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d V Secondly, by supposing

do

a constant multiple of V, =-o'V, suppose.

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- of (aB) {w' - a+62) – (n* – a? + b*)} V=0, which may be satisfied by supposing the factor of V independent of 0 to be of the form F (n) F(w), where

d dn)

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The factor involving $ will be of the form

A coς σφ+B sin σφ.
Now, returning to the equation
d

d
a )
dn

din f(n)=mf(n), we see that, supposing the index of the highest power of n involved in f(n) to be i, we must have m=2 (i+1).

Now, it will be observed that n may have any value however great, but that w, which is equal to a’ +u, must lie between a12 and 0.' Hence, putting w’= (a b*) r", where u must lie between 0 and 1, we get d

d du

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Hence this equation is satisfied by f{(a? 6°)}r} = CP.,, C being a constant; and supposing Č=1 we obtain the following series of values for f (w),

i= 0, f (w)=1,
i=1, f(w) =

(a* - 6)

30* -(a' - 69) i= 2, f(w)=

2 (a“ – 64) i=3, f(W)

568 – 3w (a62)

2 (a? 62,8

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Exactly similar expressions may be obtained for f(n), and these, when the attraction of ellipsoids is considered, will apply to all points within the ellipsoid. But they will be inadmissible for external points, since n is susceptible of indefinite increase.

The form of integral to be adopted in this case will be obtained by taking the other solution of the differential equation for the determination of f(n), i.e. the zonal harmonic of the second kind, which is of the form Qi

(a* – 62)

- !) where

de Q

62
6%)

)

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Pi

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Or, putting me =(a? 54) v2, = (a? 7)?, we may write

dr

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17. We may now consider what is the meaning of the quantities denoted by n and w. They are the values of 9 which satisfy the equation

20 y + 2
gigi -a + 6*

: 1,
ax

+

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and are therefore the semi-axes of revolution of the surfaces confocal with the given ellipsoid, which pass through the point x, y, %.

One of these surfaces is an ellipsoid, and its semi-axis is n. The other is an hyperboloid of two sheets whose semi-axis is w.

Now, if o be the eccentric angle of the point X, Y, %, measured from the axis of revolution, we shall have

= ma cos' 0. But also, since n', w', are the two values of 9? which satisfy the equation of the surface,

n'w'=(a? 6*) **. Hence

w=(a? ) cos0, and we have already put

= (a) pe?, whence the quantity which we have already denoted by u is found to be the cosine of the eccentric angle of the point x, y, z considered with reference to the ellipsoid confocal with the given one, passing through the point &, y, z. We have thus a method of completely representing the potential of an ellipsoid of revolution for any distribution of density symmetrical about its axis, by means of the axis of revolution of the .confocal ellipsoid passing through the point at which the potential is required, and the eccentric angle of the point with reference to the confocal ellipsoid. For any such distribution can be expressed, precisely as in the case of a sphere, by a series of zonal harmonic functions of the eccentric angle.

18. When the distribution is not symmetrical, we must have recourse to the form of solution which involves the factor A cos op + B sin op. It will be seen that, supposing F to represent a function of the degree i, and putting m=i+1), the equation which determines F(w) is of exactly the same form as that for a tesseral spherical harmonic. For F(n), if the point be within the ellipsoid, we adopt the same form,

a

if without, representing the tesseral spherical harmonic by )

or TC) (v), we adopt the form

TCO

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(a – 62)

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2

(no ) S (n)=i (i+1) f(m),

η

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da

TO) (1) (1 - 1) 19. It may be interesting to trace the connexion of spherical harmonics with the functions just considered. This may be effected by putting b? = a'. We see then that n will become equal to the radius of the concentric sphere passing through the point, and ma – a + b2 will become equal to m. Hence the equation for the determination of f (n) will become

d d
an

f) i )

dn which is satisfied by putting f (n) =m, or mtiti! The former solution is adapted to the case of an internal, the latter to that of an external point.

With regard to f (w), it will be seen that the confocal hyperboloid becomes a cone, and therefore w becomes indefinitely small. But M, which is equal to

remains

(a 62)?' finite, being in fact equal to or cos 0. Hence f (u) becomes the zonal spherical harmonic.

Again, the tesseral equations, for the determination of F(n), F (w), become

d

(1 ) F(m)=i(i+1) 7°F (7) which are satisfied by F(n)=mi or n (+1), And, writing for w', (a –67) p, we have, putting F(w)=x(),

d

x (m) + o'x () =i (i+1) (u? 1) x (u), which gives x(x) = T.(o)(u).

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2

2

= 2

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2

{w21) x2 n= i +1) )

=

-1

Q=2

25

tan“ (a– c9},

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tan

C

2

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=

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20. We will next consider the case in which the axis of revolution is the least axis of the ellipsoid, which is equivalent to supposing a=b?. To transform a and B, put c* + y = 0, +e=n, c'+u=w', we thus obtain

do

2
a- * + O2(a - c*)


do

2
B=2
al - 0 + A2

(a- ) (a -ct
To transform y, we must proceed as follows:
Put y=-a'sin' w- bcos' a, ú=-a'sin' $ - b' cos'o,

Ú we then get, generally,

a* + y = (a? - b*) cos' a, b2 + y=-(a' 6?) sin' w, ? c+=c–aʼsino$–vocosom, dy=-2(a269 sin a cosa dw. Hence da

20

if a = b. (a' sin’s +6° cos'a -co) (a' -co) d 1

d Hence,

- ) da 2

dn'
d 1

d
(ao – c*+ **)

2

dw'
d 1

d a’ )

2 also,

e=m- c*, v=w-C,

Ú=-a, and our differential equation becomes

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=2

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