visited the passes of Borrowdale, in Cumberland, may form a faint idea of the chilling dreary grandeur of Dunloh; but the pass of Llanberris in North Wales, bears a still greater resemblance, and he who has seen the Gap of Dunloh will not be over-awed by the sublimity of Llanberris, nor will the deep-rooted inlage of Dunloh be eradicated by the combined beauty and grandeur of Borrowdale". The defile is three miles in length, and at the termination of it a view of the Upper Lake is to be had. It opens into the vale of Comme Duff, through which the road proceeds. Nearly opposite the termination of the gap is a beautiful waterfall of considerable height, and always plentifully supplied. The waters of this fall flow into a succession of small lakes, occupying the whole length of the valley; in some of these are islands bearing shrubs on their surface and decorated with water-lilies. * “The scenery,” says Sir R. C. Hoare, “is truly Alpine, and on a grand scale : the track rugged, but well worth the trouble of ascending. The horrors of the black surrounding rocks are much heightened by their reflections in the different lakes at their base. The scenery resembles that of the Pass of Llanberris under Snowdon in North Wales, but the vegetation amongst the rocks is much
more luxuriant. I his valley and pass afford many good subjects for the pencil, and are highly worthy the artist's attention.”
It is the virtue of few words, to render plain that which thousands have obscured; as one glass will transmit a bright image of the sun, where hundreds produce but darkness and confusion.—Macculloch.
ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BIBLE FROM THE MONUMENTS OF ANTIQUITY.
No. IX. EARLY History of Moses.
MANY readers of the Bible are confused by finding the same name given to very different persons; in the earlier ages of the world proper names were not applied with the same regularity that they are now, titles of rank were frequently used in their place, and more especially the national titles of sovereigns. Pharaoh was the Egyptian designation of a king, and hence we find it given as the name of the monarch who received Abraham, of him to whom Joseph was minister, and of the foreign conqueror who so cruelly persecuted the Israelites. This usage has not quite disappeared; in works of modern history we find the term Sultan, employed to designate the ruler of Turkey, without the addition of his proper name; and the name of the Great Mogul similarly applied to the emperor of Delhi; and some writers omitting to mention changes in the succession have frequently led historical students into serious errors. To avoid such mistakes, we shall designate the Pharaoh who persecuted the Israelites, Pharaoh the Third, not because he stands third in the order of succession, but because he is the third mentioned in Holy Writ. Pharaoh the Third found that the severe tasks he imposed on the Israelites did not prevent the continued increase of their numbers, “The people multiplied and waxed very mighty.” (Exod. i. 20.) The tyrant, therefore, had recourse to the barbarous expedient of extermination, and ordered all the male children to be slain. Several sceptics have sneered at the improbability of such cruelty, though it is far from being without a parallel even in modern history. We have shown that Pharaoh the Third was the sovereign of an intrusive race of conquerors, whose position in relation to the native Egyptians and the Israelites was very similar to that of the Turks with respect to the Greeks and the Armenians. It is not generally known that, though Turkey in Europe contains more than eight millions of inhabitants, the Turks themselves do not amount to half a million, but their position as a dominant caste enables them to rule over fifteen-sixteenths of the population. Turkish sultans have been as much alarmed by the increase of their hostile subjects as Pharaoh the Third, and though they never have completely adopted his plan of extermination, they have sanctioned partial massacres, and more than once prepared to follow the system of destroying the Christian males to its fullest extent. When we read of the massacres perpetrated by the Spartans on the Helots, whenever the increase of their numbers rendered them formidable, we cannot doubt that a dominant caste, such as that which ruled Egypt under Pharaoh the Third, will hesitate at no act of cruelty, however atrocious, to ensure and continue its superiority. In the midst of this cruel persecution Moses was born, and was concealed three months by his mother; when she could no longer hide him, “she took for him an ark of bulrushes,” or as the words may more properly be translated, “a boat made out of the papyrus,” and placed him by the brink of the river. The papyrus *, from which we have derived the word “paper,” was anciently named byblus, and is the origin of the word “Bible,” which properly signifies a paper book. It is called al bardi by the modern inhabitants of Egypt, who do not, however, pay any attention to its cultivation. But in the early ages no plant was more important; the soft pith was
* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. IV. p. 208,
a common article of food, the stem supplied materials for small boats like canoes, and a variety of domestic utensils, while the inner rind of the plant, or, as some think, a certain preparation of the pulp, furnished materials for paper. It is well known that the byblus plant grows also in Europe, though only in one spot, namely, in the rivulet of Cyane, near the ancient city of Syracuse, in Sicily, but there it is produced in great abundance. The byblus, or papyrus, grows in shallow water, and shoots out a stalk of nine or ten feet high; the trunk is composed of a number of long straight fibres, which produce small flowers; the leaves are like the blades of a sword, and are frequently used to keep wounds open; the ancient Egyptians employed the ashes of the root as a cure for sores, and attributed to it great healing powers. The length of the stalk, the natural hollow when the pulp was removed, and the ease with which it was worked, pointed out the byblus as a proper material for boatbuilding. Herodotus tells us that large boats were formed from planks cut out of the root, which is frequently fifteen feet in length; that the light stem furnished a mast, and the manufactured papyrus supplied ropes and sails. But the smaller boats, or canoes, were probably formed from the light stem, like the wicker cots which are now used on the Upper Tigris. There are many delineations of the Nileboats on the monuments; some are evidently of very heavy burden, and are impelled both by ropes and sails: some are so small that they can only contain one person, who appears to be very careful in adjusting his equilibrium, lest he should overset the frail vessel. In the accompanying engraving the fisherman is represented in one of these boats, which seems to be particularly intended for shallow waters where fish might easily be speared. The papyrus boat in which Moses was exposed, was daubed with slime and pitch," that is, both with mineral and vegetable substances, to stop the chinks and keep out the water. employed for this purpose, is produced abundantly on the coasts of the Red Sea, and is so remarkable for its antiseptic properties, that it has been successfully applied to the manufacture of mummies. In the Museum of the Royal Asiatic Society of London, there is a human hand preserved by this mineral tar, so very perfect that the shape of the nails can be clearly seen. When the mother of Moses, therefore, had staunched the boat with this or some similar substance, she had reason to hope that it would float in safety, until some charitable person should take compassion upon the child. But in her immediate neighbourhood concealment was necessary, and “she laid it in the flags by the river's brink.” From the monuments we find that the water-plants of the Nile, especially the lotus-lily, grew sometimes to such a height that they formed lurking-places for fullgrown men. We see large nets for catching birds set in the marshes, watched by trappers who hide themselves in the lotus beds, and remain undiscovered until there is sufficient prey in the net. It is very probable that the sister of Moses availed herself of some such place of concealment, where she could watch the fate of the child without danger of detection. “The daughter of Pharaoh came down to wash herself at the river;" we can find no examples of baths on the monuments, and it seems probable that ladies bathed as freely in the Nile as they now do in the Ganges. When the daughter of Pharaoh beheld the weeping child, she had compassion on him and said, “This is
A mineral tar, frequently
one of the Hebrews' children.” We find from the monuments that the Israelites were marked by the peculiar physiognomy which characterizes the Jews of the present day, so that the instant the princess beheld the child, she was quite certain of its parentage. This is one of the minute traits which at once stamps the authenticity of a narrative, for it is one which at the first glance seems improbable, but being confirmed by undesigned coincidence, becomes the very strongest corroborative evidence. “She called his name Moses, (which signifies, drawn out); and she said, Because I drew him out of the water.” The circumstance of naming persons from some striking peculiarity must be familiar to every reader of the Old Testament. Though “Moses was instructed in all the wisdom of the Egyptians,” we find that he never forgot his parentage. It is probable, that in spite of the exalted patronage he enjoyed, the courtiers of Pharaoh failed not to remind him that he belonged to a degraded caste. This, indeed, is evident from the reproach of the Israelite whom Moses reproved for injuring one of his brethren, “Who made thee a prince and a judge over us?” In this passage, the word translated prince more properly signifies man. Now, in almost every example of a dominant caste established in a country, we find its members exclusively arrogating to themselves the title of man, as if their inferiors were below the ordinary level of humanity. Indeed, our English title baron, simply signifies man, and was introduced at the time of the Conquest, when the Normans reduced the Saxons to a state nearly as degraded as that of the Israelites during their Egyptian bondage. Nothing more forcibly proves the miserable condition of the Hebrews, than the readiness with which this delinquent adopted the reproachful language of the oppressors, and denied the title of man to the most exalted of his own nation. The reigning Pharaoh “sought to slay Moses;” an injury to one of a ruling caste is never forgiven. Were Pharaoh inclined to pardon Moses, it is probable that he would have found such an act of clemency beyond the limits of his power; even at this day, the sultan of Turkey would find it a very hazardous experiment to spare a Raya who had struck, much less slain a Turk. Moses fled into the land of Midian. There are two countries known by this name in Scripture; one eastwards of the Asphaltic Lake, on the confines of Moab, the other which afforded shelter to Moses, on the Elanitic Gulf of the Red Sea. The inhabitants
of the latter appear to have been a pastoral as well as a commercial race; they seem to have left the care of their flocks to women, which will account for the circumstance of the introduction of Moses to the daughters of Jethro. It may be added, that in this part of Arabia, the duty of attending the flocks is still regarded as a degrading employment by men, and generally falls on the female part of the population. During the Interval between the birth of Moses and his appearance before the sovereign of Egypt to claim permission for the children of Israel to go and worship God in the desert, the persecution of the Hebrews seems to have relaxed. A new Pharaoh most probably filled the throne, whose attention was not directed to the condition of his subjects in the land of Goshen until this application was made to him by Moses and Aaron. Pharaoh the Fourth revived the cruel policy of his predecessor: “Behold the people of the land now are many, and ye make them rest from their burdens.” (Exod. v. 5.) The respite, however, was doomed to be of no long continuance, and the tyrant soon invented a new refinement of oppression. “Ye shall no more give the people straw to make brick as heretofore: let them go and gather straw for themselves.” (Exod. v. 7.) Straw is not used in the modern manufacture of bricks, but anciently it was to connect and compact bricks dried in the sun. Bricks thus formed of straw and mud are still made in Egypt, and their ancient use is proved by the numbers found in the ruins of the brick pyramids. Pharaoh' the Fourth having thus deprived the labourers of the materials necessary for the manufacture in which they were engaged, insisted that they should still perform their allotted tasks. “And the tale of the bricks, which they did make heretofore, ye shall lay upon them; ye shall not diminish ought thereof: for they be idle : therefore they cry, saying, Let us go and sacrifice to our God. Let there be more work laid upon the men, that they may labour therein; and let them not regard vain words.” (Exod. v. 8, 9.) The unfortunate Israelites were thus forced to undertake a new labour. “So the people were scattered throughout all the land of Egypt, to gather stubble instead of straw.” (Exod. v. 12.) Many persons judging from our agricultural habits, might be led to suppose that Pharaoh required impossibilities; but as we have already observed in a former article of this series, the Egyptian reapers only cut off the ears of the corn, leaving the greater part of the stem untouched, so that the straw remained for
waste. Consequently, though the task imposed upon
Arsenic is but rarely found in a state of purity.
white powder, in which state Arsenic is commonly
| whether intended to be taken internally, or to be