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III. COLLEGE SCHOLARSHIPS, EXHIBITIONS, AMD CLERKSHIPS.

Scholarships are institutions which constitute their holders members of an intra-academical corporation, without a voice in its government, but with a claim to instruction, to rooms, and to an allowance for maintenance. They were in most cases originally intended to provide for the education at the University of the inhabitants of certain localities, or the descendants of certain families: their length of tenure was unlimited; and they gave, as vacancies occurred, a right of succession to Fellowships. But in all these respects subsequent legislation has effected considerable changes: they are now for the most part open to a competitive examination, which has no other limit than that of age or academical standing; their tenure is usually limited to five years; they confer no right of succession to Fellowships; and the various allowances of the older Statutes are commuted for a fixed money payment. Election in all cases takes place after an examination, of which due notice is given, in the Oxford University Gazette, and also in the principal London newspapers: about two-thirds of the total number are awarded for excellence in Classics, the remainder are divided between Mathematics, Physical Science, and Modern History. The examination-papers are not published, but copies of them can sometimes be procured from one of the officers of a College; and candidates who have not been at one of the larger Public Schools, where the standard required is usually well known, will do well to endeavour to ascertain the nature of what is required of them before entering into the competition.

Exhibitions differ from Scholarships partly in that they do not constitute their holders members of the corporation of a College, partly in that the limit of age is often extended, and partly in that they are frequently confined to persons who produce evidence of their need of assistance. Until the passing of the Universities Act of 1854 they were for the most part conferred at the absolute discretion of the Head or Head and Fellows of a College; but they are now more commonly given after an examination of the same kind as that which is held for Scholarships.

Bible-Clerkships are offices to which certain small duties, such as those of marking the attendance of Undergraduates in Chapel and of saying Grace at dinner, are usually attached. They are in the free gift of the Head of a College or Hall, but it is not infrequent for him to open them to a competition among persons who produce evidence of want of pecuniary assistance.

At University there are—

(1) Twelve Scholarships, of which two or three are filled up every year in Hilary Term. They- are open without regard to place of birth or education, and without limitation of age, and are tenable for five years from the day of election. Candidates, if already members of the University, must not have exceeded four Terms from their matriculation. Their annual value is £80 during residence, inclusive of all allowances.

(2) The Exhibitions in the gift of the College are mostly attached to certain schools, some of them being open to general competition in default of properly qualified candidates from the favoured schools. They are of various values.

At Balliol there are—

(1) Ten Foundation Scholarships, two of which are awarded every year in Michaelmas Term, after an examination in Classics. They are open to all persons under the age of nineteen, and are tenable for five years. Their annual value is about £80 per annum during residence.

(2) Four Mathematical Scholarships, one of which is awarded every year. They are open to all persons who have not exceeded one year from their matriculation, and are tenable for four years. Their annual value is £80.

(3) Four Modern History Scholarships, one of which is awarded every year. They are open to all candidates who have not exceeded two years from their matriculation, and are tenable for four years. Their annual value is £80.

(4) Four Natural Science Scholarships, one of which is awarded every year. They are open to all candidates who have not exceeded two years from their matriculation, and are tenable for four years. Their annual value is £80.

(5) Ten Classical Exhibitions, of which two or three are awarded every year. They are open to all persons who have

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University of Oxford or the University of Cambridge for the degree of B.A. The examination for every fifth Fellowship must be in Mathematics and Physical Science alternately. Two-thirds of the Fellows must be in Holy Orders, and all the Fellowships are vacated by marriage.

At Corpus there are eighteen Fellowships, which are open to all persons who have passed the Examinations required by the University for the degree of B.A. Six of the Fellows must be in Holy Orders. All Fellowships are vacated by marriage, but the College has power to elect without examination, and without any restriction as to marriage, any person, otherwise qualified to be a Fellow, who is considered likely to be eminently useful to it in an educational capacity.

At Christ Church there are at present twenty-eight Senior Studentships, of which nineteen are Clerical, nine Lay. Three are entitled Lee's Readerships in Chemistry, Anatomy, and Physics respectively. A Lee's Reader may be elected without examination, may be allowed to retain his position after marriage, and may hold property beyond the amount to which Senior Students are restricted.

An election to the other vacant Senior Studentships is held on December 18, after an examination; candidates must have passed all Examinations required by the University for the degree of B.A.

At Trinity there are twelve Fellowships (of which two are at present suspended), which are open to all persons who have passed the Examinations required by the University for the degree of B.A. Four of the Fellows must be in Holy Orders; and all the Fellowships are vacated at the expiration of six months after marriage.

At St. John's the number of Fellowships will eventually be eighteen. They are open to all persons who have passed the Examinations required by the University for the degree of B.A. Two-thirds of the number of Fellows for the time being must be in Holy Orders; and all the Fellowships are vacated by marriage, except in the case of a Professor or Head of a Hall. The emoluments of a Fellow are fixed at double those of a Scholar of the College.

In addition to the above, there are four Fellowships tenable for fourteen years, and of the annual value of about £180. They are open, with certain limitations and under certain conditions in respect of literary proficiency, first to the kindred of the Founder (Dudley Fereday, Esq.); secondly, to natives of Staffordshire; and in case of a Founder's kin or Staffordshire candidate not satisfying the conditions, then to any other person whatsoever, being a member of the Church of England.

At Jesus there are thirteen Fellowships, of which one moiety is confined to natives of Wales or Monmouthshire, if any such be found of sufficient merit; the other moiety is open without such limitation. Candidates for all the Fellowships must have passed the Examinations required by the University for the degree of B.A. Nine of the Fellows must be in Holy Orders, and all the Fellowships are vacated by marriage.

At Wadham there are fourteen Fellowships, which are open to all persons who have passed the Examinations required by the University for the degree of B.A. There is no restriction as to Holy Orders. The Fellowships are vacated by marriage: but the College is empowered to elect two Fellows who may retain their Fellowships, even though married, so long as they hold the office of Tutor, Lecturer, or Bursar. There are two Exhibitions, intended to promote the study of Law and of Medicine, to be held by Fellows (p. 94).

At Pembroke there are ten Fellowships, which are open to all persons who have passed the Examinations required by the University for the degree of B.A. Two of the Fellows are entitled Sheppard Fellows: of these, one must be called to the Bar, as soon as he lawfully can after his election; the other must proceed, as soon as he lawfully can, to the degree of Bachelor and Doctor of Medicine in the University. Four of the ten Fellows must be in Holy Orders, and all the Fellowships are vacated by marriage.

At Worcester the number of the Fellowships will ultimately be thirteen. They are open to all persons who have passed the Examinations required by the University for the degree of B.A., except that candidates for the Fellowships founded by Mrs. Sarah Eaton must be sons of clergymen of the Church of England, and must not be possessed of any property or income exceeding £150 per annum. Two-thirds of the total number of the Fellows must be in Holy Orders; and all the Fellowships, except two when held by Professors, are vacated by marriage.

not exceeded eight Terms from their matriculation, and are tenable for five years. Their annual value is £60.

(6) An Exhibition (called the Jenkyns Exhibition) is usually awarded every year, after a competitive examination in Scholarship, History, and Philosophy, to an Undergraduate of the College who has not exceeded his sixteenth Term. Its annual value is £100, it is tenable for four years, and it may be held together with any other Scholarship or Exhibition in the College.

(7) It has also been the custom of the College to offer two Exhibitions every year to those candidates who have distinguished themselves in the Oxford Local Examinations, and also to award two Exhibitions for Classical or General Knowledge, according to the result of an examination held at the College. The annual value of both these classes of Exhibitions is £40, and they are tenable for four years.

(8) Fourteen Exhibitions (called the Snell Exhibitions), two or three of which are awarded every year, after an examination held at Glasgow. They are open to those members of the University of Glasgow whose fathers or grandfathers were Scotchmen: they are tenable for five years, and their annual value is about £110. ,

(9) Five Scholarships (called Blundell Scholarships), which are confined to persons educated at Tiverton School, and one of which is awarded every year after an examination held at that School. They are tenable for five years, and their annual value is £60.

(10) An Exhibition (called the Warner Exhibition) is awarded once in every five years, after an examination held at the College. Its annual value is £90, and it is tenable for five years. Candidates must have been born in Scotland, or be the sons of fathers who were born in Scotland. The subjects of examination are the same as for the Classical Scholarships.

(11) Two small Exhibitions, confined to Tiverton and Ludlow Schools respectively, if candidates of sufficient merit appear.

At Merton there are eighteen Postmasters and four Scholars. Of the Postmasterships, two are in the nomination of the Provost of Eton and the Provost of King's alternately: of the remaining Postmasterships, and the Scholarships, ten are awarded after an examination in Classics (which is usually held in Easter Term),

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