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Its force goes one step further than the second future of Shall, but implies an abstract necessity rather than compulsion on the part of another. He shall has so far reference to the speaker, as to imply, that he will himself enforce his command: he must has reference only to the person spoken of, who may be coerced by some circumstance over which the speaker possibly may have no control. It is evident that these two last are not a necessary part of the regular verb, but are merely called in to aid in the expression of circumstance rather than of time.

The following is the conjugation of the perfect auxiliaries.

Infinitive Mode.
To have.

Participle present. Participle past.
Having. • . Had.

Indicative Mode.
I have We have

Thou hast Ye or you have

He has They have.


Imperative Mode.
Have (thou) Have (ye).*

Subjunctive Mode.
If I have We have

Thou have Ye or you have

He have They have.

If I had We had

Thou hadst Ye or you had

He had They had.

To Have, when compounded with other verbs, or with itself, requires to be followed by

* The imperative mode is made in the other persons with the imperative of the verb, to let, joined with a pronoun in the accusative. Let me have,—let him have,—let us have,—let them have.

the participle past; and thus forms all those subdivisions of past time known in the Latin grammar, as perfectum, and plusquam perfectum, as, / have had or loved, I had had, or loved, &c. With the assistance of Shall, it makes the conditional subjunctive future, as I Shall Have seen him by the time you arrive. If I Should Have accomplished it by the specified time. The compound tenses formed with Have are

I have loved I should have loved

I had loved I may have loved

If I have loved I might have loved

If I had loved I could have loved

I shall have loved I must have loved.

Infinitive Mode.
To be.

Participle present. Participle past.
Being Been.

Indicative Mode.
I am We are

Thou art Ye or you are

He is They are.

I was We were

Thou wast Ye or you were

He was They were.

1 Future. I shall be, &c.

2 Future. I will be, &c.

Imperative Mode.
Be (thou) Be (ye).

Subjunctive Mode.
If I be We be

Thou beest Ye or you be

He be They be.

If I were We were

Thou wert Ye or you were

He were They were.

Be is compounded with both participles : with the participle past it forms the passive voice, as / am loved; with the participle present it forms a very nice modification of time, implying a continued or unfinished action, as, / am writing; I was writing when he came in. With the verbs come and go it forms a kind of immediate future, as / am going: he is coming; unless the sense be modified by an adverb of time, and then we can say, / am going next year, or the year after next. The tenses compounded with Be are

I am loved
I was loved
Be loved
If I be loved
If I were loved
I shall be loved
I will be loved
I should be loved
I would be loved
I may be loved
I might be loved
I can be loved

Passive Voice.

I could be loved

I must be loved

I have been loved

I had been loved

I shall have been loved

I should have been loved

I may have been loved

I might have been loved

I can have been loved

I could have been loved

I must have been loved.

Immediate Future.
I am writing I should be writing

I was writing
Be writing
If I be writing
If I were writing
I shall be writing
I will be writing

I would be writing
I may be writing
I might be writing
I can be writing
I could be writing
I must be writing

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