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came to stand alone in this particular, is not easy to say; for the Anglo-Saxon adjective is declined very amply. The only resemblance in this particular that I am aware of is to be found in the German, where, if the adjective be separated from its substantive, it becomes indeclinable.
Concord of the Relative with its Antecedent.
The usual concord of the relative in gender, number, and person with its antecedent, is very easily observed in English ; for it is subject to no change of number or person, but merely of gender and case: but this last is not necessarily the same as that of the antecedent: thus in the phrase, the man, whom you saw, said:—the man is the nominative of said; you is the nominative of saw, and whom is the accusative governed by the verb transitive saw. The relative in this phrase supplies a whole limb of a sentence, for without its aid we must say, you saw a certain man, and that man said. Reverse the sentence, and let the man be the nominative to saw, as,—the man who saw you said:—you becomes the accusative, and the relative is in the nominative case, for the verb transitive no longer exercises its influence on it, but on another word, i. e. you.
The rule is one that may be termed universal, for wherever a relative exists capable of being declined, it must hold good; but the mistakes, so frequently made in the cases of the relative, show that it is one of some difficulty to the mere English scholar. This difficulty may probably be avoided by analysing the sentence so far as to see which word is governed by the verb transitive, for it has already been seen that though the substantive does not alter its termination in the accusative case, it is nevertheless as properly in that case as the neuter noun in the Greek or Latin, which has its nominative and accusative alike. If the government of the verb transitive fall upon a substantive, then the relative escapes from its influence, and, if no other circumstance interfere, will be in the nominative. Or it may be received in another way; for if the relative clearly be the agent, then it must be the nominative to the verb. The following sentence will show it in all its cases, "We may well believe that they whom faith has sanctified, and who upon their departure join the spirits of the just ' made perfect,' may at once be removed from all concern with
this world of probation, except so far as might add to their own happiness, and be made conducive to the good of others, in the ways of Providence. But by parity of reason it may be concluded that the sordid and the sensual, they whose affections have been set upon worldly things, and who are of the earth earthy, will be as unable to rise above the earth as they would be incapable of any pure and spiritual enjoyment.—" * Here, faith is the nominative or agent, and sanctifies certain persons; these in their turn join the spirits of the just, and thus are the agents or nominative to the verb join.
When the relative does duty for two antecedents of different genders, one of which is neuter, then the indeclinable word that is substituted for who or which; as, the Cart and the Man that you met on the road:—for the English do not willingly attribute gender to inanimate things; and by this compromise we may avoid involving the cart and the man in the same category, for that is equally applicable to all genders, as,
"the Child may rue that was unborn,
* Southey. t Ballad of Chevy Chase.
"I asked him whether it were the custom in his country to say The Thing that was not?"*
"In Florence was it from a casement thrown me,
"A man is an ill husband of his honour, that entereth into any action the failing wherein may disgrace him more than the carrying of it through can honour him." J
Arrangement Of The Parts Of Speech.
The proper place of the article in English, as in Greek, is immediately before the adjective, if there be one, if not, before the noun; but, as in the Greek, it is often prefixed to a whole phrase, which taken together forms the nominative to a verb, as, "The speaking to the people was well timed." It does not, however, like the Greek, transform the participle into an active agent, or an individual; but makes the parti
* Swift. t Shakespeare. J Bacon.
ciple present into a neuter substantive, as, The Winning is easier than The Preserving a conquest.
The common Latin rule, that when two substantives of different signification come together, the last will be in the genitive case, is reversed in English; for the substantive in the genitive case stands first, as, "I have to-night wooed Margaret, the lady Hero s gentlewoman, by the name of Hero; she leans me out of her mistress's chamber window, &c."*
"In all debates where virtues bear a part, Not one but nods and talks of Jonson's art, Of Shakespeare's nature, and of Cowley's wit, How Beaumont's judgment checked what Fletcher writ." f
This arrangement of the genitive case is derived from the Anglo-Saxon, where we find commonly such phrases as Dober" jeleapan, God's belief, or the belief in God; Lrobej- pillan, God's will, &c.; and it is still to be found also in the German, as, Ich will Pharaons herz erharten—/ will harden Pharaoh's heart, though in that lan
• Shakespeare. t Pope.