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THOMAS COATES, E87, Secretary, No. 59, Lincoln's Inn Fields.
Louilen: Printed by W. CLOWES Sad Sons, Stamford-screen,
DIONY'SIUS THE YOUNGER, son of Dionysius the of Dion. The latter sent messengers to Corinth to request Elder, succeeded him as tyrant of Syracuse, being acknow- assistance against Dionysius. The Corinthians appointed lerged as such by the people. His father had left the state as leader of the expedition Timoleon, who had already in a prosperous condition; but young Dionysius had neither figured in the affairs of his own country as a determined his abilities nor his prudence and experience. He followed opponent of tyranny. Timoleon landed in Sic:ly 344 B.C., at first the advice of Dion, who, although a republican in notwithstanding the opposition of the Carthaginians and on principle, had remained faithful to his father, and who now Iketas, who acted a perfidious part on this occasion ; he endeavoured to direct the inexperienced son for the good entered Syracuse, and soon after obliged Dionysius to surof his country. For this purpose Dion invited his friend render. Dionysius was sent to Corinth, where he spent the Plato to Syracuse about 364 B.C. Dionysius received the remainder of his life in the company of actors and low philosopher with great respect, and in deference to his ad- women; some say that at one time he kept a school. Jusvice reformed for awhile his loose habits and the manners tin (xxi. 5) says that he purposely affected low habits in of his court. But a faction, led by Philistus, who had order to disarm revenge, and that being despised, h9 always been a supporter of the tyranny of the elder Dio- might no longer be feared or hated for his former tyranny. Jysics, succeeded in prejudicing his son against both Dion Several repartees are related of him in answer to those and Plato. Dion was exiled under pretence that he had who taunted him upon his altered fortunes which are not Titten privately to the senate of Carthage for the purpose destitute of wit or wisdom. (Plutarch, Dion.; Diodorus, xvi.) if concluding a peace. Plato urgently demanded of Dio- DIONY'SIUS, the son of Alexander, an historian and -ysius the recall of Dion, and not being able to obtain it, critic, born at Halicarnassus in the first century B.C. We e left Syracuse, after which Dionysius gave himself up to know nothing of his history beyond what he has told us of Zebauchery without restraint. Aristippus, who was then himself. He states (Antiq., p. 20-24) that he came to Italy zt his court, was the kind of philosopher best suited to the at the termination of the civil war between Augustus and aste of Dionysius. Dion meantime was travelling through Antony (B.C. 29), and that he spent the following two-andGreece, where his character gained him numerous friends. twenty years at Rome in learning the Latin language Dionysius, moved by jealousy, confiscated his property, and and in collecting materials for his history. (Phot. Bibobliged his wife to marry another. Upon this Dior col- lioth., cod. lxxxvi.) He also says (Antiq., p. 1725) that he ected a small force at Zacynthus, with which he sailed for lived in the time of the great civil war. The principal Sicily, and entered Syracuse without resistance. Dionysius work of Dionysius is his Roman Antiquities, which comretired to the citadel in the Ortygia, and after some resist- menced with the early history of the people of Italy, and ance, in which old Philistus, his best supporter, was taken terminated with the beginning of the first Punic war, B.C. prisoner and put to death, he quitted Syracuse by sea, and 265. (Antiq. i. p. 22.) It originally consisted of twenty retired to Locri, the country of his mother, where he had books, of which the first ten remain entire. The eleventh connexions and friends. His partisans, however, retained breaks off in the year 312 B.C., but several fragments of the possession of Ortygia, and a faction having risen in the latter half of the history are preserved in the collection of town, headed by Heraclides, a demagogue, who proposed Constantine Porphyrogennetus, and to these a valuable an equal distribution of property, which Dion resisted, the addition was made in 1816 by Mai, from an old Ms. Belatter was deprived of his command, and would have been sides, the first three books of Appian were founded enkilled by the excited populace, had not his soldiers escorted tirely upon Dionysius; and Plutarch's biography of Cahim safely to Leontini. In the midst of the confusion, a millus must also be considered as a compilation mostly successful sortie made by the soldiers of Dionysius, who taken from the Roman Antiquities, so that perhaps upon plundered and burnt part of the city, recalled thie Syracu- the whole we have not lost much of this work. With resans to their senses, and messengers were dispatched after gard to the trustworthiness and general value of Dionysius's Dion, requesting him to return. Dion obeyed the call, history, considerable doubts may be justly entertained ; for repulsed the enemy, and soon after took the citadel. But though he has evidently written with much greater care the faction of Heraclides conspired against Dion, and had than Livy, and has studied Cato and the old annalists more him treacherously murdered, 354 B.C.
diligently than his Roman contemporary, yet he wrote with Sereral tyrants succeeded each other in Syracuse, until an object which at once invalidates his claim to be conDionysius himself came and retook it about 346. Diony- sidered a veracious and impartial historian. Dionysius sius, however, instead of improving by his ten years' exile, wrote for the Greeks; and his object was to relieve them had grown worse; having usurped the supreme power in from the mortification which they felt at being conquered Locri
, he had committed many atrocities, had put to death by a race of barbarians, as they considered the Romans to several citizens, and abused their wives and daughters. be; and this he endeavoured to effect by twisting and (Justinus, Ælianus.) Upon his return to Syracuse, his forging testimonies and botching up the old legends, so as cruelty and profligacy drove away a great number of people, to make out a primâ facie proof of the Greek origin of the wo emigrated to various parts of Italy and Greece, whilst city of Rome, and he inserts arbitrarily a great number of others joined Iketas, tyrant of Leontini, and a former friend set speeches, evidently composed for the same purpose. He P. C., No. 531
indulges in a minuteness of detail which, though it might these books have given rise to much discussion. It is howbe some proof of veracity in a contemporary history, is a ever scarcely to be conceived that whilst the cumbrous palpable indication of want of faith in the case of an antient machinery of common language constituted the sole instruhistory so obscure and uncertain as that of Rome. With all ment of investigation, the very curious conclusions which his study and research, Dionysius was so imperfectly we find in this work could have resulted fron the researches acquainted with the Roman constitution that he often mis- of one single mind. To suppose that Diophantus was the represents the plainest statements about it. (Niebuhr, inventor of the analysis which bears his name, is so conHist. Rome, vol. ii. p. 13, Engl. tr.) For instance, he trary to all analogy with experience and the history of imagines that the patricians had all the influence in the mental phenomena, as to be utterly impossible to admit. centuries, and that the plebeians and equites had nothing Still, if we inquire into the history of this branch of anato do with the first class. (Antiq. vii. 82-87, x. 17. See lysis, and ask who were the predecessors of Diophantus, or Niebuhr, Hist. Rome, ii. p. 178, Engl. tr.) He thought the whether they were Greeks or Hindus, no satisfactory anoriginal constitution of Rome was a monarchical democracy, swer can be given. and calls the curies the demus (8ñuos.) He believed when Diophantus also wrote a book on Polygon Numbers (tepi he wrote his second book that the decrees of the people tovyúvwv åpw uw). Holzmann published at Basle, in were enacted by the curies and confirmed by the senate 1575, folio, a Latin translation of both the works of Dio(Antiq. ii. 14), and not, as he afterwards discovered, the con- phantus. The first Greek edition was by Meziriac, Paris, verse. (Antiq. vii. 38.) In a word, though the critical historian 1621, folio : an improved edition of Meziriac's edition was may be able to extract much that is of great importance published by S. de Fermat, Toulouse, 1670, folio. A valuable for the early history of Rome from the garbled narrative translation of the Arithmetical Questions into German was and the dull trifling of Dionysius, he cannot be regarded as published by Otto Schulz, Berlin, 1822, 8vo.; to which is a meritorious writer, or recommended to the student of added Poselger's translation of the work on Polygon Numantient history as a faithful guide. Dionysius also wrote a bers. treatise on rhetoric; criticisms on the style of Thucydides, DIOPSIDE, a variety of PYROXENE. Lysias, Isocrates, Isæus, Dinarchus, Plato, and Demos- DIO'PSIS, a genus of Dipterous Insects of the family thenes; a treatise on the arrangement of words, and some Sepsidæ. The insects of this genus are remarkable for the other short essays. His critical works are much more immense prolongation of the sides of the head. The head valuable than his history, and are indeed written with itself is small, and appears as if it were furnished with two considerable power. The criticism on Dinarchus [Di- long horns, each having a knob at its apex ; these hornNARCHUS) displays good sense and judgment, and shows like processes huwever are not analogous to the parts usually the great pains which the author took to separate the termed antennæ, but are in fact prolongations of the sides genuine writings of the Attic crators from the fabrications of the head, the knob at the apex of each being the eye of which i passed under their name. The best editions of the insect. They vary in length according to the species. Dionysius are those of Hudson, Oxon., 1704, 2 vols., in In some they are almost equal to the whole length of the folio; and by Reiske, Lips., 1774-1777, 6 vols., in 8vo. insect, whereas in others they are only about half that Mai's fragments were first published at Milan in 1816, and length. The antennæ are situated close to the eyes, and reprinted the following year at Frankfort. They also ap- are three-jointed : the basal joint is the smallest and is very pear in the second volume of Mai's Nova Collectio, Rome, short; the terminal joint is the largest, of a globular form 1827. His rhetoric has been published separately by (or nearly so), and furnished towards the apex with a simple Schott, Lips., 1804, 8vo.; and his remarks on Thucydides seta; there is also a short seta on the peduncle or eye-stalk, by Krüger, Hal. Sax., 1823, 8vo. There is a German situated about midway between the base and the apex of translation of the Roman Antiquities by J. Lr. Benzler, that process, and on the anterior part. The thorax is someLemgo, 1771-1772, 2 vols., 8vo. The only English trans- what attenuated anteriorly, but approaches to a spherical lation of the Antiquities is the following: The Antiquities form, and is generally furnished with two spines on each of Dionysius Halicarnassensis, translated into English, side; the scutellum is also furnished with two spines. The with notes and dissertations, by Edward Spelman, Esq.,' body is more or less elongated, sometimes nearly cylindri2 vols., 4to., London, 1748.
cal, but generally increases in diameter towards the apex. DIONYSIUS of Byzantium lived before the year a.d. The legs are tolerably long-the anterior femora are gene196. His voyage ('Avandovs) in the Thracian Bosporus was rally thick, and furnished beneath with minute denticulaextant in the 16th century, for Gyllius, who died in 1555, tions, and the four posterior femora are often furnished with has given extracts in Latin from it in his work on the Thra- a spine at their apex. cian Bosporus. A single fragment from this work is For a detailed account of these curious insects we refer printed in Ducange's Constantinopolis Christiana,' and in our readers to Mr. Westwood's excellent paper in the seven, Hudson's Minor Greek Geographers. Perhaps there is some teenth volume of the ` Transactions of the Linnean Society,' confusion between this Dionysius and the author of the in which twenty species are described. • Periegesis,' wbom Suidas (Alovúolos) calls a Corinthian.
DIONY'SIUS PERIEGETES, the author of a Greek poem in 1186 hexameter verses, intitled tñs Oikovuévns llepinynois, or 'a description of the habitable world. It is not known where Dionysius was born nor where he lived. Perhaps the most probable opinion is, that he was a native of Byzantium and belonged to the latter part of the third or the beginning of the fourth century A. D. As a poem the Periegesis is of little value, and as a geographical work, not worth the trouble of reading. The commentary of Eustathius on the Periegesis possesses some value for the miscellaneous information which is scattered through it. There are two Latin translations of this poem, one by Rufus Festus Avienus, and the other by Priscianus.
Diopsis Sykesii, G. R. Gray. There are numerous editions of Dionysius. "The last and
a denotes the natural size. best edition of the Periegesis is by G. Bernhardy, Leipzig, The illustration is copied from one of that gentleman's 1828, 8vo., in the first volume of his . Geographi Græci figures, and represents the Diopsis Sykesii, one of the largest Minores.
species of the genus, and which has been selected as posDIOPHANTUS, a native of Alexandria, the exact date sessing the longest eye-stalks ; these processes in this insect of whose birth is unknown, some authors asserting that he are of a pitchy red colour, and the body is of the same tint. lived in the reign of Augustus, whilst others place him The head and thorax are black and the wings are clouded under Nero, or even the Antonines. The fact is that we do with brown. not know when he lived. He lived however, as is well as- But little is known of the habits of these insects. Lieut.certained, to eighty-four years of age.
Colonel W. H. Sykes, who collected great numbers of the Diophantus left behind him thirteen books of Arithme- above species during his residence in India, furnished Mr tical Questions, of which however only six are extant; but Westwood with the following notice respecting their hafrom their distinct and peculiar character, in comparison bitat and habits :with all the other writing of the Greek mathematicians, 'Habitat. The hill fort of Hurreechunderghur, in the
western ghauts of the Deccan, at an elevation of 3900 feet | ture, particularly interiors, as powerful relief may be ob. above the level of the sea, 19° 23' N. lat., 73° 40' E. long. tained without that exaggeration in the shadows which is
* This insect affects chasms or ravines in the lofty woods almost inevitable in every other mode of painting. Thich encircle the mountain in belts. In various places, Although hitherto employed only for purposes of public
here the sunbeams occasionally pierce the woods and fall exhibition, the diorama might undoubtedly be turned to acupon isolated or salient rocks in the above localities, they count for those of embellishment likewise in corridors and are seen in myriads, either poising themselves in the rays, other places of that kind, where light can be obtained only or reposing on the spots on which the rays fall.'
from one extremity. For it should be observed that the In addition to this notice we may add that all the known principle is totally independent of the contrivance adopted species are from the tropical parts of the Old World. for exhibiting two pictures; although this latter in itself en
DIOPTASE or emerald copper, a crystallized silicate of hances the attraction to the public. This may be undercopper, the primary form of which is a rhomboid ; its colour stood by briefly describing the building erected for the purraries from emerald to blackish green; its lustre is vitreous; pose in the Regent's Park, London, after the plans of it is translucent, and sometimes transparent; it is suffi- Messrs. Morgan and Pugin, and first opened in the autumn ciently hard to scratch glass, though but feebly; it is brittle; of 1823. specific gravity 3.278; the streak is green; fracture un- The spectatory or saloon for the visitors is a rotunda 40 eren; and cross fracture flat conchoidal. It is found in feet in diameter, with a single opening or proscenium about Siberia and the Bannat; and, according to Lowitz, it con- 20 feet wide ; and placed within another rotunda having two sists of silica 33, oxide of copper 55, water 12.
openings communicating with the picture-rooms, each of DIOPTRICS. [OPTICS; REFRACTION.]
which contains a view. When a change of scene takes place DIORAMA, from the Greek word dopov, to see through, the inner rotunda is turned by means of machinery beneath a mode of painting and scenic exhibition invented of late the floor, till the proscenium is gently shifted from the openFears by two French artists, Daguerre and Bouton, which, ing into one picture-room to that of the other, the two being although it does not possess some of the advantages of the quite contiguous. At the next change it is shifted back panorama, produces a far greater degree of optical illusion. again, so that the whole space passed over backwards and It has also one advantage over the panorama, in being forwards is about one-third of the entire circumference, or Equally suitable for architectural and interior views as for double that portion of the circle forming the proscenium. landscape; nay even more so, because the positive degree of The diorama at Berlin, executed by Carl Gropius, an emilight is more natural, and the relief of the objects becomes nent scene-painter, is somewhat on the same plan, yet with more deceptive. The peculiar and almost magical effect of some slight differences. The peculiar mode just described, of the diorama arises, in a considerable measure, from the con- turning the spectatory from one painting to the other, is trivance employed in exhibiting the painting, which is viewed adopted, as the scenes are much larger than the opening through a large aperture or proscenium. Beyond this open through which they are viewed, and require to be stretched ing the picture is placed at such distance that the light is on a framing, so that they cannot be either rolled up, or thrown upon it, at a proper angle, from the roof, which is drawn aside in two halves, as is done with scenes of a theaglazed with ground glass, and cannot be seen by the spec- tre. Nevertheless, it would perhaps be found practicable to tator. Besides the light being thus concentrated upon the exhibit a succession of three or four views, in a single “picpicture, the effect is materially increased by the spectator ture-room,' by making that part of the building sufliciently being in comparative darkness, receiving no other light spacious to allow each scene to be slided backwards or forthan what is reflected from the surface of the painting it- wards, so as to be entirely out of view when drawn aside. se.f. Another circumstance greatly favouring illusion is the DIOSCO'REA, the genus of plants which furnish the intervening distance; and also the circumstance that the tropical esculents called yams. . They are perennial fleshysides of the proscenium or opening are continued inwards to rooted or tuberous diccious plants, with annual twining Fards the picture, so as to screen its extremities, and at the stems, broad alternate leaves having a somewhat netted arsame time assist in confining the light to the scene itself. rangement of their veins, and loose clusters of small green The contrast thus occasioned, and the exciusion of all other flowers. The corolla and the calyx taken together consist objects of vision save those represented in the painting, so of six small equal segments, which, in the females, stand thai the eye has no immediate standard of comparison be- upon the top of the ovary. The male flowers have six statween them and real ones, give to this species of exhibition mens; the females three styles. The seed vessel is a thin such extraordinary force that a very moderate degree of compressed three-winged capsule, containing one or two izht will suffice to show the painting. Hence the light membranous seeds. 132 be diminished or increased at pleasure, and that either The only general account of the species, which at al) degradually
or suddenly, so as to represent the change from serves to be consulted, is that of Dr. Roxburgh, who cultiedina y daylight to sunshine, and from sunshine to clou vated seventeen sorts in the Botanic Garden, Calcutta ; wather, or to ihe obscurity of twilight; also the difference of others are known to botanists, but far from perfectly, atmospheric tone attending them : all which variations give The common West India yam, which is often sold in the * the diorama a character of nature and reality beyond that shops of London, is produced by Dioscorea alata. It is met w any other mode of painting. These transitions, in regard with in the East Indies also, but only in a cultivated state. tu light and atmospheric effects, are produced by means of A figure of it is given in Rheede’s ‘Hortus Malabaricus,' vol. ferent folds or shutters attached to the glazed ceiling, vii. t. 38, under the name of katsji-kelengu. Its tubers are which are so contrived that they may be immediately oblong, brown externally, white internally, and often of pened or closed to any extent, thereby increasing or dimi- great size, weighing sometimes as much as 30lbs.; they oishing the light just as required, and otherwise modifying perish after the first year, if left in the ground, having first 1. Further than this, some parts of the painting itself are produced the young ones that are to replace them. transparent, and on them the light can occasionally be ad- sides the tubers the proper roots of all these plants are fibrous, mitted from behind, thereby producing a brilliancy far ex- springing from and chiefly about the union of the stems seeding that of the highest lights of a picture upon an with the tubers, and spreading in every direction. The paque ground, which can be made to appear vivid and stems are furnished with four crested leafy wings, and spread parkling only by contrast, not by any positive increase of to a great extent twining round trees and bushes; they itaht on those parts of the surface. Here, on the contrary, often bear prickles near the ground. The first leaves that such augmented light is admitted through it, in addition to appear on the stem are alternate, the succeeding are oppothat which illuminates the picture generally, an artifice site, seated on long stalks, deeply heart-shaped at the base, which secures the advantages of painting in transparency sharp-pointed, smooth, with from five to seven ribs. The without its defects; the objects looking more solid, and the flowers are small and green, and appear in compound panietieet being altogether more natural than when the whole cles. The remainder of the species are very similar to this of the light passes through the picture. The combination in general characters; a few short notes will sufficiently inof transparent, semi-transparent, and opaque colouring, still dicate their differences. further assisted by the power of varying both the effects and D. globosa, cultivated in Bengal under the name of choo the degree of light and sbade, renders the diorama the puree aloo, is most esteemed of the Indian yains. Its flowers most perfect seenic representation of nature, and adapts it are highly fragrant; the tubers are white internally; the peculiarly for moonlight subjects, or for showing such acci- leaves arrow-headed. vnts' in landscape as sudden gleams of sunshine and their D. rubella, the guranya-aloo, is another Indian sort with disappearance. It is also unrivalled for showing architec- I large tubers stained with red immediately below the cuticle ;
it is much esteemed; its tubers are sometimes three feet | ing plants with diligence and acquainting himself with long; its flowers are fragrant.
their properties, real or reputed. He also gathered together Another valuable kind is D. purpurea, called lal-guranya- the opinions current in his day concerning the medical aloo in Bengal, whose tubers are permanently stained purple plants brought from countries not visited by himself, espethroughout.
cially from India, which at that time furnished many drugs At Malacca is cultivated another purple-rooted sort, the to the western markets. From such materials he compiled D. atropurpurea, whose tubers are large and irregular, and his celebrated work on Materia Medica, in five books, grow so near the surface of the ground as to appear in dry wherein between 500 and 600 medicinal plants are named weather through the cracks that they make in the soil by and briefly described. He is moreover reputed the author raising the earth over them.
of some additional books on therapeutics, &c.; but in the Other eatable sorts are numerous, but are less valuable, judgment of Sprengel the latter are spurious, and from the and therefore not cultivated. In Otaheite the D. bulbifera, mixture of Latin and Greek names of plants, are probably which bears small fleshy angular tubers along the stem in some monkish forgery. the axils of the leaves, is the favourite species.
Few books have ever enjoyed such long and universal It is not a little remarkable that while so many species celebrity as the Materia Medica of Dioscorides. For sixare nutritious in this genus, some should be highly dan- teen centuries and more, to use the words of one of his gerous; but such is unquestionably the fact. Dioscorea biographers, this work was referred to as the fountain-head Dæmonum and triphylla, both ternate leaved species, have of all authority by everybody who studied either botany or dreadfully nauseous and dangerous tubers. No genus is the mere virtues of plants. Up to the commencement of more in want of revision than this.
the seventeenth century the whole of academical or private DIOSCOREA'CEÆ, a natural order of endogenous study in such subjects was begun and ended with the works plants, referred to the Retose group, and having the last of Dioscorides; and it was only when the rapidly increasing genus for their type. They are particularly distinguished numbers of new plants and the general advance in all by the following character.
branches of physical knowledge compelled people to admit Flowers diæcious; calyx and corolla superior; stamens that the vegetable kingdom might contain more things six; ovary three-celled, with one or two-seeded cells; style than were dreamt of by the Anazarbian philosopher, that deeply trifid; fruit leafy, compressed, occasionally succu- his authority ceased to be acknowledged. lent; embryo small, near the hilum, in a large cavity of This is the more surprising, considering the real nature cartilaginous albumen.
of these famous books. The author introduced no order All the species are twining shrubs, with alternate or spu- into the arrangement of his matter, unless by consultriously opposite leaves. They consist, with the exception ing a similarity of sound in the names he gave his plants of Tamus, or Black Bryony, of tropical plants, or at least of Thus, medium was placed with epimedium, althæa can such as require a mild frostless climate. Some of them nabina with cannabis, hippophæstum (cnicus stellatus) produce eatable farinaceous tubers, or yams, as the various with hippophaë, and so on; the mere separation of arospecies of Dioscorea and Testudinaria; but there is a dan- matic and gum-bearing trees, esculents and corn-plants, gerous acrid principle prevalent among them, which ren- hardly forms an exception to this statement. Of many of ders the order upon the whole suspicious. It exists in a his plants no description is given, but they are merely perceptible degree in Tamus, and is still more manifest in designated by a name. In others the descriptions are comthe three-leaved Dioscorea.
parative, contradictory, or unintelligible. He employs the same word in different senses, and evidently attached no exactness to the terms he made use of. He described the same plant twice under the same name or different names; he was often notoriously careless, and he appears to have been ready to state too much upon the authority of others. Nevertheless, his writings are extremely interesting as showing the amount of Materia Medica knowledge in the author's day, and his descriptions are in many cases far from bad: but we must be careful not to look upon them as evidence of the state of botany at the same period; for Dioscorides has no pretension to be ranked among the botanists of antiquity, considering that the writings of Theophrastus, four centuries earlier, show that botany had even at that time begun to be cultivated as a science distinct from the art of the herbalist.
The most celebrated MS. of Dioscorides is one at Vienna, illuminated with rude figures. It was sent by Busbequius, the Austrian Ambassador at Constantinople, to Mathiolus, who quotes it under the name of the Cantacuzene Codex, and is believed to have been written in the sixth century. Copies of some of the figures were inserted by Dodoens in his Historia Stirpium, and others were engraved in the reign of the empress Maria Theresa under the inspection of Jacquin. Two impressions only of these plates, as far as we can learn, have ever been taken off, as the work was not prosecuted. One of them is now in the Library of the Linnæan Society; the other is, we believe, with Sibthorp's collection at Oxford. They are of little importance, as the figures are of the rudest imaginable description. Another manuscript of the 9th century exists at Paris and was used by Salmasius; this also is illustrated with figures, and has
both Arabic and Coptic names introduced, on which 3 5
account it is supposed to have been written in Egypt. Be
sides these, there is at Vienna a manuscript believed to be 1, a shont of Rajania cordata ; 2, a male flower; 3, a female flower; 4, a still more antient than that first mentioned, and three portion of a ripe fruit with the seed exposed; 5, a section of the seed.
others are preserved at Leyden. DIOSCO'RIDES, PEDACIUS, or PEDA'NIUS, a The first edition of the Greek text of Dioscorides, was Greek writer on Materia Medica, was born at Anazarbus, published by Aldus at Venice, in 1499, fol. A far better in Cilicia, and flourished in the reign of Nero, as appears one is that of Paris, 1549, in 8vo. by J. Goupyl; but a from the dedication of his books to Areus Asclepiadeus, better still is the folio Frankfort edition, of 1598, by Sarwho was a friend of the consul Licinius or Lecanius Bassus. racenus. Sprengel laments, 'nullum rei herbariæ peritum In early life he seems to have been attached to the army; virum utilissimo huic scriptori operam impendisse.' Neverand either at that time or subsequently he travelled through theless, there have been many commentators, of whom Greece, Italy, Asia Minor, and some parts of Gaul, collect. some, such as Fuchsius, Amatus Lusitanus, Ruellius, Ta