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Three kinds of teaching are open to students :-(1) the teaching of Professors and other Public Lecturers, (2) the teaching of College Tutors and Lecturers, (3) the teaching of private members of the University. Each of these kinds of teaching, in most branches of academical study, helps and supplements the others.

§ 1. Of Professors and Public Lecturers.

Until comparatively recent times the operations of the University as a teaching body were confined within rather narrow limits. The Professors were few in number, their teaching usually consisted of a series of set discourses, and they seldom came into any close personal contact with their pupils. But within the last thirty years not only has a considerable number of new Professorships been founded, but the system of professorial teaching has been largely altered. Almost the whole field of academical study is now covered by public lectures, and the set discourses of former times have been to a great extent either superseded or supplemented by informal teaching, closely adapted to the wants of individual students.

The subjects of these lectures, which of course vary more or less from Term to Term, are announced in the University Gazette. Those who wish to attend them are usually required to signify their wish to the Professor beforehand; in many cases a small fee is charged for the first two courses; in some cases the consent of the College authorities is required; and in some cases also a student is not allowed to attend until he has attained a certain academical standing. Each of these conditions is mentioned in the Professor's terminal announcement..

The following list of Professors and Lecturers shows the help which a student may derive from the public teaching of the University in reading for the several University Examinations.

I. RESPONSIONS. The work which is necessary for this Examination being rather preliminary to, than a part of, the proper work of the University, receives no direct help from the lectures of Professors.

II. First PUBLIC EXAMINATION. (1) Classical School.

Regius Professor of Greek.
Corpus Professor of Latin.
Professor of Comparative Philology.

Professor of Logic. (2) Mathematical School.

Savilian Professor of Geometry.

(1) School of Literae Humaniores.
(a) Philosophy.

Whyte's Professor of Moral Philosophy.
Waynflete Professor of Moral and Metaphysical Phi-

Regius Professor of Greek.

Professor of Logic. (B) Ancient History.

Camden Professor of Ancient History.

Reader in Ancient History, (2) School of Mathematics.

Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy.
Savilian Professor of Geometry.
Savilian Professor of Astronomy.

(3) School of Natural Science. Regius Professor of Medicine. Linacre Professor of Anatomy and Physiology (assisted by two

Demonstrators). Professor of Zoology. Professor of Botany and Rural Economy. Professor of Chemistry (assisted by the 'Aldrichian Demon

strator in Chemistry). Professor of Geology. Professor of Mineralogy. Professor of Experimental Philosophy (assisted by a Demon

(4) School of Jurisprudence.

Regius Professor of Civil Law.
Vinerian Professor of English Law.
Vinerian Reader of English Law.
Corpus Professor of Jurisprudence.
Chichele Professor of International Law and Diplomacy.
(5) School of History.

Regius Professor of Modern History.
Chichele Professor of Modern History.
Chichele Professor of International Law and Diplomacy.
Professor of Political Economy.

Teacher of Indian Law and History. (6) School of Theology.

Regius Professor of Divinity.
Regius Professor of Hebrew.
Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History.
Margaret Professor of Divinity.
Ireland Professor of Exegesis.
Grinfield Reader in the Septuagint.

The lectures of the above-mentioned Theological Professors are partly with a view to the School of Theology, and partly with a view to the requirements of candidates for Holy Orders. The lectures of the Regius Professor of Pastoral Theology are entirely devoted to the latter of these two objects.

The Professors and Teachers who lecture on subjects which are not directly recognized in public Examinations of the University.

although some of them are rewarded by scholarships or prizes,
are the following: -
(1) Fine Arts.

Professor of Poetry.
Professor of Music.
Slade Professor of Fine Art (assisted by the Teacher of the

Ruskin Drawing School). (2) Languages.

Professor of Anglo-Saxon.
Boden Professor of Sanskrit.
Laudian Professor of Arabic. .
Lord Almoner's Professor of Arabic.
Teacher of Hindustani.
Taylorian Teacher of French.


§ 2. Of College Tutors and Lecturers.

Side by side with the extension of the public teaching of the University there has been an extension of the teaching of Colleges and Halls. Some years ago this teaching was chiefly confined to catechetical morning lectures, supplemented by weekly written exercises; and there was an attempt on the part of each College or Hall to provide within its own walls all the instruction that its members required. Within recent years, however, this system has been largely modified. On the one hand, there has grown up a much greater freedom of intercourse between Tutors and students. Teaching is neither so limited nor so formal as it used to be. The special needs of individual students are regarded, and a student of ability commonly receives from his Tutor all the private help which it is possible for him to give. On the other hand, the principle of division of labour has been applied to a much greater extent than formerly. Several groups of Colleges have combined together for purposes of instruction in such a way that each lecturer, instead of having to lecture upon a number of heterogeneous subjects, is able to appropriate to himself some one

or more special branches. The advantage of this system to the student is partly that a much wider range of subjects can be covered, and partly that he is able to gather the best thoughts of several minds.

The ordinary lectures of Colleges and Halls are of course chiefly intended for their members: the subjects of lecture are not published, but are announced by a written notice on the buttery-board : the fees, which are included in the terminal 'battels, vary from £15 to £25 per annum, irrespective of the number of lectures which an Undergraduate attends. This charge for tuition sometimes ceases after the twelfth Term of residence, and sometimes continues to be paid until all the Examinations which are necessary for the degree of B. A. have been passed. (See p. 175.)

Some Colleges and Halls admit to their lectures students who are not members of their own body. This is especially the case with the Readers on the foundation of Dr. Lee at Christ Church, to whose lectures all members of the University are admitted on payment of a fee of £1.

The combined lectures of Colleges and Halls are usually announced by a printed schedule which is circulated in the University, and printed in the University Gazette. The combinations which at present exist are:

(1) Between University, Balliol, Exeter, New, Trinity, and Worcester Colleges in respect of all lectures (1) for the First Public Examination, (2) for the Schools of Literæ Humaniores, Mathematics, Jurisprudence, Modern History, and Theology, in the Second Public Examination.

(2) Between Merton, Oriel, Queen's, Lincoln, Brasenose, Jesus, and Wadham Colleges in respect of lectures in the Honour School of Literæ Humaniores.

(3) Between Oriel and Lincoln Colleges in respect of all subjects of University Examinations.

(4) Between University, Balliol, Merton, Exeter, and Corpus Christi Colleges in respect of lectures in Mathematics.

(5) Between Merton, Exeter, New, Magdalen, and Jesus Colleges in respect of lectures in Natural Science.

(6) Between University, Balliol, Merton, Exeter, Oriel, Queen's, New, Lincoln, Magdalen, Brasenose, Corpus Christi, Christ

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