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But what destruction works, with blade or blood.

He scornes the yeelded way, he fiercely raues

To breake and bruse the rancks in thickest throngs (II. i. 35-39.)

Let a few of the simpler forms suffice to dismiss this phase of the subject:

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Euen in that soyle whereof myself was Duke,

Where first my spowse Igerna brake her vowe (I. i. 43—44).
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The whiles, O Cassiopaea, gembright signe,

Most sacred sight and sweete Coelestiall starre (I. i. 54—55).

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This Clymats ioy, plac'd in imperiall throne

With fragrant Oliue branche portending peace:

And whose'r besides ye heauenly pow'rs. (I. i. 56–58).

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And milde aspect all prone to Bryttaines good,

Foresee what present plagues doe threat this Isle (I. i. 60 – 61).
Type:

An age for peace, religion, wealth and ease,

When all the world shall wonder at your blisse (I. i. 64--65).

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And dares he after nine yeares space returne,

And see her face whom he so long disdain'de (I. ii. 1—2).

If, instead of inquiring how our authors indulged their fancy for alliteration, we ask why they did so, we attain to results which are quite as interesting as those already deduced. We shall have to consider the question, then, in its relation to the subject-matter.

Alliteration is known to have considerable onomatopoetical capacity. Cf. Schipper: "Englische Metrik" II. i. 74. Hence we should expect to find it freely used, as in fact we do, in passages of:

a) Impassioned description. Compare the Nuntius' description of Arthur's Roman wars (II. i. 10—76); the Nuntius' description of the battle between the forces of Arthur and Mordred (IV. ii. 31–236).

b) Of impassioned command. Compare Mordred's speech to his assembled warriors (II. iv. 45-75); Arthur's speech to his generals (III. iii. 102–130).

c) Of impassioned moralizing. Compare Arthur's speeches to his generals (III. iii. 1—23), (III. i. 199–237), (III. iii. 1—75); Arthur's speech to Cador (III. iv. 7--27); Arthur's mourning over the outcome of his battle with Mordred (V. i. 64-75, 83-95).

d) Alliteration serves to impart an heroic tone to impassioned apostrophe. Compare Nuntius' address to his native Shores (II. i. 1—10); Arthurs' address to his dead son (V. i. 98-109, 117-132); Arthur's address to the Fates (V. i. 151–178).

e) Alliteration lends a color of emphasis and philosophic gravity to epigrammatical and sententious moralizing, of which the play is so full. See the notes for examples,. which are there cited as plagiarisms from Seneca.

f) Alliteration is very frequent in the Choruses and in Gorlois' prologue and epilogue, where it does double duty in again pointing the ever-recurring moral, and adorning the highly-wrought declamation of the ghost. with stateliness and swing of diction.

V. The Editions of the Play.

Its Spelling and Punctuation. Some Orthographical

Signs.

The recorded editions of "The Misfortunes of Arthur” are four in number:

1. The quarto-edition of 1587-8, of which the title reads: CERTAINE DE- u[is]es and shewes presented to her MAIESTIE by the Gentlemen of Grayes-Inne at her Highnesse Court in Greene wich, the twenty eighth day of | Februarie in the thirtieth yeare of her / MAIESTIES most happy / Raigne. / AT LONDON / Printed by Robert Robinson. / 1587. (Black letter, except introductory matter, etc.)

2. The edition "with illustrations and notes by J. P. Collier. S. Prowett: London, 1828."

3. Of this a second edition appeared "London: William Pickering, 1833".

Both 2 and 3 were intended to form a "supplement to the collections of Dodsley and others", the "Misfortunes of Arthur" being one of "Five Old Plays". of which the four others are: "Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntingdon", "Death of Robert Earl of Huntingdon", "Woman is a Weathercock", "Amends for Ladies". These two editions were doubtless intended to be reprints of the Garrick quarto. The reproduction of the orthography is generally true, except that the v and the j are systematically substituted for u and i where these letters are the equivalents of the modern v and j. The punctuation, however, has been violently and capriciously altered at many places.

*

***

4. The edition in "A Select Collection of Old English Plays. Originally published by Robert Dodsley in the year 1744 * revised and enlarged by W. Carew Hazlitt. Volume the fourth. London: Reeves and Turner, 1874." This edition is based on nos. 2 and 3. Its modernized orthography is to be charged to Hazlitt, its editor. The deviations of this edition from the Garrick quarto constitute no very flattering commentary on the care exercised by the editor. These deviations have been added to this book in an appendix.

Of the old quarto-edition there exist two exemplars: that known as the Garrick copy, which is in the keeping of the British Museum; and that known as the Kemble copy, which is in the possession of the Duke of Devonshire. The ensuing text is based on these two quartos. These are identical in every respect except two:

The Kemble copy shows the lack

1) Of certain cancellations and slips, of which an exposition and analysis have been made in another chapter (cp. p. 100). 2) Of the title-page and the introduction from the pen of Nicholas Trotte, both beautifully preserved in the Garrick exemplar.

The missing parts are prefixed to the printed text of K in fine, but quite legible, not to say pretty, script. A description of the Garrick text, which forms the basis of this study, will suffice for both.

This is a handsome little book, bound in yellow leather, and printed in black letter. It comprises altogether 30 leaves. The text is paged and exhibits the signatures A-F4G2. Trotte's Introduction is without signatures. The spelling, as is usual with Elizabethan quartos, varies with the caprice of the printer, as does also the punctuation. It has, nevertheless, for philological reasons, been thought best to preserve the spelling, although antique and whimsical, in its original form. It has

Grumbine, The Misfortunes of Arthur.

7

een carefully collated with the spelling in the Kemble copy, with which it has been found to agree letter for letter. The punctuation, however, has been altered at places where such alteration has been thought to help the sense. rule in this regard has always been, strict conservatism.

The

Relative to the punctuation-marks, it should be observed: that the colon (:) is almost generally used for the comma; that a peculiar sign consisting of a combination of colon and apostrophe (:) usually marks a question, though occasionally it follows an exclamation.

The more important deviations from the punctuation of the quartos are recorded in the notes.

A peculiar use of some orthographical signs claims. attention.

In words with a double e (ee) the acute accent is invariably found on the second e, thus (ee), in the Qq. Sometimes it appears to be over the space between the two letters. When this is the case, the accent has been printed over the first e, thus (ée), in our text. At a few places the macron (-) appears over the latter letter of a double e. Once in a while, the sign (~) is used in the

same way.

Comparison of the script title and introduction in the Kemble exemplar with some autograph verses by John Philip Kemble in the possession of Dr. Richard Garnett, formerly Keeper of the Books in the British Museum, shows a strong likeness in the two, but not such a uniform similarity as to warrant the conclusion that both had their origin in the same pen.

Hazlitt ("Handbook to the Popular Poetic and Dramatic Literature of Great Britain") tells us that this copy "cost J. P. Kemble £ 16-5 f, and that it "is probably the same as that sold at Smith's sale in 1787". He seemed, however. to be unaware that it lacks, besides the title-page, which

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