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dge as an antiquarian ; and his critical taste is on road and liberal principles. His continual jealousy or the literary glory of Italy is the least agreeable eature in the work.

I have at present only the three volumes which I ave read, and for which I am indebted to the kindless of Mr. Palmer. The remainder of this long rork must be read when I have the opportunity of rocuring it, or at least such parts of it as relate to acred or polite literature. Continued Davenant with Jane.

Sept. 2. Read Metastasio's Clemenza di Tito. The ncidents are affecting, and the struggle in the breast of Titus well described. The sudden change in the femper of Vitellia at the conclusion is unnatural. Continued Davenant, with Jane.

3. Began book xxi. of Livy.

6. Continued Livy to the end of book xxi. Began Burke's History of the European Settlements in America, with Jane.

8. Continued Burke's History, with Jane. 12. Began book xxii. of Livy. 13. Continued Livy ;-—and Davenant, with Jane. 15. Continued Livy.

16 and 17. Continued Burke's History of the European Settlements, with Jane.

18. Continued Livy to the end of book xxii.

19. Concluded the Angelica of Metastasio. There are many pleasing picturesque touches in this little piece.

Sept. 20. Read book xxiii. of Livy. 21. Read in Metastasio.

22. Continued Livy, book xxiv.—and Davenant's Gondibert, with Jane.

23. Continued Livy to the end of book xxiv., and began book xxv. Read a manuscript collection of Cowper's unprinted poems, lent me by Miss Bagot. These are in general of equal merit with the rest of his shorter poems.

24. Read, cursorily, Chillingworth's sixth sermon. Continued and finished Davenant's Gondibert, with Jane. Setting aside the plan of this poem, which is far from being well imagined, it is so obscure from a continual affectation of wit, that one does not get on without considerable difficulty in guessing at the poet's meaning. The description of the House of Astragon, and that of Birtha, constitute the best part. There are several beautiful lines scattered throughout the whole, as well as reflections that indicate a penetrating and experienced mind. Hurd's remarks on this poem are very ingenious.

25. Continued Livy to the end of book xxv, and began book xxvi. Read the first book of Daniel's poem on the Civil Wars; and resumed Voltaire's Siécle de Louis XIV., with Jane.

26. Continued Livy; and Voltaire, with Jane.

27. Continued Livy to the end of book xxvi., and began book xxvii,

28. Continued Daniel on the Civil Wars.

In the Journal for this year my father has mentioned his having made an abridgment of the lives of the most eminent Greek restorers of Greek literature, and an abstract of the chapter of Tiraboschi, which contains a review of Italian poetry during the sixteenth century. The former of these papers I have thought worth preserving: not only is it in keeping with the Journal, of which indeed it may be considered to form a part, but many persons will be glad of the more brief account, in our own language, of the revival of Greek Literature, who would not prevail on themselves to toil through the original work, of which this sketch forms a condensed abstract.



Leontius Pilatus, of Thessalonica (whom Petrarch asserts to be a Calabrian), was the first in modern times who publicly taught the Greek language in Italy. He instructed that poet and his friend Boccacio ; but was a man of such rough manners, so squalid an appearance, and so unaccommodating a temper, that Petrarch was glad to be rid of him, and when he wrote to beg that Petrarch would send for him back from Greece, whither he had gone in disgust with Italy, no notice was taken of his letter. Leontius, however, was not deterred from returning, but meeting with a violent storm on his voyage, and unfortunately clinging to the mast, was struck dead by a flash of lightning. Petrarch regretted him dead, for whom he had so little respect or affection when living.

Hody suspects a Translation of the Iliad and Odyssey, preserved in the library of St. John, at Padua, to have been made by Leontius, and not by Emanuel Chrysoloras, to whom it is attributed.

Emanuel Chrysoloras was descended of Roman ancestors, who went with Constantine to Byzantium, and Emanuel himself was born

at Constantinople. He was sent by the emperor John Palæologus over Europe, to supplicate assistance against Bajazet. In the course of his circuit he visited England, during the reign of Richard the Second. He afterwards came into Italy a second time, and landed at Venice, between 1390 and 1400, whence he went to Florence, and there professed the Greek language. Giovanni Galeazzo, Duke of Milan, prevailed on him to leave that city for an academy newly established by him at Pavia. On the death of Galeazzo he once more passed to Venice, and having spent some years there was brought, by the persuasions of his former pupil, Leonardo Aretino, and of Gregory XII., to Rome. In 1413 he was sent by Martin V., with Cardinal Francisco Zabarella, to the Emperor Sigismund, to consult on choosing a place for a council. Constance was fixed on, when, having first returned to Constantinople, he was sent by his own emperor as an ambassador to the council at the beginning of 1415. There he died, April 15 of the same year.

See Roscoe's Life of Lorenzo de' Medici, (chap. vii., vol. ii., p. 57, 4to,) where it is said, on the authority of Mehus in vitâ Amb. Trav., p. 356, that on his arrival in Italy in the character of an instructor, he was accompanied by Demetrius Cydonius*, another learned Greek, who has escaped the researches of Dr. Hody.

* Probably it is Demetrius, a Cydonian, of Cydonia in Crete. See De Bure's Index, Demetrius Cretensis, and Hody, p. 320. A Greek epistle to his kinsman Demetrius Chrysoloras is mentioned by Hody, p. 20, who is perhaps the same here mentioned. Tiraboschi, after speaking of Leontius Pilatus, says—“ Italy had for some time another Greek, who also contributed to make known and to cultivate his language ; I mean Demetrius, by some called a Cydonian, by others a Thessalonican, by others a Constantinopolitan, concerning whom see Fabricius, Bibl. Græc., vol. x. p. 385. That he came into Italy, and sojourned some time at Milan in the course of this century, applying himself there to the study of the Latin language and of theology, is affirmed by Volterrano, Comment. Urban. Lib. xv. But we have more certain proof of it, not only in various works translated by him from Latin into Greek, which are enumerated by Fabricius, but also from the translation and explanation which he made of the Ambrosian Liturgy, which, illustrated with learned notes, and translated into Italian by Ch. P. D. Angelo Mario Fumagalli, a Cistercian Monk, was published at Milan, in 1757. Collucio Salutati, in various inedited letters, of which the Abate Mehus has published some passages, Vit. Ambr. Camaldal, p. 356, &c., speaks with the highest praise of this Greek.”-Stor. della Lett. Ital. T. v., lib. iii., c. i.

From what Tiraboschi afterwards says, it appears he was not acquainted with Hody's work, for he mentions it only as probable that he accompanied Demetrius Chrysoloras in his journey into Greece previous to the year 1396.

S, X.

Emanuel Chrysoloras wrote Grammatica Grcecce Institutiones under the title of 'Epwthuata, a little treatise containing a comparison between ancient and modern Rome, and, besides some other MSS. in different libraries, some chapters, in the library at Paris, proving the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Son as well as from the Father. He had many illustrious pupils in Italy.

John Chrysoloras, the nephew of Emanuel, and Demetrius, another of his kinsmen, were two other learned Greeks, the first of whom (sometimes confounded with his uncle, continued to profess that language in Italy. He married a noble lady of Pisa, of the Aurian family, by whom he had a daughter, Theodora, married to Filelfo. He died about 1425. Demetrius * left several writings, preserved in different libraries, and some of them against the Latins.

Theodore Gaza, of Thessalonica, at the destruction of that city by the Turks, in 1430, fled into Italy, and having been thoroughly instructed at Mantua in the Latin language, settled at last at Ferrara, where he presided over the university with the highest reputation, under the auspices of Leonello the Duke. From Ferrara, about 1450, he went to Rome with others learned in Greek, at the desire of Nicolas + the Fifth, to translate works into the Latin. There he translated Aristotle's Problems, and as Trapezuntius had performed that task before, and Cardinal Bessarion gave the preference to Theodore as a scholar, it gave rise to some animosities between them. On the death of the Pope, in 1456, he went to Naples, to King Alfonso, where he was employed with Bartolomæus Facius in a translation of Arrian. Alfonso dying in 1458, he returned to Cardinal Bessarion, at Rome, by whose interest he obtained a benefice in Apulia (Puglia). He died 1478.

Besides the above-mentioned work of Aristotle, he translated several other Greek books into Latin, and among others Dionysius Halicarnassensis on Composition, and some from Latin into Greek. His own productions are a Greek Grammar in Greek, highly es

* Perhaps this Demetrius is the man alluded to by Roscoe, ante, p. 174.

+ Sabellicus, Ennead., X., lib. vi. (as quoted by Hody, p. 88), says, that under the auspices of Nicolas, Herodotus and Thucydides were translated by L. Valla, “Polybius by Nicolo Perotti, Appian by Pietro Candido, Diodorus by Poggio, different Lives of Plutarch by different hands, and most elegantly of all, Theophrastus and Aristotle on Physics by Theodore Gaza, and Strabo by Guarino Veronese and Gregorio of Tiferno.

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