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cised upon our fellow-citizens, we ceased. to think any thing unjust toward our allies. In this case, therefore, a disgraceful conquest crowned a glorious cause ;' for he had the presumption to declare, when the goods of worthy men, of men of fortune, and, to say the least, of citizens, were selling at public auction, that he was disposing of his own booty. He was followed by a man who, with an impious cause and a still more detestable victory, did not indeed sell the effects of private citizens, but involved in one state of calamity whole provinces and countries. Thus foreign nations being harassed and ruined, we saw Marseilles, the type of our perished constitution, carried in triumph, without whose aid our generals who returned from Transalpine wars had never triumphed. Were not this the most flagrant indignity the sun ever beheld, I might recount a great many other atrocities against our allies. Deservedly, therefore, were we punished; for had we not suffered the crimes of many to pass unpunished never could so much licentiousness have been concentrated in one, the inheritance of whose private estate descended indeed to but a few, but that of his ambition devolved upon many profligates.
Nor, indeed, will there ever be wanting a source and motive for civil war, while men of abandoned principles call to mind that bloody sale, and hope for it again. For when the spears under which it was made was set up for his kinsman the dictator, by Publius Sylla, the same Sylla, thirty-six years after, was present at a still more detestable sale ; while another who in that dictatorship was only a clerk, in the latter one was city-quæstor. From all which we ought to learn, that while such rewards are presented, there never can be an end of our civil wars. Thus the walls of our city alone are standing, and even these awaiting the crimes that must destroy them ; but
1 Sylla's pretense for taking up arms was to defend the nobility against the encroachments of the commons, headed by Marius, whose party Cæsar revived.-Guthrie.
? This was a favorite state with the Roman republicans; but having too inconsiderately shut their gates against and provoked Cæsar, he treated it as is here described.-Guthrie.
3 Cicero here alludes to the sales of the estates of the Roman citizens made by Sylla; and which always were, among the Romans, carried on under á spear stuck into the ground. The like sales were afterward made by some of Cæsar's party.-Guthrie.
already we have utterly lost our constitution; and to return to my subject, we have incurred all those miseries, because we chose rather to be feared than to endear ouselves and be beloved. If this was the case with the people of Rome when exercising their dominion unjustly, what consequence must private persons expect ? Now, as it is plain that the force of kindness is so strong, and that of fear so weak, it remains for me to discant upon the means by which we may most readily attain to that endearment which we desire, consistently with fidelity and honor.
But of this we do not all stand in the same need; for it depends on the different purpose of life which each individual pursues, whether it be necessary for him to be beloved by the many, or whether the affections of the few be sufficient. One thing, however, may be considered as certain; that it is chiefly and indispensably necessary, that we should possess the faithful affections of those friends who love our persons and admire our qualities; for this is the only particular in which men of the highest and middle stations of life agree, and is attainable by both in much the same manner. All, perhaps, are not equally desirous of honors and of the good-will of their fellowcitizens ; but the man who is possessed of them is greatly assisted by them in acquiring other advantages as well as those of friendship.
IX. But I have in another book, which is entitled Lælius, treated of friendship. I am now to speak of fame, though I have already published two books upon that subject :' let me, however, touch upon it, as it greatly conduces to the right management of the more important affairs. The highest and the most perfect popularity lies in three requisites ; first, when the public loves us; secondly, when it regards us as trustworthy; thirdly, when, with a certain degree of admiration, it judges us to be worthy of preferment. Now, if I am to speak plainly and briefly, almost the same means by which those advantages are acquired from private persons procure them from the public. But there is another passage by which we may, as it were, glide into the affections of the many.
And first, let me touch upon those three maxims by which (as I have already said) good-will may be acquired. This is
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chiefly acquired by benefits ; but next to that, good-will is won by a beneficent disposition, though we may be destitute of means. Thirdly, the affections of the public are wonderfully excited by the mere reputation of generosity, beneficence, justice, honor, and of all those virtues that regard politeness and affability of manners. For the very honestum and the graceful, as it is called, because it charms us by its own properties and touches the hearts of all by its qualities and its beauties, is chiefly resplendent through the medium of those virtues I have mentioned. We are therefore drawn, as it were, by nature herself to the love of those in whom we think those virtues reside. Now these are the strongest causes of affection, though some there may be which are less material.
The acquisition of public confidence or trust may be effected by two considerations : by being supposed to be possessed of wisdom and of justice combined. For we have confidence in those who we think understand more than ourselves, and who we believe see further into the future, and, when business is actually in hand and matters come to trial, know how to pursue the wisest measures and act in the most expedient manner, as the exigency may require; all mankind agreeing that this is real and useful wisdom. Such confidence, also, is placed in honest and honorable men, that is, in good men, as to exclude all suspicion of fraud or injury. We therefore think we act safely and properly in intrusting them with our persons, our fortunes, and our families.
But of the two virtues, honesty and wisdom, the former is the most powerful in winning the confidence of mankind. For honesty without wisdom has influence sufficient of itself; but wisdom without lionesty is of no effect in inspiring confidence; because, when we have no opinion of a man's probity, the greater his craft and cunning the more hated and suspected he becomes ; honesty, therefore, joined to understanding, will have unbounded power in acquiring confidence ; honesty without understanding can do a great deal; but undersanding without honesty can do nothing.
X. But lest any one should wonder why, as all philosophers are agreed in one maxim, which I myself have often maintained, that the man who possesses one of the virtues is in possession of them all, I here make a distinction which im
plies that a man may be just but not at the smo timns prudent; there is one kind of accuracy wlich in disputation refines even upon truth, and another kind, when our whole discourse is accommodated to the understanding of the public. Therefore I here make use of the common terms of discourse, by calling some men brave, some good, others prudent. For when we treat of popular opinions, we should make use of popular terms, and Panætius did the same. But to return to our subject.
Of the three requisites of perfect popularity, the third I mentioned was, “when the public with a certain degree of admiration judges us to be worthy of preferment.” Now every thing that men observe to be great and above their comprehension they commonly admire; and with regard to individuals, those in whom they can see any unexpected excellences. They therefore behold with reverence and extol with the greatest praise, those men in whom they think they can perceive some distinguished or singular virtues; whereas they despise those whom they think to possess no virtue, spirit, or manliness. Now, men do not despise all those of whom they think ill. For they by no means contemn rogues, slanderers, cheats, and those who are prepared to commit an injury, though they have a bad opinion of them. Therefore, as I have already said, those are despised who can neither serve themselves nor any one else, who have no assiduity, no industry, and no concern about them; but those men are the objects of admiration who are thought to surpass others in virtue, and to be free as well from every disgrace, as especially from those vices which others can not easily resist. For pleasures, those most charming mistressess, turn aside the greater number of minds from virtue, and most men, when the fires of affliction are applied to them, are unmeasurably terrified. Life and death, poverty and riches, make the deepest impressions upon all men. But as to those who, with a great and elevated mind, look down on these indifferently ;- men whom a lofty and noble object, when it is presented to them, draws and absorbs to itself ;-in such cases, who does not admire the splendor and the beauty of virtue ?
XI. This sublimity of soul, therefore, produces the highest admiration; and above all, justice, from which single virtue
men are called good, appears to the multitude as something marvelous. And with good reason ; for no man can be just if he is afraid of death, pain, exile, or poverty, or prefers their contraries to justice. Men especially admire him who is incorruptible by money, and they consider every man in whom that quality is seen as ore purified by the fire. Justice, therefore, comprehends all the three means of acquiring glory which have been laid down. The love of the public, on account of its being a general benefit; its confidence, for the same reason ; and its admiration, because it neglects and despises those objects to which most men are hurried on inflamed with avidity.
In my opinion, however, every scheme and purpose of life requires the assistance of men, especially that one should have some with whom he can familiary unbosom himself, which is hard for one to do, unless he maintain the appearance of a good man. For this reason, were a man to live ever so lonely or ever so retired in the country, a reputation for justice would be indispensable to him, and so much the more, as those who do not possess it will be esteemed dishonest, and thus surrounded by no protection will be exposed to numerous injuries.
And with those likewise who buy or sell, who hire or let out, or who are engaged in the transaction of business, justice is necessary to the carrying of their pursuits, for its influence is so great, that without some grains of it, even they who live by malpractices and villainy could not subsist. For among those who thieve in company, if any one of them cheat or rob another he is turned out of the gang; and the captain of the band himself, unless he should distribute the spoils impartially, would either be murdered or deserted by his fellows. Indeed, robbers are even said to have their laws, which they obey and observe. By this impartiality in sharing the booty, Bardyllis, the lilyrian robber, mentioned by Theopompus, obtained great wealth ; and Viriathus, the Lusitanian, much greater; to whom our armies and our generals yielded; but whom the prætor Caius Lælius, surnamed the wise, crushed and subdued, and so repressed his ferocity that he left an easy victory to his successors. If, therefore, the influence of justice is so forcible as to strengthen and enlarge thc power of ro'bers, lo:y great must we suppose