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II. COLLEGE FELLOWSHIPS.
College Fellowships are eleemosynary institutions which constitute their holders members for the time being of an intra-academical corporation, with a voice in its government and a claim upon its revenues. They were established for the promotion of religion and learning, and the original intention has been so far respected by subsequent usage that literary or scientific merit is still the basis of election; but a Fellow once elected is at liberty to follow his own pursuits, whether they be literary or otherwise. The conditions of eligibility and tenure vary considerably in different Colleges. As a general rule, a candidate must be unmarried, he must have passed all the Examinations required for the degree of B.A., and he must not be possessed of more than a certain amount of property: but to each of these conditions there are important exceptions, which will be found stated in detail below. The election in all cases (excepting that of one Fellowship at Exeter and another at Lincoln) is by cooptation, and is generally preceded by a competitive examination. Some Colleges have a limited power of dispensing with this examination in the case of persons who are in the judgment of the electors singularly qualified to serve the College in an educational capacity; and almost all Colleges have the right to elect without examination, and without any restriction as to marriage, one or more University Professors. The subjects of examination for a Fellowship are those which are recognized in the Schools of the University, and it is usually intimated, at the time of the declaration of a vacancy, in which class of subjects the Examination will be held. Until recently a Fellowship was always vacated by marriage, by the acceptance of ecclesiastical preferment of a certain annual value, and by the non-fulfilment of certain conditions as to academical degrees or Holy Orders; but several Colleges have recently acquired the power to retain in his Fellowship, or to re-elect, a Fellow who has proved himself useful to the College in the office of Tutor or Bursar; and in two Colleges all ordinary Fellowships are terminable at the end of seven or eight years.
Although the salary of a Tutor or Lecturer is to be regarded as wages for work done, and is therefore distinct from the income of a Fellowship, it> must be borne in mind that a Fellow who resides in Oxford has almost always the opportunity of adding to his income in this way. The average income of a Fellowship and Tutorship combined may be estimated at from £500 to £900 per annum. Other collateral advantages may also be taken into account. The chief of them are that a Fellow, unless he be married, has the right to rooms within the College, the use of the Establishment and the Library, and also, if he be in Holy Orders, a prescriptive claim to succession in his turn to a College living.
At University there are twelve Foundation Fellowships, which are open to all persons who have passed the Examinations for the degree of B.A., provided that they are unmarried, and that their income is not such as would disqualify them from retaining their Fellowship. They are tenable for eight years, exclusive of the period in which they have held office within the College, and in certain cases for life. They are vacated (1) if a Fellow marries within five years from the date of election, (2) if he becomes possessed of a fixed annual income from certain specified nonacademical sources, which amounts to £400 if from a single source, or to £500 if from two or more sources combined; but in this case, if he be an officer of the College, or a Professor or Public Lecturer within the University, he may be retained in his Fellowship by a special resolution; (3) if he has enjoyed for three consecutive years an average annual income from all sources, exclusive of his Fellowship, of £700, and has not during any portion of those three years resided or held office within the College, or been a Professor or Public Lecturer within the University. Two at least of the Fellows must be in Holy Orders. There is also a Civil Law Fellowship, which is open to all members of the University who have passed the Examinations requisite for the degree of B.A., without restriction as to marriage.
At Balliol there are eleven Fellowships, which are open without any restriction as to age, marriage, property, or academical standing, except that if a candidate be or have been a member of any University in Great Britain or Ireland he must have passed all the Examinations required by that University for the degree of Bachelor of Arts. The Fellows are generally elected after an examination, in which the candidates may offer any subject recognized in the Schools of the University. They are divided into two classes: (1) Fellows on the Tutorial List, who hold their Fellowships for twenty years, at the expiration of which period they may be re-elected from time to time for further periods of ten years, or may receive a pension not exceeding the value of their Fellowship. They are elected, with certain exceptions, from those Fellows who have been engaged for at least three years in the educational work of the College; they are bound to be resident at the University during the usual College Terms; and they may marry with the consent of the Master and Fellows, provided that not more than one-half of their number shall be married at the same time. (2) Fellows not on the Tutorial List, who are entitled to hold their Fellowships for seven years from the date of their election, exclusive of any time, not exceeding three years, during which they may have been engaged in the educational work of the College, or have held the Bursarship of the College, or a Professorship or Public Readership within the University. But the Master and Fellows may, with the consent of the Visitor, re-elect for periods, not exceeding five years in all, any Fellow who is engaged in the study of any branch of literature or science provided that evidence be laid before them and the Visitor that such studies are likely to produce important results in published writings. Of the whole number of Fellows two, and if the Master be not in Holy Orders three, must be in Holy Orders. Under certain circumstances, Fellows whose income from other sources exceeds £300 per annum, receive only one-third of the emoluments of their Fellowship.
At Merton there are twenty-four Fellowships, which are open to all persons who have passed the Examinations requisite for the degree of B.A. There is no restriction as to Holy Orders. They are ordinarily vacated by marriage, but Fellows who hold the office of Tutor, Lecturer, or Bursar of the College, may obtain the consent of the Warden and Fellows to retain their Fellowships after marriage, provided that the number of such married Fellows shall not at any one time exceed four, and that the consent so given shall only be valid so long as the Fellow to whom it is given continues to hold one of the above-mentioned offices in the College.
At Exeter there are fifteen Fellowships, which are open to all persons who have passed the Examinations required by the University for the degree of B.A., or who have been incorporated into the University as Bachelors of Arts, or who have become in any way members of Convocation. There is in addition a Chaplain Fellow, who is nominated by the Dean and Chapter of Exeter.
At Oriel there are eighteen Fellowships, of which one is at present suspended. Candidates must be under twenty-six years of age, and must have taken the degree of B.A. in some University in the United Kingdom. If at the time of holding an election there be not five Fellows in Holy Orders, the person who shall be elected shall either be in Holy Orders (in which case he may be more than twenty-six years of age), or shall proceed to Deacon's Orders within three years from his election. The Provost and Fellows have power to elect without examination, by a majority of not less than two-thirds, any person who in their judgment is eminently qualified to hold the office of Tutor, Lecturer, or Senior Treasurer, but the Fellow so elected shall vacate his Fellowship on ceasing to hold such office, unless retained in his Fellowship by the majority which was requisite for his election.
At Hew College the number of Fellowships will in future be thirty, of which fifteen will be open to all persons who have passed the Examinations requisite for the degree of Bachelor of Arts. The other fifteen will be open to persons who, having received education for at least two years in the School of Winchester College, or having been for at least twelve Terms members of New College, have passed the Examinations requisite for the degree of B.A., or have taken the degree of B.A. in some other University of Great Britain or Ireland. Fellows who for a certain length of time have filled the office of Tutor, Lecturer, or Bursar, may be re-elected to be continued in their Fellowships upon their marriage; and persons who are considered likely to be eminently useful to the College in an educational capacity may be elected Fellows without examination and without any restriction as to marriage.
At Lincoln there are ten Fellowships, which are open to all persons who have passed the Examinations necessary for the degree of B.A., provided that they have not 'certi reditus' exceeding twice the value of the Fellowship. Every Fellow must take Holy Orders within ten years from his admission as actual Fellow, unless during that time he has become one of the two senior Lay Fellows. Their approximate annual value is £300, and they are all vacated by marriage, except that if any Fellow holds either of the College livings of All Saints and St. Michael's in Oxford, he may retain his Fellowship although he be married. The College has also power to elect without examination any person, otherwise eligible for a Fellowship, who is considered likely to be eminently useful to it in an educational capacity. One of the ten Fellowships is in the appointment of the Bishop of Lincoln.
At Brasenose there are thirteen Fellowships, which are open to all persons who have passed the Examinations requisite for the degree of B.A. Six at least of the Fellows must be in Holy Orders, or must take Holy Orders within a limited period, usually three years, from the date of election.
At Queen's there are eighteen Fellowships (of which one is at present temporarily suspended), which are open, with certain limitations as to property, to all persons who have passed the Examinations required by the University for the degree of B.A. Nine of the Fellows must be in. Holy Orders, and all the Fellowships are vacated by marriage.
At All Souls' there are thirty Fellowships, which are open, without any restriction as to the holding of property, to all persons who have passed the Examinations required by the University for the degree of B.A., provided that they have either been placed in the First Class at any of the Public Examinations of the University, or have obtained some Prize or Scholarship within the University unattached to any College or Hall, and open to general competition among the members of the University. The examination is held in such subjects recognized in the School of Jurisprudence and Modern History as are determined from time to time by the Warden and Fellows. All the Fellowships, except those which are held by Professors, are vacated by marriage.
At Magdalen there are thirty Fellowships, which are open to all persons who have passed the Examinations required by the