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§ 4. Incorporation. Members of the Universities of Cambridge and Dublin can be, under certain conditions, incorporated into the University of Oxford, i.e. admitted to the same status and degree which they hold in their own University.

1. Undergraduates can count only those Terms in which they kept at their University a statutable residence of forty-two days. They are not exempted from any Examinations which are required for any degree, except that those who have passed the Previous Examination at Cambridge may, in giving in their names to the Junior Proctor for the First Public Examination (p. 113), offer the certificate of having passed that Examination in lieu of the Testamur of the Masters of the Schools.

2. Only those can be incorporated as Graduates who, before taking their first degree in their own University, resided in that University for the major part of each of nine Terms, and who can produce a certificate to that effect under the seal of their College or their University.

3. Doctors of Civil Law, Medicine, or Divinity, must have the express consent of the Vice-Chancellor, and of three Doctors of their faculty, and of the two Proctors, or of the majority of them.

4. Bachelors and Doctors of Divinity must make the declaration of assent to the Thirty-nine Articles and the Book of Common Prayer.

5. Graduates in Medicine, whether Bachelors or Doctors, and also Students of Medicine, must ( 1 ) exhibit to the Vice-Chancellor proofs that they have passed all the Examinations which are necessary in their University for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts, (2) they must pass the two Examinations, and fulfil all the other conditions which are required in this University from those who are admitted to degrees in Medicine in ordinary course (see pp. 104, 162).

6. The fees which are payable to the University on the occasion of incorporation are mentioned on p. 173.

At present no Graduate can be incorporated unless he has previously been admitted as a member of a College or Hall: but a statute has recently been passed by which Undergraduates can be incorporated as Unattached Students.


§ 1. Examinations for the Degree of Bachelor of

Arts. The University does not lay down a uniform course for all candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Arts, but allows a large amount of choice in regard both to the subjects, the time, and the order of the several Examinations. There are altogether twelve Examinations in Arts: but it is not required that every candidate for the degree of B.A. should pass all of these. In ordinary cases, four, in the case of those who obtain Honours in Theology three, suffice for the purpose of obtaining a degree (see above, p. 102). (1) Responsions are obligatory upon all; they are intended to serve as a preliminary test of a student's fitness to enter upon a University course. They may be passed immediately after matriculation, and although the University itself does not, in the case either of this or of any other Pass Examination, lay down any limit of time within which they must be passed, a definite rule on the subject exists at most Colleges (see p. 24). (2) The First Public Examination is also obligatory upon all, but a student has the choice of entering his name either as an ordinary candidate or as a candidate for Classical Honours. There is also an Examination for Honours in Mathematics, which is altogether optional, and which does not count as one of the Examinations which are necessary for a degree. (3) The Second Public Examination consists of two parts. (a) The Examination in the Rudiments of Faith and Religion or in the matter substituted therefor, is uniformly obligatory upon all except those who obtain Honours in the School of Theology. (6) The other part of the Examination is subdivided into seven Schools, of which, though a student may combine as many as he pleases, no student is required to pass more than one. These Schools are (a) the Pass School, (6) the Honour School of Literæ Humaniores, (c) the Honour School of Mathematics, (d) the Honour School of Natural Science, (e) the Honour School of Jurisprudence, (f) the Honour School of Modern History, (g) the Honour School of Theology.

The conditions under which candidates are eligible for, and under which certificates are given or Honours awarded in the several Examinations, are mentioned below: the other conditions which are required for the degree of Bachelor of Arts are mentioned above (p. 102).


The questions set in Responsions will in future be published at the

Clarendon Press. 1. TIME.—This Examination is held three times a year: it commences (a) on December 1, (b) on the Monday after the fourth-or in certain cases the third-Sunday in Lent, (c) on the Friday in the second week before Commemoration.

2. CANDIDATES.-All persons who have been matriculated as members of the University are eligible as Candidates, whether they have resided or not: provided that they give notice of their intention, either personally or through their Tutors, to the Junior Proctor, at an hour and place fixed by him not less than six clear days before the Examination commences. In so giving notice they are required (1) To exhibit the certificate which they received from the

Vice-Chancellor at the time of their matriculation (or an official copy of it duly attested by the

(2) To pay a fee of £1.
(3) To state in writing, on a form which is provided for the

purpose, and which may be procured from a Tutor:-
(a) The particular Greek and Latin books in

which they offer to be examined.

(6) Whether they offer Euclid or Algebra. The names of all Candidates who have thus given in their names are printed in a list which is affixed to certain public places within the University, and published in the University Gazette.

3. SUBJECTS.—There are five separate subjects of examination, in each of which a Candidate must satisfy the Examiners. The principle of compensation between different subjects is not

recognized : failure in any one subject exposes a Candidate to rejection.

N.B.–The recently-constituted Board of Studies have not yet prescribed the amounts which will in future be required in the several subjects: but what is here stated is liable to be modified by the regulations which the Board will probably issue in the course of Michaelmas Term, 1873.

(1) Algebra, to Simple Equations inclusive, or Euclid, I. II. (2) Arithmetic.

[A Candidate is expected to be able to do correctly sunis in

Vulgar and Decimal Fractions, Practice, Proportion,
Interest (simple and compound), Square Measure, and
Square Root: Barnard Smith's School Arithmetic' will

be found the most convenient manual.] (3) Greek and Latin Grammar.

[A Candidate is expected to possess the kind of knowledge

which is involved in the parsing of a regular grammatical sentence, i. e. to decline substantives, adjectives, and pronouns: to conjugate verbs: and to understand the

elementary rules of Syntax.] (4) Translation from English into Latin prose.

(A short passage of easy English narrative is usually chosen, and a Candidate is expected to render it into Latin without violating any of the simpler rules of Latin Syntax. It is sufficient if the Latin be grammatically correct, without being elegant in style. A student who has not been accustomed to write Latin should, in preparing for this Examination, imitate Cæsar rather than Livy or Tacitus. The best elementary books for learning and practising the rules of the construction of sentences are "Bradley's Lessons in Latin Prose, and Kennedy's Curriculum Stili

Latini.] (5) One Greek Author: and one Latin Author.

[At present no Greek or Latin authors are specially named : a

Candidate is free to offer any standard Classical authors
whatever. It is seldom necessary to offer the whole of an
author : the following is a list of the authors who are most
commonly offered, and the amount of each which is con-
sidered sufficient:-

Homer : any five consecutive books.
Sopbocles Sany two plays.
Xenopbon's Anabasis : any four consecutive books.

Virgil : any five consecutive books of the Æneid : or, the

Georgics : or, the Eclogues together with three book's

of the Æneid.
Horace: any three books of the Odes (including the

Epodes) together with the Ars Poetica.
Cæsar : any four consecutive books.

Cicero : de Senectute and de Amicitia.] 4. ORDER OF THE EXAMINATION.—The order of the Examination is left to a considerable extent in the hands of the Examiners (who from the analogy which they bear to certain ancient officers are called 'Masters of the Schools'). The following is, however, the order from which there is seldom any considerable departure.

On the first two days all the Candidates are assembled together in one or more of the large rooms within the precincts of the •Schools, and printed questions in subjects 1, 2, 3, 4 are given to all alike, to be answered in writing. On the succeeding days the Candidates are examined viva voce, chiefly, but not exclusively, in their Greek and Latin books. For this purpose they are arranged in two divisions, and to each division three Examiners are assigned. The Examination in each of these divisions goes on simultaneously, and in each of them sixteen Candidates are, or may be, examined every day. The order in which Candidates are required to present themselves is usually that of the printed list, but the Examiners have power to vary it, and Candidates should be careful to consult from day to day the list prepared by the Clerk of the Schools which is affixed in the porch of the Metaphysic School. Any Candidate who fails to appear at the appointed time is liable to have his name erased from the list, unless he is able to satisfy the Vice-Chancellor of his having had a valid reason for absence, in which case another place in the order of the Examination is assigned to him by the Examiners.

At the close of each day those Candidates who have satisfied the Examiners in all the subjects of Examination, receive, on application to the Clerk of the Schools, a written certificate or Testamur, signed by them, to that effect. Those Candidates who have failed to satisfy the Examiners are at liberty to present themselves for examination again in a subsequent Term, provided that on each occasion of their doing so they give in their names to the Junior Proctor in the way mentioned above (p. 110).

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