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LOWELL, JAMES RUSSELL (1819-1891). Born at Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was educated at Har. vard, and began active life as a lawyer, but soon aban. doned business and devoted himself to literature. In 1841 he published a volume of poems, A Year's Life, and in 1843 a second book of verses appeared. Other volumes followed and in 1855 he was appointed Professor of Modern Languages at Harvard. In 1877 he was appointed United States Minister to Spain and held a similar appointment in England in 1880-1885.
LUDLOW, FITZ-HUGH (1836-1870). Born in New York and educated at Union College. Admitted to the bar, he shortly returned to journalism, becoming well known as a writer of short stories, poems, and dramatic, musical, and art criticism. He wrote several books, the most noted being The Hasheesh Eater and The Opium Habit.
LYTLE, W. H. (1826-1863). Born in Cincinnati, Ohio. Studied law and began practice. He volunteered at the 'beginning of the Mexican War and served through the war. At the beginning of the Civil War he was commissioned colonel of the 10th Ohio Regiment. He served with distinction, and was killed leading a charge of his brigade at Chickamauga. General Lytle was a poet of much merit, but no collection of his verses has been published.
MCCALLUM, DANIEL CRAIG (1815-1878). Born in Johnstown, Renfrewshire, Scotland. His parents settled in Rochester, New York, while he was young
and there he became architect and builder. In 1862 was appointed military director and superintendent of railroads in the United States, with the rank of colonel, and "for faithful and meritorious service" was brevetted brigadier-general and major-general of volunteers.
MALONE, WALTER (1866). Born in De Soto County, Mississippi, and educated at the University of Mississippi. After practising law for several years at Memphis, Tennessee, he went to New York and engaged in authorship, his work chiefly consisting of poetical contributions to the magazines. Later he returned to his law practice in Memphis.
MARKHAM, EDWIN (1852). Born at Oregon City, Oregon. His parents removed, during his childhood, to California. By working at farm labor, blacksmithing, and herding, he earned his way through normal school and Santa Rosa College, and prepared himself as a teacher. He contributed poetry to the best Eastern magazines, and finally, in 1898, received world-wide recognition as a poet of the first order with his “The Man with the Hoe.” In 1899 he removed to New York City and devoted himself to literature.
Mr. Markham's poem on “Lincoln” is thought by some superior to his “The Man with the Hoe." It is here presented, specially revised by the author.
MASSEY, GERALD (1828-1907). Born near Tring, Herts, England. When he was fifteen he came to Lon. don, where he was taken up by Maurice and Kingsley.
A selection from his poems was published in 1889 under the title "My Lyrical Life." Later he wrote and lectured on spiritualism.
MILTON, JOHN (1608-1674). Born in London, the son of a scrivener and teacher and composer of music, who destined Milton from his youth to become a man of letters, sending him to St. Paul's School, and afterward to Cambridge. For six years after leaving the university Milton devoted himself to study in his father's house, and then travelled for fifteen months on the continent, being everywhere received with honor for his scholarship by noblemen and authors. Returning to London in 1639 he began teaching. He took active part in the ecclesiastical controversies of the time, supporting the Puritan side. In 1643 he married Mary Powell; the union was unhappy, and they separated, but became reconciled in 1645. In 1649 Milton was appointed Latin Secretary in Cromwell's government. He became blind one year later. In 1652 his wife died; four years later he married Catherine Woodcock; she died in 1658, and in 1663 he married Elizabeth Minshull, who survived him. During the Restoration he was imprisoned for treasonable publications, but was shortly released. He died in 1674 in London and was buried in St. Giles's Churchyard.
Milton's fame rests on Paradise Lost, the greatest by far of English epic poems. Nevertheless, had he not written it, his sonnets and lyrics would entitle him to a high place among poets. Said George William Curtis: "While yet a youth he wrote those minor poems which have the simple perfection of productions of na
ture; and in the ripeness of his wisdom and power he turned his blind eyes to heaven, and sang the lofty song which has given him a twin glory with Shakespeare in English renown.”
MOORE, CLEMENT CLARKE (1779-1863). Born in New York City. He prepared for the ministry, but was never ordained, preferring to devote himself to the study of Hebrew and the classics. The HebrewEnglish Lexicon (1809) gave him title to be considered the pioneer American lexicographer. He wrote much on religious subjects, and became Professor of Oriental and Greek Literature in the General Theological Seminary of New York. He published a volume of poems, of which "A Visit from St. Nicholas" is the most famous.
MOORE, THOMAS (1779-1852). Born in Dublin, Ireland. Educated at Trinity College, Dublin. Law student at Middle Temple, London. Appointed to a government position in Bermuda, which he held for eight months; then, leaving the office in charge of a deputy, he travelled in the United States, after which he returned to England and began contributing to the Edinburgh Review. He wrote many books of verse, the first under the pseudonym of Thomas Little. He also wrote a History of Ireland, and translated and imitated Anacreon. His songs were set to exquisite melodies, and this combined with the intrinsic merit of his verse to render him the favorite poet of his generation. In the height of his fame he received the following encomium of Edgar A. Poe; “A vivid fancy, an epigrammatic spirit, a fine taste, vivacity, dexterity, and a mu.
sical ear have made him what he is, the most popular poet now living, if not the most popular that ever lived."
MORRIS, GEORGE POPE (1802-1864). Born at Philadelphia. Entering into journalism he established with Samuel Woodworth the New York Mirror in 1823, and, on its discontinuance, with N. P. Willis the New Mirror in 1843, this shortly afterwards taking the name of the Evening Mirror. In 1845 he founded the Home Journal, which he edited jointly with Willis till shortly before his death. He wrote one novel, Briarcliff, and edited two collections of American verse. He is best known by his two poems, “My Mother's Bible" and “Woodman, Spare that Tree."
NAIRNE, BARONESS (CAROLINA OLIPHANT) (1766-1845). Born at Gask, Perthshire, Scotland. Married at the age of forty Major (subsequently Lord) Nairne. They settled at Edinburgh. Upon her husband's death Lady Nairne removed to Ireland, and afterwards to the continent. Of her eighty-seven songs, four at least are immortal: "The Land o' the Leal," “Caller Herrin,” “The Laird o’ Cockpen," and "The Auld House.”
NORTON, CAROLINE ELIZABETH SARAH (SHERIDAN), LADY STIRLING-MAXWELL (18081877). Born in London, the daughter of Richard Brinsley Sheridan, the dramatist. She displayed precocious literary ability. She wrote books upon the position of women, especially in relation to marriage, several novo els, and a number of volumes of verse,