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§ 10. Archaeological Collections, 1. The Ashmolean Museum originally consisted of the miscel. laneous collections (including books and manuscripts) of Elias Ashmole, given to the University in 1684, and subsequent additions have been made to it in all its branches. On the building of the University Museum all natural objects were removed to it, the coins, books, and manuscripts, including those of Ashmole, Dugdale, Aubrey, and Anthony Wood, were transferred to the Bodleian Library, and the Ashmolean was re-arranged as an Antiquarian, Archæological, and Ethnological Museum. The Museum now contains (1) a choice collection of flint implements; (2) Egyptian, Etruscan or Italo-Greek, Roman, British, RomanoBritish, Anglo-Saxon, and Mediæval articles of considerable interest; (3) a collection of upwards of 3000 photographs of the principal buildings of Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Greece, and Rome, including Mr. Parker's photographs of buildings, etc. of Rome, Pompeii, and other parts of Italy, with the Recent Excavations, the whole of which are systematically arranged for reference; (4) an Ethnological collection. Every article in the Museum now has a label distinctly written, and there is a manuscript catalogue for the use of visitors. The Museum is open daily from 2 to 4 o'clock, and occasionally for a longer time. The Keeper of the Museum occasionally gives lectures upon Archæological subjects.
2. The Arundel and Selden Marbles, of which some are deposited in the Ashmolean Museum, and others in one of the rooms in the quadrangle of the Schools. Among the latter is the most important marble in the collection, viz. that which is known as the Parian Chronicle.
3. The Castellani Collection, which is deposited in the University Galleries, consists of (1) Greek Fictile Vases, including specimens from the earliest to the latest period of that style of art; (2) Bronzes, chiefly from Magna Græcia; (3) Terra cottas, chiefly from Capua and Etruria.
4. The Pomfret Collection consists of a number of ancient marbles, which are deposited in the University Galleries.
OF PECUNIARY REWARDS OF AND AIDS TO LEARNING.
The pecuniary rewards of and aids to learning may be divided according as they are in the gift of the University itself or of the several Colleges and Halls. It is sufficient to say of them in general that they are so various as to leave no branch of academical study without its appropriate recognition, and so numerous that few students of ability can fail to obtain substantial help.
It has not been thought advisable to mention here any but · those which are in the immediate disposal of the University itself or of the Colleges and Halls, but it may be pointed out that there are in addition two important classes of pecuniary aid which are available by those who are or intend to become members of the University :
1. A considerable number of Exhibitions are awarded by the London City Companies and other bodies to deserving students of slender means. The nature of these and the conditions under which they may be held are best described in Low's Charities of London.
2. A still larger number of Exhibitions are awarded by various Public Schools to their pupils. The nature of these and the conditions under which they may be held can only be ascertained in each case by enquiry at the respective Schools.
I. OF UNIVERSITY SCHOLARSHIPS AND PRIZES.
The University encourages learning among its students partly by prizes, i.e. gifts of money or books, and partly by scholarships, i.e. gifts of money extending over one or more years. The latter were probably intended in the first instance chiefly as a help to further study, and to some of them conditions which imply study are still attached, but they are now for the most part rewards of past attainment given to those who best satisfy the conditions of a more or less limited competition. It will be convenient to classify them according to the branches of study to which they relate. The general conditions of competition only can be mentioned here; more precise information will be found from time to time in the Oxford University Gazette. The nature of the examination for Scholarships will be best gathered from the Examination Papers, most of which will in future be published at the Clarendon Press.
(1) Craven Scholarships. These are six in number: two Scholars are elected every Act Term: the emoluments are £80 per annum for three years. Candidates must have passed the Second Public Examination in one School at least, and must not have exceeded their twenty-fourth Term. The subject of examination is Greek and Latin scholarship.
(2) Ireland Scholarships. These are four in number: one Scholar is selected every Hilary Term : the emoluments are about £30 per annum for four years. Candidates must be Undergraduates who have not exceeded their sixteenth Term. The subject of examination is Greek and Latin scholarship.
(3) Hertford Scholarship. This is awarded every Hilary Term: the emolument consists of one year's dividend on £1142 Ios. 4d. reduced 3 per cent. Annuities. Candidates must not have completed two years from their matriculation. The subject of examination is Latin scholarship.
(4) The Chancellor's Prize for a Latin Essay. This is awarded every Trinity Term: its value is £20 in money. Competitors must have exceeded four but not have completed seven years from their matriculation.
(5) The Chancellor's Prize for Latin Verse. This is awarded every Trinity Term: its value is £20 in money. Competitors must not have completed four years from their matriculation.
(6) Gaisford Prizes. These are two in number, and are awarded every Trinity Term. One prize is given for a composition in Greek Verse, the metre as well as the subject being fixed from year to year; the other is given for a composition in Greek Prose. The emolument of each prize consists of a moiety of the dividends on £1258 75. 8d. New 3 per Cents., and averages about £18. Competitors must not have exceeded the seventeenth Term from their matriculation.
(7) Conington Prize. This is awarded once in every three years for a dissertation, to be written either in English or in Latin, at the option of the writer, on some subject appertaining to classical learning. It is open to all members of the University who, on the day appointed for sending in the dissertations, have passed all the Examinations required for the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and have completed six years, and not exceeded fifteen years, from their matriculation. The value of the prize is three years' income of the investment of £1275, subject to a deduction for the payment of Examiners and other expenses.
(8) Derby Scholarship. This is awarded every year to the Candidate who has in the judgment of the electors attained the highest academical distinction in Classical Scholarship. Candidates must be members of the University who have completed their twentieth and not completed their twenty-fourth Term of standing, and who have attained the following academical distinctions: (1) a First Class in Classics at the First Public Examination ; (2) a First Class in Literis Humanioribus at the Second Public Examination; or, a Second Class in Literis Humanioribus at the Second Public Examination, together with the Chancellor's Prize for Latin Verse and the Chancellor's Prize either for the English or the Latin Essay; (3) two out of the three Classical University Scholarships, that is to say, the Hertford, Ireland, and Craven Scholarships.
2. MATHEMATICS. (1) Senior Mathematical Scholarships. These are two in number. One Scholar is elected every Hilary Term: the emoluments of the Scholarship itself are £30 per annum for two years; but in addition to this the Scholar receives during his first year a moiety of the dividends upon £1389 135. 3d. Consols, which is derived from another fund, and on account of which he is called during that year Johnson University Scholar. Candidates must be Bachelors of Arts, or at least have passed all the Examinations necessary for that degree, and must not have exceeded the twenty-sixth Term from their matriculation inclusively. The subjects of examination are Pure and Mixed Mathematics.
(2) Junior Mathematical Scholarships. These are two in number. One Scholar is elected every Hilary Term : the emoluments are £30 per annum for two years. Candidates must not have exceeded eight Terms from their matriculation inclusively. The subject of examination is Pure Mathematics.
(3) Johnson Memorial Prize. This is awarded once in every four years, for an essay on some astronomical or meteorological subject. It consists of a gold medal of the value of ten guineas, together with the balance of four years' dividends upon £338 8s. Reduced Annuities, which usually amounts to about £30. It is open to all members of the University, whether Graduates or Undergraduates.
3. PHYSICAL SCIENCE. (1) Radcliffe Travelling Fellowships. These are three in number. One Fellow is elected every Hilary Term: the emoluments are £200 per annum for three years, subject to the condition that not more than eighteen months of that period shall be spent in the United Kingdom. Candidates must be Bachelors of Arts (or at least have passed all the necessary Examinations for that degree), who have either been placed in the First Class in one of the Public Examinations of the University, or have gained a University Prize or Scholarship. They are further required to declare that they intend to graduate in Medicine in the University, and to travel abroad with a view to their improvement in that study; but if either no candidates are willing to make this declaration, or having made it are found not to be of sufficient merit to be elected, the competition is thrown open to all Graduates of the University, subject only to the restriction as to a First Class or University Scholarship mentioned above. In no case, however, can any one be elected who is already legally