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I have been writing
I had been writing
I shall have been writing
I should have been writing
I may have been writing
I might have been writing
I can have been writing
I could have been writing
I must have been writing.

It should be observed here that must have been has a very different meaning from must. He must have been ignorant of it—signifies he certainly was ignorant, &c.

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Past.
I did We did

Thou didst Ye or you did

He did They did.

Imperative Mode.
Do (thou) Do (ye).

Subjunctive Mode.
Present.
If I do We do

Thou do Ye or you do

He do They do.

Past.
If I did We did

Thou didst Ye or you did

He did They did.

Do, like Shall, is compounded with the infinitive, omitting the preposition to; and was formerly more used than it is at present. Its modern use is confined to questions, as, Do you think so? negations, as, / Do not believe it: entreaty, as, Do write to me: and emphatic assertion, as, / Do really think/did suppose. In the participle past it has sometimes a peculiar sense, and signifies a completed action, as, / have Done writing, i.e. I have finished. The meat is Done, i.e. it is sufficiently cooked. / am Done up, i.e. my strength is at an end. He is noun for, i.e. his life or his fortune is finished. In the participle present it has likewise some peculiar meanings : He is Doing well, signifies, either that he is prospering in fortune, or recovering from sickness—he is Doing ill, means the reverse of these. That will do, signifies, it is enough. I am undone, means I am ruined; but to undo is to unfasten. Do, compounded with the prepositions on and off, forms two regular verbs, namely, to don, i. e. to do on or aVon a vestment, and its opposite, to doff, i. e. do off or d'off.

The irregular verbs are numerous, and though they might be to a certain degree classified, an alphabetical order is more convenient, and it is therefore adopted.

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* Perhaps more properly besoughlen; the termination in en appearing to be proper to those verbs whose past ends in ought, as fought, foughten. Indeed, more than two-thirds of the irregular verbs have still this termination in the participle, and probably in many more it has been dropped merely from the English habit of contracting words in speaking them.

t As, " Let us give as we are most bounden, continual thanks, Sic."Liturgy.

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* Verbs which have the prater and present alike in the first person, nevertheless make edst in the second person singular, as I cast, thou, castedst.

t Lowth gives clang as the prater, and from analogy at any rate it ought to be so.

t Crope is become obsolete.

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