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graphie. Bonn, 1866. Senft (F.), Lehrbuch der Mineralien und

Felsartenkunde. Jena, 1869. (f) First volume of Dana's System of Mineralogy. 4th ed. London,

1855. Blanford and Scheerer on the Blowpipe. London, 1856. • Rammelsberg (C. F.), Lehrbuch der Krystallkunde. Leipzig,

1852. Naumann (C. F.), Elemente der Mineralogie. 8th ed.
Leipzig, 1871.
Bischoff (Gustav), Lehrbuch der chemischen und physikalischen
Geologie. 2nd ed. Bonn, 1863, &c. Ibid., English translation
by the Cavendish Society. Blum (R.), Die Pseudomorphosen
des Mineralreichs. Stuttgart, 1843, &c. &c. Cotta (B. von),
Gangstudien. Freiberg, 1847, &c. &c.

B. GEOLOGY. Candidates who propose to offer themselves for examination in Geology would do well to keep in mind, that the aim of this branch of Science is nothing less than to discover and demonstrate the ancient history of the Earth. For this purpose it is required not only to obtain correct knowledge of the composition, structure, and arrangement of Rocks, and the nature and distribution of Organic Remains, but further to apply to the phænomena which have been observed just reasonings founded on analogies in existing nature, and principles established by Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. Only in proportion as this can be truly accomplished can the foundations of Geological Theory be securely laid.

The portions of Geological study which are now suggested to Candidates in illustration of what has been said,' relate to the internal structure and movement of rock masses; their chemical composition and mineral aggregation; the organic remains which they enclose; and the inferences from observed phænomena as to the causes which operated to produce them.

Composition, Structure, and Arrangement of Rocks. (a) Rocks generally: the grounds of their division into and classification as Rocks of Igneous or Aqueous origin; Rocks of stratified or unstratified arrangement; and as Rocks of Palæozoic, or Cainozoic


(6) Stratified Rocks: their chemical and mineral constitution, source of materials, conditions of deposition in the sea, in lakes, or on the course of rivers.

(C) Unstratified Rocks : considered as to their classification, composition, and structure, the conditions of their occurrence, and geological age.

(d) Metamorphic Rocks : Rocks regarded as altered from their first condition by heat and chemical reactions below the surface of the earth.

(e) Divisional Structures in Rocks, known as “joints,” • cleavage,' and • foliation :' how produced, and in what geological periods.

Mineral Veins: metallic and mineral contents; occurrence in relation to the nature, position, and antiquity of Rocks, movements of disturbance in the crust of the earth, and geological time.

Movements in the Crust of the Globe. Heat of the Interior. (g) Earthquakes and ancient subterranean movements : characteristic phænomena and probable causes.

(b) Volcanos: their characteristic physical and chemical phænomena, geographical distribution, and geological age.

Physical Geography. Climate. (i) The leading features of Physical Geography :-by what natural processes, with what measures of force, and during what periods of time, the characteristic phænomena have been occasioned.

(k) The Temperature of the Earth, at attainable depths, in relation to ancient and modern climate.

Palæontology. (1) The Flora and Fauna of the Land in a limited geological period, as for example the period of the Stonesfield Oolite.

(m) The Fauna of the Sea in a limited geological period, as for example the Cambro-Silurian period.

(n) Or the Lower Cretaceous period.

(o) The Carboniferous Flora of Britain ; origin of the coal, and of the accompanying strata ; dislocations; dykes; quantity of coal; depth of working; rate of consumption; probable duration.

(p) Monographs of Groups of Organic Remains, specially such as belong to families of plants and animals which are characteristic of geological periods, or have become comparatively rare in existing nature; for example

The Zamiacex, Lepidodendra, Sigillariæ, among Plants ; The Crinoïdea, Trilobitida, Brachiopoda, Cephalopoda, among Invertebrate Animals ; Megalosaurus, Plesiosaurus, Teleosaurus, Rhamphorhynchus, among reptiles ; Ungulata and Marsupialia, among Mammalia.

The Books and Memoirs named in the following list are suggested as sufficient to guide the student toward a right general view of the several subjects enumerated. For more complete references, and information as to researches still in progress, the student is advised to consult the Professor. (a) Rocks generally-Bischof, Chemical and Physical Geology. 2 vols.

Lond., 1854-5. Cotta, Gesteinslehre, 1862-translated by

Lawrence. Vogelsang, Mikroskopische Gesteinsstudien, 1867. (6) Stratified RocksDe la Beche, Geological Observer, 2nd ed.

Lond., 1853. Jukes' and other Manuals of Geology. Lyell,

Principles of Geology, 11th ed. 2 vols., 1872. (c) Unstratified Rocks.-Jukes' Manual of Geology, 3rd ed. Edinb.,

1872. Naumann, Lehrbuch der Geognosie, 1850; Leonhardt und Bronn, N. Jahrb. 1847. Senft, Classification and Descrip

tion of Rocks, 1857-abstract in Geol. Soc. Journ. xiv. I. (d) Metamorphic Rocks.—Bischof, Chemical and Physical Geology.

2 vols. Lond., 1854-5. Cotta, Geologie der Gegenwart. Leipzig, 1866. Daubrée, Expériences Synthétiques sur le Métamorphisme.

Paris, 1860. Delesse, Études sur le Métamorphisme. Paris, 1858. Sterry Hunt, Reports of Canadian Geological Survey, &c.

Von Buch, Ann. des Sci. Nat. t. xvii. (e) Divisional Structures. A Report to the British Association, by

Professor Phillips, 1856, On Cleavage and Foliation in Rocks;
containing references to special researches of Sedgwick, Sharpe,
and Sorby. See also Memoirs by Haughton, Hopkins (1847),
and Tyndall.
Mineral Veins.—Cotta, Gangstudien, 1847. Fournet, Études sur
les Dépôts Métallifères, 1835. Henwood, On Metalliferous
Deposits. Penzance, 1871. Taylor, On Mineral Veins-a Re-
port to the British Association, 1833. Werner, On Veins.

Lond., 1791. (8) Earthquakes.--Hopkins, On Theories of Elevation-in Trans.

Cambr. Phil. Soc., 1837; and in a Report to the British Association, 1847. Mallet, Catalogue of Earthquakes-in Reports to the British Association begun in 1847– Neapolitan Earth

quake, 1862. (b) Volcanos.-Abich, Vulcanische Bildung, 1841. Daubeny, On

Volcanos, 2nd ed. Lond., 1848. Dufrénoy et De Beaumont, Sur
les Cratères de Soulèvement-Ann. des Mines, 1833. Fouqué,
Rapports sur les Phénomènes chimiques des Volcans, 1866.
Phillips, On Vesuvius. Oxford, 1869. Scrope, Geology of
Central France. Lond., 1848. Von Buch, Die Canarischen

Inseln. Berlin, 1825. (i) Physical Geography.-Agassiz, Forbes, Tyndall, Moseley, on

Glaciers. Ansted, Herschel, Somerville, on Physical Geography.
Beaumont, E. de, Phil. Mag. et Ann. 1831. Darwin, Geological
Observations, 2nd ed. London, 1851. Hopkins, Address to
Geol. Soc. 1853. Lyell, Principles of Geology, 11th ed. 2 vols.
Lond., 1872. Playfair, Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory.
Edinb., 1802. Ramsay, Memoirs of Geol. Survey, 1866. Studer
et Désor, Sur les Alpes—Bibl. Univ. de Genève, 1842.
Temperature of the Earth.-Cordier, Essai sur la Température de
l'Intérieur de la Terre-Ann. du Mus. 1827. Fox, On the
Temperature of Mines-Geol. Soc. of Cornwall, vols. ii. and iii.
Henwood, On Subterranean Temperature, 1871. Phillips, 1836,
Everett, 1871, 1872–in Reports of the British Association.
Quetelet, On Diurnal and Annual Variations of Earth-Tempera-
ture—Mem. Acad. of Brussels, 1837. Thomson and Tait, Trea-

tise on Nat. Phil., vol. i. p. 711. Oxford, 1867. (1) Stonesfield Oolite, Flora and Fauna.-Morris and Lycett, On Great

Dolite Fossils (Mem. of Pal. Soc.). Oppel, Ueber einige
Cephalopoden der Juraformation Würtembergs. Würtemb., 1856.
Phillips, in Geology of Oxford and the Valley of the Thames.

Oxford, 1871. Quenstedt, Der Jura. Tübing., 1858. (m) Cambro-Silurian Fauna.—Barrande, Syst. Silurien du centre de la


Bohême. Prague, 1852–70. Bigsby, Thesaurus Siluricus. Lond.,
1868. Hall, Geology of New York. Albany, 1852. Murchison,
Siluria. 4th edit. Lond., 1867. Sedgwick, Palæozoic Fossils in
Cambridge Museum. Cambr., 1855.
Lower Cretaceous Period.-Austen. Morris, and Sharpe, in Journal
of Geol. Soc. Davidson, On Brachiopoda - Mem. of Pål. Soc.
D'Orbigny, Paléontologie Française. Paris, 1840-67. Fitton,
On Beds below the Chalk-Trans. Geol. Soc., 1836. Wright, On

Echinodermata - Mem. of Pal. Soc. (0) Carboniferous Flora.—Binney, in Pal. Soc. Memoirs. Brongniart,

Végétaux Fossiles. Paris, 1828. Carruthers, Communications to the Geol. Society. Göppert, Systema Filicum Fossilium, 1838. Hooker, in Memoirs of Geol. Survey. Hull, On the Coal-fields of Great Britain. Lond., 1861. Lindley and Hutton, Fossil Flora. Lond., 1829–37. Sternberg, Flora der Vorwelt. Leipzig,

1820. (0) Monographs of Organic Remains.—Books and Memoirs on these

and other groups of Fossils are too numerous to specify. Candidates may be advised to apply to the Professor of Geology for references adapted to the several cases.

C. ZOOLOGY. Candidates offering Zoology will be required to show a thorough acquaintance with the following subjects :

1. The general principles of classification, applied to the animal kingdom, together with a comparison of the more important systems hitherto proposed for this purpose.

2. The structure and habits of animals, with especial reference to their external organs.

3. The types of extinct animals, in order to show their position and relationship with existing groups.

And for more special subjects

a. The classification, geographical distribution, affinities, economy, transformations, and development of the animals comprised in some one or more of the families, genera, or individual species of animals; with practical illustrations, by dissection and delineation, of their structure.

6. The minute details of structure of special individual organs may also be practically shown and illustrated by dissection; e.g.

The organs of flight throughout the Insecta.
The mouth organs in the Crustacea.
The embryonic and metamorphic changes occurring in one or
more of the species of any family, especially amongst the In-

vertebrata. C. The student may also offer himself for examina n upon the Fauna of any district in the British islands; e.g.

The animals of the Isis and Cherwell.
The indigenous invertebrated Fauna of the neighbourhood of

Oxford. The literature of Zoology is so extensive, and the number of special monographs on nearly every branch of the subject is so great, that it will in alĩ cases be advisable for the student to apply to his Tutor or to the Professor of Zoology for references to the best works and memoirs necessary for working out the particular subject which he may desire to study. The following list is appended for the assistance of Zoological Students. 1. General Modes of StudyLinnæus, Philosophia Botanica. Vindob.,

1770. Fabricius, Philosophia Entomologica. Hamb., 1778, (the chapters on the general subjects of Classification, Nomenclature, and Terminology applicable to the Animal Kingdom). Also the chapters on the same subjects in the works of Illiger, Versuch systematischen Terminologie. Helmstadt, 1800; Van der Hoeven, Philosophia Zoologica. Lugd. Batav., 1864; Kirby and Spence, Introduction to Entomology, vol. IV; and Burmeister, Handbuch der Entomologie, translated by Shuckard. Agassiz, Methods of Study in Natural History, Boston, 1860; and Essay on Classifi

cation, London, 1859. General Zoology—Linnæus, Systema Naturæ, 13th ed. Vindob.,

1767. Cuvier, Le Règne Animal, especially the Crochard edition, 20 vols., with Plates of all the genera. Van der Hoeven, Handbook of Zoology, translated by Clark, 2 vols. 1856; or Nicholson, A Manual of Zoology. 8vo. London, 1870. The series of French works known as Nouvelles Suites à Buffon.' Van Voorst's Series of British Zoology, by Bell, Yarrell, Forbes, Johnston, and others. Kirby, Bridgewater Treatise. 2 vols. London, 1835. Burmeister, Zoologischer Hand-Atlas. Fol. Berlin, 1835. Victor

Carus, Icones Zootomicæ. Fol. Leipzig, 1857. 3. Fossil Zoology-Gervais, Zoologie et Paléontologie générales. 4to.

Paris, 1869. Gervais, Zoologie et Paléontologie française. 4to.
Paris, 1859. Pictet, Traité de Paléontologie, et Atlas. 2me édition,
4 vols. Paris, 1853-1857. Owen, various memoirs on Fossil
Animals, Birds, and Reptiles, in Transactions of Royal and
Zoological Societies. Agassiz, Recherches sur les Poissons
Fossiles. 8vo. and fol. Neuchatel, 1833- . Salter, in Mem. Geol.
Survey. Decad. 2, 7, and 11, 1849-64. Barrande, Syst. Silurien
de Bohême. Vol. I. Prague, 1852. Burmeister, On Trilobites

(Ray Society).
a. Vertebrata—Schreiber und Wagner, Die Säugethiere, in Abbil-

dungen nach der Natur. 4to. Erlang., 2774-1846. Waterhouse, Nat. Hist. of Marsupialia and Rodentia. 2 vols. London, 184648. Dahlbom, Studia Zoologica familias regni animalis naturales, tractantia. Lund., 1856. Owen, Anatomy of Vertebrates, Preface, and chapters 1, 2, 13, 14, 25, 26, and 40. British Museum Catalogues of various families of Mammalia, also of Snakes and

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