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ity. As to a private man and citizen, his duty is to live upon a just and equal footing with his fellow-citizens, neither subordinate and subservient nor domineering. In his sentiments of the public to be always for peaceful and virtuous measures ; for such we are accustomed to imagine and describe a virtuous citizen.
Now the duty of a stranger and an alien is, to mind nothing but his own business, not to intermeddle with another, and leas: of all to be curious about the affairs of a foreign government. Thus we shall generally succeed in the practice of the moral duties, when we inquire after what is most becoming and best fitted to persons, occasions, and ages; and nothing is more becoming than in all our actions and in all our deliberations to preserve consistency.
XXXV. But, because the graceful or becoming character we treat of appears in all our words and actions, nay, in every motion and disposition of our person, and consists of three particulars, beauty, regularity, and appointment suited to action (ideas which indeed are difficult to be expressed, but it is sufficient if they are understood); and as in these three heads is comprehended our care to be approved by those among whom and with whom we live, on them also a few observations must be made. In the first place nature seems to have paid a great regard to the form of our bodies, by exposing to the sight all that part of our figure that has a beautiful appearance, whilo she has covered and concealed those parts which were given for the necessities of nature, and which would have been offersive and disagreeable to the sight.
This careful contrivance of nature has been imitated by the modesty of mankind; for all men in their senses conceal from the eye the parts which nature has hid; and they take
? Respecting the ultimate possession of political power by the governed, and the consequently delegated power of rulers, we have the following striking passage in “Hall's Liberty of the Press :” “With tho enemies of freedom it is a usual artifice to represent the sovereignty of the people as a license to anarchy and disorder. But the tracing of civil power to that source will not diminish our obligation to obey; it only explains its reasons, and settles it on clear determinate principles. It turns blind submission into rational obedience, tempers the passion for liberty with the love of order, and places mankind in a happy medium, between the extremes of anarchy on the one side, and oppression on the other. It is the polar star that will conduct us safe over the ocean of political debate and speculation, the law of laws, the legislator cf legislators." .
care that they should discharge as privately as possible even the necessities of nature. And those parts wbich serve those necessities, and the necessities themselves, are not called by their real names; because that which is not shameful ji privately performed, it is still obscene to describe. Therefore neither the public commission of those things, nor the obscene expression of them, is free from immodesty.
Neither are we to regard the Cynics or the Stoics, who are next to Cynics, who abuse and ridicule us for deeming things that are not shameful in their own nature, to become vicious through names and expressions. Now, we give every thing that is disgraceful in its own nature its proper term. Theft, fraud, adultery, are disgraceful in their own nature, but not obscene in the expression. The act of begetting children is virtuous, but the expression obscene. Thus, a great many arguments to the same purpose are maintained by these philosophers in subversion of delicacy. Let us, for our parts, follow nature, and avoid whatever is offensive to the eyes or ears; let us aim at the graceful or becoming, whether we stand or walk, whether we sit or lie down, in cvery motion of our features, our cycs, or our hands.
In those matters two things are chiefly to be avoided ; that there be nothing effeminate and foppish, nor any thing coarse and clownish. Neither are we to admit, that those considerations are proper for actors and orators, but not binding upon us. The manners at least of the actors, from the morality of our ancestors, are so decent that none of them appear upon the stage without an under-covering ; being afraid lest if by any accident certain parts of the body should be exposed, they should make an indecent appearance. According to our customs, sons grown up to manhood do not bathe along with their fathers, nor sons-in-law with their fathers-in-law. Modesty of this kind, therefore, is to be cherished, especially as nature herself is our instructor and guide.
XXXVI. Now as beauty is of two kinds, one that consists ia loveliness, and the other in dignity; loveliness we should regard as the characteristic of women, dignity of men: therefore, let a man remove from his person every ornament that is unbecoming a man, and let him take the same care ci
every similar fault with regard to his gesture or motion. For very often the movements learned in the Palæstra are offensive, and not a few impertinent gestures among the players are productive of disgust, while in both whatever is unaffected and simple is received with applause. Now, comeliness in the person is preserved by the freshness of the complexion, and that freshness by the exercises of the body. To this we are to add, a neatness that is neither troublesome nor too much studied, but which just avoids all clownish, ill-bred slovenness. The same rules are to be observed with regard to ornaments of dress, in which, as in all other matters, a mean is preferable.
We must likewise avoid a drawling solemn pace in walking, so as to seem like bearers in a procession; and likewise in matters that require dispatch, quick, hurried motions ; which, when they occur, occasion a shortness of breathing, an alteration in the looks, and a convulsion in the features, all which strongly indicate an inconstant character. But still greater should be our care that the movements of our mind never depart from nature; in which we shall succeed if we guard against falling into any flurry and disorder of spirit, and keep our faculties intent on the preservation of propriety. Now the motions of the mind are of two kinds, the one of reflection and the other of appetite. Reflection chiefly applies itself in the search of truth. Appetite prompts us to action. We are therefore to take care to employ our reflection upon the best subjects, and to render our appetite obedient to our reason.
XXXVII. And since the influence of speech is very great and that of two kinds—one proper for disputing, the other for discoursing—the former should be employed in pleadings at trials, in assemblies of the people, and meetings of the senate; the latter in social circles, disquisitions, the meetings of our friends, and should likewise attend upon entertainments. Rhetoricians lay down rules for disputing, but none for discoursing, though I am not sure but that likewise may be done. Masters are to be found in all pursuits in which thero are learners, and all places are filled with crowds of rhetoricians; but there are none who study this, and yet all the rules that are laid down for words and sentiments (in debate) are likewise applicable to conversation.
But, as we have à voice as the organ of speech, we ought to aim at two properties in it: first that it be clear, and secondly that it be agreeable ; both are unquestionably to be sought from nature; and yet practice may improve the one, and imitating those who speak nervously and distinctly, the other. There was, in the Catuli, nothing by which you could conclude them possessed of any exquisite judgment in language, though learned to be sure they were; and so have others been. But the Catuli were thought to excel in the Latin tongue; their pronunciation was harmonious, their words were neither mouthed nor minced ; so that their expression was distinct, without being unpleasant; while their voice, without strain, was neither faint nor shrill. The manner of Lucius Crassus was more flowing, and equally elegant; though the opinion concerning the Catuli, as good speakers, was not less. But Cæsar, brother to the elder Catulus, exceeded all in wit and humor; insomuch that even in the forensic style of speaking, he with his conversational manner, surpassed the energetic eloquence of others. Therefore, in all those matters, we must labor diligently if we would discover what is the point of propriety in every instance.
Let our common discourse therefore (and this is the great excellence of the followers of Socrates) be smooth and goodhumored, without the least arrogance. Let there be pleasantry in it. Nor let any one speaker exclude all others as if he were entering on a province of his own, but consider that in conversation, as in other things, alternate participation is but fair. But more especially let him consider on what subjects he should speak. If serious, let him use gravity; if merry, good-humor. But a man ought to take the greatest care that his discourse betray no defect in his morals; and this generally is the case when for the sake of detraction we eagerly speak of the absent in a malicious, ridiculous, harsh, bitter, and contemptuous manner. .
1" As the mutual shocks in society and the opposition of interest and self-love, have constrained mankind to establish the laws of justice, in order to preserve the advantages of mutual assistance and protection; in like manner, the eternal contrarieties in company of men's pride and selfconceit, have introduced the rules of good manners or politeness, in order to facilitate the intercourse of minds and an undisturbed commerce and conversation. Among well-bred people, a mutual deference is effected, contempt of others disguised, authority concealed, attention given to each in his time, and an easy stream of conversation maintained, without vehemence, without interruption, without eagerness for victory, and without any airs of superiority. These attentions and regards are immediately agreeable to others, abstracted from any consideration of utility or beneficial tendencies; they conciliate affection, promote esteem, and ex
Now conversation generally turns upon private concerns, or politics, or the pursuits of art and learning. We are, therefore, to study, whenever our conversation begins to ramble to other subjects, to recall it: and whatever subjects may present themselves (for we are not at all pleased with the same subjects and that similarly and at all times) we should observe how far our conversation maintains its interest; and as there was a reason for beginning so there should be a limit at which to conclude.
XXXVIII. But as we are very properly enjoined, in all the course of our life, to avoid all fits of passion, that is, excessive emotions of the mind uncontrolled by reason; in like manner, our conversation ought to be free from all such emotions; so that neither resentment manifest itself, nor undue desire, nor slovenness, nor indolence, nor any thing of that kind; and, above all things, we should endeavor to indicate both esteem and love for those we converse with. Reproaches may sometimes be necessary, in which we may perhaps be obliged to employ a higher strain of voice and a harsher turn of language. Even in that case, we ought only to seem to do these things in anger; but as, in the cases of cautery and amputations, so with this kind of correction . we should have recourse to it seldom and unwillingly; and indeed, never but when no other remedy can be discovered ; but still, let all passion be avoided; for with that nothing can be done with rectitude, nothing with discretion.
In general it is allowable to adopt a mild style of rebuke, combining it with seriousness, so that severity may be indicated but abusive language avoided. Nay, even what of bitterness there is in the reproach should be shown to have tremely enhance the merit of the person who regulates his behavior by them.
“In conversation, the lively spirit of dialogue is agreeable even to those who desire not to have any share in the discourse. Hence the relater of long stories, or the pompous declaimer is very little approved of. But most men desire likewise their time in the conversation, and regard with a very evil eye that loquacity which deprives them of a right they are naturally so zealous of."-Hume's “Principles of Morals," sec. viii.