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The several sections which follow deal with the manner in which each separate subject, whether general or special, is to be studied by a Candidate for Honours.

The appended lists of books are intended to serve as guides, suggestive of the best courses of study, and offering some choice of textbooks. Alternative treatises are in several cases included in the lists in the same paragraph.

In many instances portions only of the works recommended will need to be studied as treating in a special manner of the subjects for which the book may be recommended.

The Board desire it to be understood that a knowledge of the subjects, based on practical work, as well as knowledge gathered from books, will always be required at the Examinations in this School.

I. General Subjects.

I. Physics. A Candidate who offers himself in the Final Honour Examination for examination in Physics as his general subject shall be required to show an accurate general knowledge of Physics, and he shall be allowed to present himself in addition for a more detailed examination in one or more of the following branches of Physics :


Electricity and Magnetism. It is necessary that a student of Physics should have at least an elementary knowledge of Geometry, Algebra, and Mechanics.

Jamin's Cours de Physique, last edition, in 3 vols., may be mentioned as a good text-book on general Physics.

Students are however advised to consult their Tutors or the Professor of Experimental Philosophy with respect to the books to be read, inasmuch as the most desirable course of study must depend on the Mathematical knowledge of each individual.

II. CHEMISTRY. Candidates in the Final Honour Examination who offer themselves for examination in Chemistry will be expected to show an acquaintance with the following subjects:

I. Chemical Physics ;
II. Inorganic Chemistry;
III. Organic Chemistry;

IV. General and Theoretical Chemistry.
There will also be a Practical Examination which will comprise-

V. The Qualitative analysis of inorganic substances;
VI. The Quantitative analysis of inorganic substances.
The use of books will be allowed to Candidates in the Examination
in Quantitative analysis.


1. Candidates who offer themselves in the Final Honour Examination for examination in Biology will be expected to show an acquaintance, firstly, with General and Comparative Anatomy and Histology (under which terms vegetable structures are included); secondly, with Human and Comparative Physiology, inclusive of Physiological Chemistry; and thirdly, with the General Philosophy of the subject.

2. In these subjects the Candidates will be examined both by paper work and practically; and will be required to give evidence of being competent not merely to verify and describe specimens already prepared for naked-eye or microscopic demonstration as the case may be, but also to prepare such or similar specimens themselves.

3. Candidates may, in addition to the amount of work indicated in the preceding paragraphs, bring up any of the Special Subjects' contained in the list appended below. A Candidate who offers himself for examination in a Special Subject will be expected to show, firstly, a detailed practical acquaintance with specimens illustrating that subject, for which purpose the Catalogues in the University Museum can be made available; and secondly, exact knowledge of some one or more monographs treating of it. Excellence, however, in a Special Subject will not compensate for failure in any essential part of the general examination.

Every Candidate must state, at the time of entering his name for examination, what Special Subject, if any, he takes in.

A Student who offers himself for examination in a Special Subject is referred to the following provisional List :

a. Comparative Osteology.
b. The Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Organs of

c. The Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Organs of Circu-

lation and Respiration. d. The Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System. e. The Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Reproductive

Systems. f. Ethnology. 4. The following works are provisionally recommended by the Board of Studies for use in the study of the above-mentioned Departments of Biology. (a) List of Books recommended for use in the preparation for the

General Examination in Biology.
General Anatomy and Histology-Sharpey in Quain's Anatomy, 7th

ed. Lond., 1867. The Micrographic Dictionary, by Griffiths and
Henfrey, now in course of republication. The Historical
Catalogue of the College of Surgeons, by Professor Quekett.
Kölliker's Handbuch der Gewebelehre, ed. 1867. Leipzig.

Stricker's Handbook of Human and Comparative Histology,

now in course of translation for the New Sydenham Society. Comparative Anatomy-Huxley's Introduction to the Classification of

Animals. Lond., 1869. Huxley's Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals. Lond., 1871. Gegenbaur's Grundzüge der Vergl. Anatomie. Leipzig, 1869. Milne-Edwards' Leçons sur la Physiologie, 1857-1870. Paris. Owen's Anatomy of Vertebrates, 3 vols. 8vo. 1866-1868. London. The Osteological and Physiological Catalogues of the College of Surgeons, by Professor Owen. The Anatomical and Physiological Catalogues of the Oxford Museum. Flower's Osteology of Mammalia. Lond., 1871. Cuvier's Ossemens Fossiles, 2me éd. 1821-1824. Paris. Rolleston's Forms of Animal Life. Oxford, 1870. Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Thierreichs, 1860-1871. Leipzig

und Heidelberg. Human Physiology-Carpenter's Human Physiology, 7th ed. Lond.,

1869. Funke's Lehrbuch der Physiologie, now in course of republication. Leipzig. Hermann's Handbuch der Biologie, 1870. Berlin. Dalton's Human Physiology. Philad., 1859. Draper's Human Physiology. Lond., 1856. Ranke's Grundzüge der Physiologie, 1868. Leipzig. Wundt's Lehrbuch der Physiologie, 1865. Erlangen. Ludwig's Lehrbuch der Physiologie, 1858-1861. Leipzig und Heidelberg. Budge's Lehrbuch der

speciellen Physiologie des Menschen, 1862. Leipzig. Comparative Physiology-Carpenter's Comparative Physiology, 4th ed.

Lond., 1854. Marshall's Outlines of Physiology. 2 vols., Lond., 1867. Milne-Edwards' Leçons sur la Physiologie. 9 vols., Paris, 1857-1870. Bergmann und Leuckart, Anatomisch-physiologische

Uebersicht des Thierreichs, 1855. Stuttgart. General Philosophy of Biology, a. Darwin's Origin of Species, 5th ed. Lond., 1869. Van der

Hoeven's Philosophia Zoologica, 1864. Leyden. Lyell's Principles of Geology, ed. 1870, chap. xxxiv-xxxvii. Mivart's Genesis of Species. Lond., 1871. Spencer's Principles of Biology, 1864-1867; Principles of Psychology, ed. 1868-1871. : For a Historical Survey of the Progress of Biology. b. Agassiz's Essay on Classification. Lond., 1859, chap. iii.

Whewell's History of the Inductive Sciences, 3rd ed. 3 vols.,
Lond., 1857.

For Zoology. c. Van der Hoeven's Handbook of Zoology. Lond., 1857. Nicholson's Manual of Zoology, 2nd ed. Edinb., 1871.

For Geographical Distribution.
Van der Hoeven's Philosophia Zoologica, lib. iv. Lugd. Bat.,
1864. Lyell's Principles of Geology, chap. xxxviii-xli, 11th ed.
Lond., 1872.

For Ethnology and Anthropology. d. Waitz's Anthropology. Brace's Races of the Old World, and

ed. Lond., 1869. (b) List of Books recommended in connexion with Special Subjects.' Comparative Osteology-Cuvier's Ossemens Fossiles, any one of the

five volumes. Flower's Osteology of Mammalia. Professor

Huxley's Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals.
The Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Organs of Digestion-

The Physiological Catalogue of the Royal College of Surgeons,
Vol. I. Milne-Edwards' Leçons, Vol. VI. Articles .Stomach
and Intestine' and ` Pancreas' in Todd's 'Cyclopædia of Anatomy
and Physiology.' Schiff's Leçons sur la Physiologie de la Di-

gestion, 2 vols. Berlin, 1868. The Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Organs of Circulation

and Respiration, Milne-Edwards' Leçons sur la Physiologie, Vol.
III. Marey's Physiologie Médicale de la Circulation du Sang.
Paris, 1863. Bert's Leçons sur la Physiologie Comparée de la

Respiration. Paris, 1870.
The Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System-

Leuret et Gratiolet's Anatomie Comparée du Système Nerveux,
Tom. II, par M. Pierre Gratiolet. Paris, 1857. Vulpian's
Leçons sur le Système Nerveux. Paris, 1866. Brown-Séquard's

Lectures. Philad., 1865.
The Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Reproductive Systems-

Physiological Catalogue of the Royal College of Surgeons, Vols.
IV and V. Kölliker's Entwickelungsgeschichte. Leipzig, 1861.

Milne-Edwards' Leçons, Vol. IX.
Ethnology-Brace's Races of the Old World, 2nd ed. Lond., 1869.

5. Candidates who offer themselves for examination in Geology, Zoology, or Botany, will be required to exhibit practical acquaintance with those subjects to at least the same extent as Candidates who offer themselves for examination in any one of the Special Subjects above mentioned are required to do with reference to those subjects. But they will not be required to go through the same amount of practical work in the Departments of Biology not specially connected with Geology, Zoology, or Botany, as Candidates who do not bring up any one of these three subjects.

II. List of Special Subjects. .

A. MINERALOGY AND CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. Candidates for Honours in the Natural Science School who desire to take in Mineralogy as a Supplementary Science should exhibit a practical as well as theoretical knowledge of Crystallography, and of Crystallo- (a) graphic Physics.

The Candidate should also be acquainted with the Crystallographic (6) characters of such substances as serve to illustrate the principles and applications of Crystallography.

Mineralogy may be further pursued by the Student : (c) Firstly, as a discriminative and classificatory Science, involving an acquaintance with the logical principles of classification.

Secondly, in respect to its subject-matter, namely, by the actual study of the more important minerals and other crystallized substances; more (d) especially of such as illustrate the principles of Classification as well as

of Crystallography, and of such as are important either from their con(e) tributing to form the rock masses of the globe, or from a mining point of view, or as being of value for their employment in the useful arts.

Thirdly, in respect of the practical methods of discriminating minerals, not merely by investigating their Crystallographic forms with (1) the aid of the goniometer, but by determining their physical character

istics, specific gravity, degree of hardness, colour, optical and pyroelectric properties, &c.; and also by examination with the blowpipe and other simple chemical tests.

And finally, the mineralogical student should be acquainted with the (g) hypotheses regarding the causes that have operated in effecting the depo

sition, the transformations, or the successions of minerals in veins and rocks.

Treatises recommended. (a) Miller (W. H.), A Tract on Crystallography. Cambridge, 1863.

Lang V. von), Lehrbuch der Krystallographie. Vienna, 1866. Karsten (H.), Lehrbuch der Krystallographie. Leipzig, 1861. Schrauf (A.), Lehrbuch der physikalischen Mineralogie. Vienna, 1866. Grailich (J.), Miller's Lehrbuch der Krystallographie, a German translation of Professor Miller's original work, containing chapters on Crystallographic Physics. Vienna, 1856. Grailich (J.), Krystallographisch - optische Untersuchungen.

Vienna und Olmütz, 1858. (6) Rammelsberg (C. F.), Krystallographie Chemie. Berlin, 1855, and

Suppl. 1857. (c) Mill (John Stuart), A system of Logic, the chapters on Classifi

cation. 7th ed. London, 1868. Whewell (W.), History of the Inductive Sciences, chapters on Mineralogy. 3rd ed. London, 1857. Rose (G.), Das krystallo - chemische Mineralsystem. Leipzig, 1852. Rammelsberg (C. F.), Berzelius' neues che

misches Mineralsystem. Nürnberg, 1847. (d) Brooke and Miller's Mineralogy. London, 1852. Rammelsberg

(C. F.), Handbuch der Mineralchemie. Leipzig, 1860. Quenstedt (F. A.), Handbuch der Mineralogie. 2nd ed. Tübingen, 1863. ' Dufrénoy (A.), Traité de Minéralogie. 2me éd. Paris, 1856–60. Descloizeaux (A.), Manuel de Minéralogie. Paris, 1862. Dana (J. D.), System of Mineralogy. 5th ed. London, 1868.

Kenngott (A.), Die Minerale der Schweiz. Leipzig, 1866. (e) Cotta (B. von), Rocks classified and described, translated by H.

Lawrence. London, 1866. Zirkel (F.), Lehrbuch der Petro

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