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For to whom is not that self-evident for which Panatius employs a great many words, that no man, whether he be a commander of an army, or a leader in the state, has ever been able to perform great and salutary achievements without the zealous co-operation of men ? As instances of this, he mentions Themistocles, Pericles, Cyrus, Alexander, and Agesilaus, who, he says, without the aid of men never could have achieved such great exploits. Thus in a matter that is undoubted he brings evidences that are unnecessary. But as the assemblage or agreement of men among themselves is productive of the greatest benefits, so is there no plague so direful that it may not arise to man from man. We have a treatise of Dicæarchus,' an eminent and eloquent Peripatetic, concerning the destruction of mankind; and after collecting together all the different causes, such as those of inundations, pestilence, devastation, and those sudden attacks of swarms of creatures, by which he tells us some tribes of men have been destroyed; he then calculates how many more men have been destroyed by men, that is by wars and seditions, than by every other species of calamity.
As this point therefore admits of no doubt, that man can do the greatest good and the greatest injury to man, I lay it down as the peculiar property of virtue, that it reconciles the affections of mankind, and employs them for her own purposes. So that all the application and management of inanimate things, and of brutes for the use of mankind, is effected by the industrial arts. But the quick and ready zeal of mankind for advancing and enlarging our conditions, is excited through the wisdom and virtue of the best of mankind.
For virtue in general consists of three properties. First, in discerning in every subject what is true and genuine ; what is consistent in every one; what will be the consequence of such or such a thing ; how one thing arises from another, and what is the cause of each. The next property of virtue is to calm those violent disorders of the mind which the Greek call núon, and to render obedient to reason those appetites which they call douce. The third property is to treat with moderation and prudence those with
very this pointest good
| Dicæarchus, born in Sicily, and a disciple of Aristotle.
whoni we are joined in society, that by their means we may have the complete and full enjoyment of all that nature stands in need of; and likewise by them repel every thing adverse that may befall us, and avenge ourselves of those who have endeavored to injure us, by inflicting on them as much punishment as equity and humanity permit
VI. I shall soon treat of the means to acquire this art of winning and retaining the affections of mankind, but first a few things must be premised. Who is insensible what great influence fortune has in both ways, either upon our prosperity or adversity ? When we sail with her favoring breeze, we are carried to the most desirable landing-places : when she opposes us, we are reduced to distress. Some, however, of
1 “All can not be happy at once; for because the glory of one state depends upon the ruin of another, there is a revolution and vicissitude of their greatness, which must obey the spring of that wheel not proved by intelligences, but by the hand of God, whereby all estates rise to their zenith and vertical points, according to their predestinated periods. For the lives not only of men but of commonweals, and the whole world, run not upon an helix that still enlargeth, but on a circle, where arising to their meridian, they decline in obscurity, and fall under the horizon again.
"These must not, therefore, be named the effects of fortune, but in a relative way, and as we term the works of nature. It was the ignorance of man's reason that begat this very name, and by a careless term miscalled the providence of God; for there is no liberty for causes to operate in a loose and straggling way, nor any effect whatsoever but hath its warrant from some universal or superior cause. 'Tis not a ridiculous devotion to say a prayer before a game at tables; for even in sortileges and matters of greatest uncertainty, there is a settled and preordered course of effects. It is we that are blind, not fortune; because our eye is too dim to discover the mystery of her effects, we foolishly paint her blind, and hoodwink the providence of the Almighty. I can not justify that contemptible proverb, that fools only are fortunate; or that insolent paradox, that a wise man is out of the reach of fortune; much less those opprobrious epithets of poets, whore, bawd, strumpet. 'Tis, I confess, the common fate of men of singular gifts of mind to be destitute of those of fortune; which doth not any way deject the spirit of wiser judgmerts, who thoroughly understand the justice of this proceeding, and being enriched with higher donatives, cast a more careless eye on these vulgar parts of felicity. It is a most unjust ambition to do. sire to engross the mercies of the Almighty, nor to be content with the goods of mind without a possession of those of body or fortune; and is an error worse than heresy to adore these complemental and circum. stantial pieces of felicity, and undervalue those perfections and essential points of happiness wherein we resemble our Maker."-Sir Thomas Browne's “Religio Medici,” cap. 17, 18.
the accidents of fortune herself are more unfrequent; for instance, in the first place storms, tempests, shipwrecks, ruins, or burnings, which spring from inanimate things; in the next place, causes blows, bites, or attacks of brutes. Those accidents I say happen more seldom.
But of the destruction of armies, we have just now seen three different instances, and often we see more; the destruction of generals, as was lately the case of a great and an eminent personage;' together with unpopularity, whence frequently arises the expulsion, the fall, or the flight of the worthiest citizens; and on the other hand, prosperous events, honors, commands, and victories; though all those are influenced by chance, yet they could not be brought about on either side without the concurring assistance and inclinations of mankind. This being premised, I am now to point out the manner in which we may invite and direct the inclinations of mankind, so as to serve our interests; and should what I say on this head appear too long, let it be compared with the importance of the subject, and then, perhaps, it may even seem too short.
Whatever, therefore, people perform for any man, either to raise or to dignify him, is done either through kindness, when they have a motive of affection for him; or to do him honor in admiration of his virtue, and when they think him worthy of the most exalted fortune; or when they place confidence in him, and think that they are doing the best for their own interests; or when they are afraid of his power; or when they hope somewhat from him; as when princes, or those who court the people, propose certain largesses; or, lastly, when they are engaged by money and bribery; a motive that of all other is the vilest and most sordid, both with regard to those who are influenced by it, and those who are compelled to resort to it.
For it is a bad state of things, when that is attempted by money which ought to be effected by virtue ; but as this resource is sometimes necessary, I will show in what manner it is to be employed, after I have treated of some things that are more connected with virtue. Now, mankind submit to the command and power of another for several reasons. For they
? Meaning the defeat of Pompey at Pharsalia, of his sons at Munda in Spain, and of Scipio in Africa, all by Julius Cæsar.
· Pompey the Great.
are induced by benevolence or by the greatness of his bencfits; or by his transcendent worth, or by the hopes that their submission will turn to their own account, or from the fear of their being forced to submit, or from the hopes of reward, or the power of promises, or, lastly (which is often the case in our government), they are hired by a bribe.
VII. Now, of all things there is none more adapted for supporting and retaining our influence than to be loved, nor more prejudicial than to be feared. Ennius says very truly, “ People hate the man they fear, and to each the destruction of him whom he hates is expedient.” It has been lately shown,' if it was not well known before, that no power can resist the hatred of the many. Nor indeed is the destruction of that tyrant, who by arms forced his country to endure him, and whom it obeys still more after his death, the only prooi how mighty to destroy is the hatred of mankind, but the similar deaths of other tyrants; few of whom have escaped a similar fate. For fear is but a bad guardian to permanency, whereas affection is faithful even to perpetuity.
But the truth is, cruelty must be employed by those who keep others in subjection by force; as by a master to his slaves, if they can not otherwise be managed. But of all madmen, they are the maddest who in a free state so conduct themselves as to be feared. However, under the power of a private man the laws may be depressed and the spirit of liberty intimidated, yet they occasionally emerge, either by the silent determinations of the people, or by their secret suffrages with relation to posts of honor. For the inflictions of liberty, when it has been suspended, are more severe than if it had been retainel. We ought therefore to follow this most obvious principle, that dread should be removed and affection reconciled, which has the greatest influence not only on our security, but also on our interest and power; and thus we shall most easily attain to the object of our wishes, both in private and political affairs. For it is a necessary consequence, that men fear those very persons by whom they wish to be feared.
For what judgment can we form of the elder Dionysius ? "
i Cicero here alludes to the assassination of Cæsar in the senate.
? This elder Dionysius was tyrant of Syracuse about the year of Romo 447. His son and successor, of the same name, was expelled by Dione, the disciple of Plato.
With what pangs of dread was he tortured, when, being fearful even of his barber's razor, he singed his beard with burning coals? In what a state of mind may it not be supposed Alexander the Pherean to have lived? Who (as we read), though he loved his wife Thebe excessively, yet whenever he came into her bed-chamber from the banquet, ordered a barbarian, nay, one who we are told was scarred with the Thracian brands, to go before him with a drawn sword; and sent certain of his attendants to search the chests of the ladies, and discover whether they had daggers concealed among their clothes. Miserable man! to think a barbarous and branded slave could be more faithful to him than his wife! Yet was he not deceived, for he was murdered by her on the suspicion of an illicit connection ; nor, indeed, can any power Le so great as that, under the pressure of fear, it can be lasting.
Phalaris is another instance, whose cruelty was notoriouz above all other tyrants; who did not like the Alexander I have just mentioned, perish by secret treachery, nor by the hands of a few conspirators, like our own late tyrant, but was attacked by the collective body of the Agrigentines. Nay, did not the Macedonians abandon Demetrius, and with one consent betake themselves to Pyrrhus ? And did not the allies of the Lacedæmonians abandon them almost universally when they governed tyrannically, and show themselves unconcerned spectators of the disaster at Leuctra ?
VIII. Upon such a subject I more willingly record foreign than domestic examples; as long, however, as the empire of the Roman people was supported by beneficence, and not injustice, their wars were undertaken either to defend their allies or to protect their empire, the issues of their wars were cither merciful or unavoidable; and the Senate was the harbor and the refuge of kings, people, and nations.
Moreover, our magistrates and generals sought to derive their highest glory from this single fact, that they had upon the principles of equity and honor defended their provinces and their allies. This therefore might more justly be designated the patronage than the empire of the world; for sonio time we have been gradually declining from this practice and these principles; but after the victory of Sylla, we entirely lost them : for when such crueltics were exer