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rights, and the debtors gain what is another's—for nothing holds the state more firmly together than public credit, which can not at all exist unless the payment of money lent shall be compulsory. It never was more violently agitated than in my consulship, that debts should not be paid ; the matter was tried in arms and camps, by every• rank an! description of men, whom I resisted in such a inanner, that

jis mischief of such magnitude was removed from the state. Never was debt either greater, or better and more easily paid. For the hope of defrauding being frustrated, the necessity of paying followed. But on the other hand, this man, now our victor,' but who was vanquished then, has accomplished the things which he had in view, when it was now a matter of no importance to himself. So great way the desire in him of doing wrong, that the mere wrongdoing delighted him, although there was not a motive for it. From this kind of liberality, then, to give to some, to take from others, they will keep aloof who would preserve the commonwealth, and will take particular care that each may hold his own in equity of right and judgments; and peither that advantage be taken of the poorer class, on account of their humbleness, nor that envy be prejudicial to the rich,

either in keeping or recovering their own. They will besides · increase the power of the state in whatever way they can, cither abroad or at home, in authority, territories, tributes. These are the duties of great men. These were practiced among our ancestors ; they who persevere in those kinds of duties, will, along with the highest advantage to the republic, themselves obtain both great popularity and glory.. .

Now, in these precepts about things profitable, Antipater the Tyrian, a Stoic, who lately died at Athens, considers that two things are passed over by Panatius—the care of health and of property—which matters I fancy were passed over by that very eminent philosopher because they were obvious; they certainly are useful. Now, health is supported by understanding one's own constitution, and by observing what things are accustomed to do one good or injury;' and by temperance

i Cæsar, who was suspected of a share in Catiline's conspiracy, afterward, in the first year of his dictatorship, when he was himself no longer in debt, passed a law, abolishing the fourth part of all debts.

2 Lord Bacon might be supposed to have had this passage before him

in all food and manner of living, for the sake of preserving the body; and by forbearance in pleasures; and lastly, by the skill of those to whose profession these things belong. Wealth ought to be acquired by those means in which there is no disgrace, but preserved by diligence and frugality, and increased, too, by the same means. These matters Xenophon, the Socratic philosopher, has discussed very completely in that book which is entitled Economics, which I, when I was about that age at which you are now, translated from the Greek into Latin.

XXV. But a comparison of profitable things, since this was the fourth head, but passed over by Panætius, is often necessary. For it is usual to compare the good estate of the body with external advantages, and external with those of the body, and those of the body among themselves, and external with external. The good estate of the body is compared with external advantages in this manner, that you had rather be healthy than wealthy. External with those of the body in this manner, to be wealthy rather than of the greatest physical strength. Those of the body among themselves, thus, that good health should be preferred to pleasure, and strength to speed. But the comparison of external objects is thus, that glory should be preferred to wealth, a city income to a country one. Of which kind of comparison is that reply of Cato the elder, of whom, when inquiry was made, what was the best policy in the management of one's property, he answered, “ Good grazing.” “What was next ?” 5. Tolerable grazing." " What third ?” “ Bad grazing." “ What fourth ?” “ Tilling." And when he who had interrogated him inquired, “What do you think of lending at usury?” Then Caio answered, “What do you think of killing a man?" From which, and many other things, it

when he wrote the first paragraph of his thirtieth Essay on “Regimen of Health.” “There is a wisdom in this beyond the rules of physic; a man's own obseryation, what he finds good of, and what he finds hurt of, is the best physic to preserve health ; but it is a safer conclusion to say *This agreeth not well with me, therefore I will not continue it,' than this, 'I find no offense of this, therefore I may use it,' for strength of nature in youth passes over many excesses which are owing a man till his age. Discern of the coming on of years, and think not to do the same things still; for age will not be defied."-Bacon's Essays, Thirtieth Essay.

? "Many have made witty invectives against usury. They say that

ought to be understood that it is usual to make comparisons of profitable things; and that this was rightly added as a fourth head of investigating our duties. But about this cntire head, about gaining money, about letting it out, also about spending it, the matter is discussed to more advantago by certain most estimable persons' sitting at the middlo Janus, than by any philosophers in any school. Yet theso things ought to be understood ; for they relate to utility, about which we have discoursed in this book. We will next pass to what remains.

it is a pity the devil should have God's part, which is the tithe; that the usurer is the greatest Sabbath breaker, because his plow goeth every Sunday; that the usurer is the drone that Virgil speaketh of:

'Ignavum fucos pecus a præsepibus arcent:' that the usurer breaketh the first law that was made for mankind after the fall which was, 'in sudore vultus tui comedes panem tuum' not ‘in sudore vultus alieni :' that usurers should have orange-tawny bonnets, because they do judaise; that it is against nature for money to beget money, and the like. I say this only, that usury is a 'concessum propter duritiem cordis:' for since there must be borrowing and lending, and men are so hard of heart as they will not lend freely, usury must be permitted. Some others have made suspicious and cunning propositions of banks, discovery of men's estates, and other inventions; but few have spoken of usury usefully."-Bacon's Essay, Essay 41.

• He is speaking ironically of the usurers, numbers of whom frequented the middle Janus in the forum.



I. PUBLIUS SCIPIO, my son Marcus, he who first was surnamed Africanus, was accustomed, as Cato, who was nearly of the same age as he, has written, to say “that he was never less at leisure than when at leisure, nor less alone than when he was alone.” A truly noble saying, and worthy of a great and wise man, which declares that both in his leisure he was accustomed to reflect on business, and in solitude to converse with himself; so that he never was idle, and sometimes was not in need of the conversation of another. Thus, leisure and solitude, two things which cause languor to others, sharpened him. I could wish it were in my power to say the same. But if I can not quite attain to any intimation of so great an excellence of disposition, I come very near it, in will at least. For, being debarred by impious arms and force from public affairs and forensic business, I remain in retirement; and on that account having left the city, wandering about the fields, I am often alone. But neither is this leisure to be compared with tho leisure of Africanus, nor this solitude with that. For he, reposing froin the most honorable employments of the state, sometimes took leisure to himself, and sometimes betook himself from the concourse and haunts of men into his solitude as into a haven: but my retirement is occasioned by the want of business, not by the desire of repose. For, tho senate being extinct, and courts of justice abolished, what is there that I could do worthy of myself, either in the senatehouse or in the forum ? Thus, I who formerly lived in the greatest celebrity, and before the eyes of the citizens, now shunning the sight of wicked men, with whom all places abound, conceal myself as far as it is possible, and often am alone. But since we have been taught by learned men, that out of evils it is fit not only to choose the least, but also from those very evils to gather whatever is good in them, I therefore am both enjoying rest—not such, indeed, as he ought who formerly procured rest for the state,--and I am not allowing that solitude which necessity, not inclination, brings me, to be spent in idleness. Although, in my judgment, Africanus obtained greater praise. For there are extant no monuments of his genius committed to writingno work of his leisure—no employment of his solitude. From which it ought to be understood that he was never either idle or solitary, because of the activity of his mind, and the investigation of those things which he pursued in thought. But I who have not so much strength that I can be drawn away from solitude by silent thought, turn all my study and care to this labor of composition. And thus I have written more in a short time, since the overthrow ci the republic, than in the many years while it stood.,

II. But as all philosophy, my Cicero, is fruitful and profitable, and no part of it uncultivated and desert—so no part in it is more fruitful and profitable than that about duties, from which the rules of living consistently and virtuously are derived. Wherefore, although I trust you constantly hear and learn these matters from my friend Cratippus, the prince of the philosophers within our memory, yet I think it is beneficial that your ears should ring on all sides with such discourse, and that they, if it were possible, should hear nothing else. Which, as it ought to be done by all who design to enter upon a virtuous life, so I know not but it ought by no one more than you; for you stand under no small expectation of emulating my industry-under a great one of emulating my honors under no small one, perhaps, of my fame. Besides, you have incurred a heavy responsibility both from Athens and Cratippus; and since you have gone to these as to a mart for good qualities, it would be most scandalous to return empty, disgracing the reputation both of the city and of the master. Wherefore, try and accomplish as much as you can, labor with your mind and with your industry (if it be labor to learn rather than a pleasure), and do not permit that, when all things have been supplied by me, you should seem to have been wanting to yourself. But let this suffice; for we have often written much to you for the purpose of encouraging you. Now let u3 return to the remaining part of our proposer division.. .

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