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sion. Not a word did any of the apostles say to the beathen about punishment in either of these places.

If they had preached future punishment in Gehenna : lo them, they might have said, we have heard of fu

ture punishment in Hades, but why preach this new doctrine, a punishment in Gehenna? Their not preaching a punishment in Hades, shows that they did not believe this heathen notion; and the Gentiles never accusing the apostles of threatening them with endJess punishment in Gehenna, is a confirmation that no such doctrine was taught to the heathen world.

Another circumstance corroborative of the views I hare advanced concerning Gehenna, is the following. my

views of Gehenna vbe conduct of our Lord and his apostles is just what might be expected, but if by Gehenna is understood a place of endless misery, it is strange and unaccountable. What I refer Lo will be best seen by,

1st, Considering our Lord's conduct. We have seen, from a consideration of all the passages in which he speaks of Gehenna, that nine times out of twelve, all he says concerning it, was addressed to his disci. ples. In only one instance did he ever say to the unbelieving Jews" how can ye escape the damnation of bell?" Matth. xxiii. 33. Now, notice, that at verses 38, 39. he adds, “behold your house is left doto yoo desolate. For I say unto you, ye shall not see me henceforth till ye shall say, blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.” After this he never said a word to them about the damnation of hell. Now let it be supposed, that by this expression Our Lord meant endless misery in a future state, - ask, is it possible our Lord should only mention this once? lask again, can it be believed, that he who said on the cross, "Father, forgive them for they know not what they do,” should have ceased, but with bis dying breath, to warn these mene, that

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such a place of endless misery awaited them? I ask a 2a be. once more, is it possible, that he, who, when he be station ( held the city, “wept over it,” on account of temporal calamities in which it was soon to be involved, should "rten sho shed no tears, in anticipating the endless misery of ned the its wicked inhabitants ? On the supposition that Gelap henna is such a place, it must, I think, be allowed that we are our Lord's conduct is strange and unaccountable. ta benis But on my views of the damnation or punishment of Neben hell our Lord's conduct excites no surprise; all is tional and what the circumstances of the case warrants us to expect. They had rejected their promised Messiah, the measure of their iniquity they were smak soon to fill up, and they could not escape the damna. tion of hell." But let it be satisfactorily accounted in for, why our Lord never afterwards said any thing to them of the damnation of hell, if thereby he meant endless misery in the world to come.

2d, The conduct of his apostles. It is easily seen that their conduct is in perfect agreement with ihat of their master before them. He never said a word about hell or Gehenna to the Gentiles. Neither do they. He never said a word: more concerning Gehenna to the unbelieving Jews after saying how can ye escape the damnation of hell ??. Neither do they. If it should be objected here, -" why did not the apostles continue to speak to the unbelieving Jews about the damnation of hell, allowing it to mean the temporal miseries coming on that generation ? wby should they not have continued to warn them of this, as their Lord had done before them ??-The answer to this is easy. In Luke xix. 42. our Lord told the Jews that the things which belonged to their peace were now hid from their


Their doom was fixed, their punishment was unavoidable. Accordingly our Lord said, "how can ye escape the damnation of hell ??? Soon the wrath of God was to

come on them to the uttermost. This it did in the destruction of their city and temple, when such calamities came upon them as'never had been before, nor ever should be again, and unless the Lord had shortened the days, no flesh could have been saved.

In many places of the epistles, written to believers, allusions are made to the judgments of God coming on the Jewish nation, though not mentioned under the name Gehenna. The event is not only alluded to, but spoken of as near; and Christians are exhorted to patience, and holiness, in view of it. But these very parts of the epistles, are by many, like the texts which speak of Gehenna, all applied to punishment in a future state of existence. See for example, i Thess. v. 1-10, 1 Peter iv, 17-19.





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If Gehenna or hell in the New Testament, means, D! as is generally believed, a place of endless misery, the evidence of this, we might expect, to be plain, and be conclusive. But we have examined it, and have not only found it defective, but have, in fact, found the ti shop evidence strongest on the opposite side of the questo tion. We have considered all the texts in which this area word occurs, and have found, the temporal punish- 125 ment of the Jews is referred to by the damnation of hell. Besides: we have stated a number of facts, which we think never can be reconciled with the current opinion on this subject. I might, therefore, here stop, until it is known, how such facts are disposed of, in ? and it is shown, that I have misinterpreted the passages in which the word Gehenna occurs. But as the Targums and the Apocrypha are appealed to in proof of this doctrine, it might be deemed wrong in me al- eller together to overlook the argument, which such persons attempt to draw from them. They may think, se that I ought to account for it, why these writers came to use the term Gehenna as meaning a place of endless misery, if my views of Gehenna be correct.

We think this ought to be accounted for; but I deny, that I am under any obligations to account for it.

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Let such as value their authority account for it, how Gehenna, as Dr. Campbell affirms, came gradually to be used to express a place of future punishment for the wicked, and at length came to be confined 10 it. Must I do their work and my own too? It is their business to show, that the gradual change in the meaning of ihe term Gehenna did not originate from the gradual intention of men, but from the authority of God. We

think, if Gehenna couid be proved satisfactorily, to : mean a place of endless misery from the Bible, there · was no occasion to call in the authority of the Targums

and Apocrypha to prove this doctrine. Only give us God's authority for it, and we ask no other.-But, however unreasonable the demand is on me, I shall now pay some attention to this.

Let us begin with the Apocrypha. These writings all have access to, and can read them at their leisure. I shall simply give all the places in which the term hell is used in the Apocrypha. It occurs in the fol. lowing places, 2 Esdras ii. 29. ; iv. 8.; viii. 53. Tobit xiii. 2. Wisd. xvii. 14. Eccles. xxi. 10.; li. 5, 6. Song of the three children, verse 66. It would serve no valuable purpose for me to transcribe these passages, as they can be easily referred to and read. On the whole of them I shall submit the following remarks.-Though the word hell is used in all these places, yet a very important inquiry is,-did the writers of the Apocrypha use the word Hades or Gehenna in the original? From reading the passages in the English version, we began to suspect, from the phraseology connected with ihe word hell, that Hades and not Gehenna was the word used in the original. We have been at some pains to examine this, and shall give the result of our inquiries about it. We have found, then, in the original Greek of the Apocrypha that it is the term Hades, not Gehenna, that is used, with the exception of the passages mentioned in the

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