Page images

bernæmontanus, Tragus, and Dalechampius, are of no sort | thartin. The volatile oil and the extractive appear to be the of authority, while others, especially Matthiolus, Maranta, active ingredients. They are usually administered in the Cordus, John Bauhin, and Tournefort, among the older, with form of infusion. Buchu leaves have been long known to Sibthorp, Smith, and Sprengel, among modern commenta- the Hottentots as a remedy against rheumatism, cramps, tors, deserve to be consulted with attention. The last edi. and above all in affections of the urinary organs. They tion of the Greek text is by Sprengel, in the collection of have of late years been introduced into European practice. Greek Physicians by Kühn, Leipzig, 1829, 8vo., which has in their action they resemble those of the arctostaphylos been improved by a collation of several MSS. Dr. Sibthorp, uva ursi, but from their containing volatile oil, buchu who visited Greece for the purpose of studying on the spot leaves are in many cases preferable. [Bear's WHORTLEthe Greek plants of Dioscorides, must be accounted of the BERRY.] highest critical authority; for it frequently happens that DIP, in magnetism, the angle which the magnetic needle, the traditions of the country, localities, or other sources of freely poised on its centre of gravity and symmetrically information throw far more light upon the statements of formed in both its arms, makes with the plane of the horithis antient author than his own descriptions. It will ever zon. It is more scientifically termed the inclination of the be a subject of regret to scholars, that Dr. Sibthorp should needle, or the magnetic inclination. [INCLINATION and have died before he was able to prepare for the press the Magnetism.} result of his inquiries; what is known of them is embodied DIPHILUS. [ATHENS, vol. ii., p. 18.] in the Prodromus Floræ Græcæ, published from his ma- DIPHTHONG (diployyos) is the sound of two vowels terials by the late Sir James Edward Smith, and in the pronounced in rapid succession, as the German au in maus, Flora Græca itself, consisting of 10 vols. fol. with nearly pronounced precisely like the English word mouse, the 1000 coloured plates, commenced by the same botanist, and vowel sound consisting of the broad a of father, followed now nearly completed under the direction of Professor quickly by the sound of u or 00. Again, the i in the

Lindley. SIBTHORP.] So far as European plants are in English word mind, though represented by a single cha! question, we may suppose that the means of illustrating racter, is virtually a diphthongal sound, consisting of the

Dioscorides are now nearly exhausted; but it is far other broad a of father, followed by the vowel sound which is wise with his Indian and Persian plants

. Concerning the heard in mean. The name 'diphthong however is comlatter, it is probable that much may be learned from a monly given to any vowel sound represented by the juncstudy of the modern Materia Medica of India. When the tion of two vowels, as in dream, though the sound proNestorians, in the fifth century, were driven into exile, duced is not compounded. they sought refuge among the Arabs, with whom they All diphthongs are said to be long syllables; and this established their celebrated school of medicine, the rami- would be true if they were only employed to mark the fications of which extended into Persia and India, and laid union of two vowel sounds. This probably was originally the foundation of the present medical practice of the their sole office; for in many English words now written with natives of those countries. In this way the Greek names diphthongs, but pronounced as if they had single vowels, an of Dioscorides, altered indeed, and adapted to the genius of earlier pronunciation contained the double sound; and inthe new countries, became introduced into the languages of deed this view is often supported by the provincial pronunPersia, Arabia, and Hindostan, and have been handed ciation of a word. For example, such words as meat, dream, down traditionally to the present day. Thus Dr. Royle has are pronounced in many parts of England as dissyllables, shown, by an examination of this sort of evidence, that the meät, dream. In practice however a diphthong is often Kalamos aromatikos of Dioscorides is not a Gentian, as has used where the vowel sound is not only uncompounded but been imagined ; that Nardos Indike is unquestionably the short, as in friend, breadth. Nardostachys Jatamansi of De Candolle, and that the Again, diphthongs are occasionally used to represent Lukion Indikon was neither a Rhamnus, nor a Lycium, but simple sounds intermediate between the vowels, as in the as Prosper Alpinus long ago asserted, a Berberis. With English word cough, and the German sounds represented regard to the last plant, Dr. Royle states that Berberis by ae, oe, ue, commonly written ä, ö, ü, where the dots is at the present day called in India hooziz hindee, or placed over the vowels are merely a corruption of the Indian hooziz; this last word has for its Arabic synonym letter e. loofyon or lookyon ; therefore the Berberry is still called DIPHUCE'PHALA, a genus of coleopterous insects Indian lycium, with the reputed qualities and uses of belonging to the Lamellicornes, section Phyllophagi. which it moreover corresponds.

This genus appears to be confined to Australia, and the DIOSMA, a genus of Rutaceous shrubs inhabiting the species of which it is composed are distinguished from those Cape of Good Hope. They have alternate simple leaves, of allied genera chiefly by their having the clypeus deeply strongly marked with dots of transparent oil

, and diffusing emarginated; they are of an oblong form; the thorax is a powerful odour when bruised. Some of the species are attenuated anteriorly, the elytra are somewhat depressed, to European taste offensive, as the Buckus, with which the and the abdomen is very convex. The antennæ are cight. Hottentots perfume themselves, and which are chiefly jointed, and the club is composed of three joints; the anyielded by D. crenata and serratifolia. The flowers of most terior tibiæ are generally dentated externally; the anterior are white; those of a few are red. Diosma crenata itself, tarsi of the males have the four basal joints dilated, and which is reputed a powerful antispasmodic, is thus de- furnished with a velvet-like substance beneath, and all the scribed:

claws are bifid. An erect shrub, smooth in every part, and growing a foot A rich golden green appears to be the prevailing colour or so high; branches tapering, purplish, long, lax; branch of these insects, and we understand that they are found on lets somewhat whorled, ternate, or scattered, angular, flowers. purple, twiggy, incurved, loose. Leaves alternate, on short Diphucephala sericea (Kirby) is nearly half an inch in stalks, ovate-oblong, blunt, flat, smooth, deep green above, length, of a golden green hue, and has a silk-like gloss on paler beneath, dotted with sunken glands, the midrib some- the upper parts; the legs are red; the anterior tibiæ have what keeled, the margin scolloped, glandular-dotted, and an obtuse tooth-like process on the outer side, near the shining. Flowers solitary, white, middle sized. Peduncles apex; the head and thorax are very thickly and delicately filiform, shorter than the leaves.

punctured; the elytra are covered with confluent punctures By most modern botanists the old genus Diosma is which are arranged in longitudinal rows, and each elytron broken up into eight, namely, Adenandra, Coleonema, has two smooth elevated striw; the under parts of the Diosma proper, Euchætis, Acmadenia, Baryosma, to which body are covered with white scalé-like hairs. the Buckus belong, Agathosma, and Macrostylis.

This is the largest species known; there are however Diosma crenata (Linn.) and Diosma serratifolia (Vent.) many which are nearly equal to it in size. The genus yield leaves which at the Cape of Good Hope are termed Diphucephala forms the subject of a monograph in the first buchu, or bucco, and which are sometimes used alone, but volume of the 'Transactions of the Entomological Society more frequently mixed. When bruised they emit a strong of London,' where sixteen species are described. peculiar odour, resembling rosemary or rue. The taste is DI'PHYDES, DI'PHYDÆ, a family of zoophytes, thus aromatic, but not bitter or disagreeable

characterized by M. de Blainville, and placed by him beCadet de Gassecourt analysed the leaves, and found no tween the Physograda and the Ciliograda, alkaloid, but 6.65 of volatile oil ; 21.17 extractive; 2.15 resin; Body, bilateral and symmetrical, composed of a very small, 63 lignin; 1.10 chlorophylle. Brandes considers the extrac-nucleïform, visceral mass, and two natatory organs, which live to be peculiar, and terms it Diosmin, analogous to ca- are contractile, subcartilaginous, and serial ; one anterior,

in more or less immediate connexion with the nucleus, | by an examination of certain species of Physsophoræ. which it seems to envelop; the other posterior, and but Blainville then states that the body of a Diphyes, at firs little adherent.

sight, and especially as it appears during, life, seems to be Head, at the extremity of a more or less proboscidiform composed of two polygonal, subcartilaginous, transparent stomach.

parts, placed one after the other, the posterior portion pene Vent, unknown; a long cirrhiform and ovigerous pro- trating more or less into an excavation of the anterior por: duction, proceeding from the root of the nucleus, and pro- tion. These two parts, constantly more or less dissimilar, longing itself more or less backwards.

have this in common: viz., that they are ordinarily more Ñ. Bory de St. Vincent, in his voyage to the African or less profoundly hollowed out by a blind cavity opening coasts, appears to be the first who noticed these animals, externally by a very large and regular, though diversiform which abound in all the seas of warm latitudes, with any aperture. Adding to this a production regarded as the degree of certainty. He considered them to be Biphores ovary by Cuvier, and which comes out of the superior cavity (Salpa). Tilesius also said something of them in the 200- of the anterior cartilaginous part, we have the whole that logical part of Krusenstern's voyage.

had been remarked about the Diphydæ before the memoir But it was Cuvier who first formed these creatures into of Quoy and Gaimard, who have described numerous species a separate genus, under the name of Diphyes, and he placed which they have observed, very nearly like Cuvier; with them at the end of his Hydrostatic Acatephans, immediately this modification, however, that they have considered the after Stephanomia of Péron. Cuvier describes the genus two parts as belonging to the same animal: but the study as very singular, consisting of two individuals, which are of the differences of form necessary for the establishment always together, one including itself in a hollow of the of the new genera which they have proposed, and above all, other (l'un s'emboîtant dans un creux de l'autre), an ar- the good figures which they have given, have enabled them rangement which nevertheless permits their separation with to go further, and to see in the Diphydæ something beyond out the destruction of life. They are, he observes, gelati- the two subcartilaginous parts. In fact, taking for example nous, transparent, and move very nearly like the Medusa. the Calpes, and especially the Cucubali and the Cuculli, it The including individual (l'emboîtant) produces from the is seen that the bodies of the Diphydæ form true nuclei, bottom of its hollow a chaplet (chapelet), which traverses a situated at the anterior part of the entire mass, and that demi-canal of the included individual (l'emboîté), and the nucleus is composed of a proboscidian esophagus, with would seem to be composed of ovaries and of tentacula and a mouth having a cupping-glass-like termination (en vensuckers like those of the preceding genera. Cuvier then touse), continuing itself into a stomach surrounded with goes on to state the divisions established by MM. Quoy and green hepatic granules, and sometimes into a second, filled Gaimard, according to the relative forms and proportions of with air. There is, moreover, to be remarked, at the lower the two individuals. Thus, in the Diphyes, properly so part, a glandular mass, which is probably the ovary, and is called, the two individuals are nearly alike, pyramidal, and in more or less immediate relation with the cirrhigernius with some points round their opening, which is at the base and perhaps oviferous production, which is prolonged backof the pyramid. In the Calpes, the included individual wards. This nucleus would seem to be more or less elle has still the pyramidal form, but the including individual veloped by the anterior cartilage, which offers to it, in fact, a is very small and square. In the Abyles, the included indi- cavity sometimes distinct from the second (which has been vidual is oblong or oval, and the including rather smaller mentioned above), serving for locomotion, and at other and bell-shaped. In the Cuboides, it is the included indi- times confounded with it; it is, besides, in intimate convidual which is small and bell-shaped; the including indi- nexion with its tissue by filaments, which M. de Blainville vidual is much larger and square. In the Navicules, the believes to be vascular. It has been already remarked that included individual is bell-shaped; the including individual the posterior part of the body is bollowed out by a great large also, but slipper-shaped (en forme de sabot). Cuvier cavity, which is continued nearly throughout its length: concludes by remarking that there are many other combi- and it is from the bottom of this cavity that a prolongation, nations, and refers to the memoir of MM. Quoy and Gai- perhaps equally vascular, proceeds, which goes above the mard, in the · Annales des Sciences Naturelles,' tome x. root of the oviferous production, and unites itself, without This, then, is the account given by Cuvier in his last edition doubt, with the nucleus. *Thus,' continues M. de Blainof the Règne Animal;' but it was in the first that he esta- ville, “it would appear to me certain that this part really blished the genus, and in that edition he evidently knew belongs to the Diphyes; but it is easy to conceive how it of only one species from the Atlantic, for which he refers may be detached by the slightest effort, because the union to M. Bory's Voyage,' and places the genus among his free is only effected by a single flament. A calephans, between Cestum of Lesueur and Porpita of After this stateñent of the organization of Diphyes, one Lamarck. It is to the first edition that M. de Blainville may see that the part which M. Cuvier regarded as by itself refers in his ‘ Actinologie,' and he there says that in fact constituting the animal, is only an organ of minor importM. Lesueur, more than a year previously, had sent him the ance; that there must be added to it the posterior part, drawing of a genus of the same family, to which Lesueur which was regarded as a distinct individual; but above all, had given the name of Amphiora (Amphiroa ?), and which that it is necessary to take into the account the visceral M. de Blainville observes was, from what he now knows of nucleus, which, with the oviferous production, forms the the Diphyes, very nearly approximated to them, to say the essential part of the animal. From this analysis of a least; but the want of information as to the characters of Diphyes, it is evident that it cannot be an animal of the the genus prevented him (De Blainville) from publishing it. type of the Actinozoaria ; but in order to establish its natuHe remarks, that he ought to add that Lesueur was more ral relationship, let us see what the observers above named fortunate than Cuvier, inasmuch as the former had at his have recorded of its manners and habits. disposal a complete and living animal; while the latter cha- The Diphyes are very transparent animals, so that it racterized as one Diphyes an animal composed of two indi- is often very difficult to distinguish them in the sea, and siduals, giving as the type the anterior moiety only, to which even in a certain quantity of water taken from it. It is he attributes two apertures, one for the mouth and the other especially at considerably great distances from the shore for the exit of the cirrhigerous production which he regards that they are met with iki the seas of warm climates, and as the ovary. M. de Blainville then, after some further often very numerous. They float and swim apparently in observations as to the place assigned to the animal by all directions, with the anterior or nucleal extremity foreCuvier, refers to the ' Memoir of MM. Quoy et Gaimard,' most, and getting rid of the water which they take in, by above mentioned, and states that during the rest of their the contraction of the two subcartilaginous parts; their voyage those zoologists had met with more Diphydæ, of aperture, consequently, is always directed backwards. which they had formed distinct genera, and had submitted When the two natatory organs are equally provided with them to his examination; that he had also obtained some a special cavity, it is probable that the locomotion is more beautiful drawings of these animals, made by Lesueur in rapid; it can, finally, be executed by either the one or the the Gulf of Bahama; and that M. Paul-Emile Botta, placed other, in proportion to their size. The posterior part is by his recommendation on board a merchant-ship about to attached to the nucleus with so little solidity, that it often make a voyage round the world, had also communicated to happens that it detaches itself from it accidentally; so that him the observations which he (Botta) had been able to M. Botta believed that an entire Divhyes was only formed make on the genus; so that, difficult as the study of these by one of these parts, he having but very rarely found these singular animals may be, he thinks that he has been able animals complete. During locomotion the cirrhigerous and to arrive at their true natural relations, aided, above all, I oviferous production apparently thoats extended backwards,

[ocr errors]

Cucubalus cordiformis.

lodging itself partly in a gutter, into which the inferior ferous production very short; and, lastly, in the mode of edge of the posterior natatory organ is hollowed out; but locomotion, for the animal always swims vertically it has not the same length, the animal being able to contract it powerfully and even to the extent of withdrawing it inwards entirely; from this it is evident that this organ is muscular. But what is very remarkable is, that throughout its length, and placed at sufficiently regular distances, are found organs which MM. Quoy and Gaimard regarded as suckers, and which possessed, in fact, the faculty of adhesion and bringing the animal to anchor, as M. Botta was satisfied. I dare not decide what this organ is; but I am

Cucullus, strongly inclined to believe either that it is a prolongation of the body analogous to that in the Physsophoræ*, or that sucker, with a bunch of ovaries at its base, lodged in a deep

Body furnished with a great, exsertile, proboscidiform it is, if not an ovary, at least an assemblage of young indi-excavation, the only one in the anterior natatory organ, in viduals, a little like what takes place in the Biphores. 'In the actual state of our knowledge with regard to the boîte); the latter is tetragonai and pierced behind with a

form of a hood, in which the posterior is inserted (s'emDiphyes, it seems to me that they are, so to speak, inter- rounded terminal orifice. mediate between the Biphores and the Physsophoræ. They approach the first, whose cartilaginous envelope is some: Locality, New Guinea.

Example, Cucullus Doreyanus (Quoy and Gaimard). times tripartite, as M. Chamisso has taught us, inasmuch as that the visceral mass is nucleiform, that it is contained in great part in this envelope, that the latter has two apertures, and that it is by contraction that it executes locomotion. We find, on the other hand, a mode of approximating the Diphyes to the Physsophore, in regarding the natatory organs as analogous to those which we have seen in Diphysa, which has the smallest before and the largest behind, both the one and the other being perfectly bilateral. The mouth is also at the extremity of a sort of proboscis. There is sometimes a bullöid swelling full of air: finally, the body is terminated by a cirrhigerous production, which is perhaps ovifcrous. For the rest we are obliged to agree

Cucullus Doreyanus. that these approximations require, before they are freed from doubt, a more complete knowledge than we at present

M. de Blainville observes that this genus does not really possess, not only of the organization of the Diphyes and differ from the preceding. excepting in the form of the Physsophore, but also of the Biphores themselves. Ac- natatory organs, and he doubts the propriety of retaining cording to the views of M. Mertens, chief naturalist in the it, especially as it consists but of one species. M. Botta, last circumnavigation of the Russians, the Diphyes would he observes, who had occasion frequently to observe in be no other than Stephanomiæ; in which case the ovi- nearly all the seas of warm climates, from the coast of Peru ferous and cirrhigerous productions of the Diphyes must to the Indian archipelago, a great number of animals rebe considered the analogues of the posterior and tubular sembling the Cucullus of MM. Quoy and Gaimard, and part of the Stephanomiæ. We have already said that having found them sometimes free and at other times MM. Quoy and Gaimard, in their memoir on the Diphyde, forming part of the cirrhigerous and oviferous production had established many new genera, having in view princi- of the ordinary Diphyes, has been led to think that the pally the form and the proportion of the two natatory organs Cuculli may be only a degree of development of a Diphyes. or parts of the body. Ñ. Lesueur has also established Although, concludes M. de Blainville, this is conceivable genera, some of which may be incorporated with those of up to a certain point, inasmuch as in the Cuculli there is ihe zoologists of the Astrolabe; unfortunately our know- no cirrhigerous production, which seems to prove that they ledge of these genera is confined to figures only. Lastly, are not adults, the difference nevertheless of the natatory M. Otto has proposed one or two, but they are founded on organs is so great that he dares not come to this decision. detached parts or incomplete animals. The greater part of these genera are not, in reality, very distinct; we adopt

Cymla (Nacelle).* them nevertheless provisionally at least in order to facili- Body furnished with a large exsertile proboscidiform ate the study of beings so singular. The Diphyde seem sucker, having at its base a mass of ovariform organs, to us capable of division into two great sections, according lodged in the single and rather deep cavity of a naviform as the anterior part is provided with a single or double natatory organ, receiving and partially hiding the posterior arity. M. Eschscholtz, in his systematic distribution of natatory organ, which is sagittiform, pierced behind with a the species of Diphyde, has regard to the number of rounded orifice crowned with points, and hollowed on its rarities of the anterior natatory organ, and to the presence free border by a longitudinal gutter. of one or more suckers in the tubular production. From Example, Cymbu sagittata (Quoy and Gaimard); N.* "bis test have resulted genera otherwise circumscribed, and sagittata (De Blainville). Locality, Straits of Gibraltar. not less numerous than from our manner of viewing the subject'

The following is M. de Blainville's arrangement.

[ocr errors]

Diphyde whose anterior part has but a single cavity.

Genera, Cucubalus. Body, provided with a large proboscidiform exsertile maker, with a bunch (grappe) of ovaries at its base, lodged in a large single excavation of a natatory anterior cordiform

N. sagittata. izan, receiving also the posterior, which is also cordiform

2 hollowed into a cavity with a posterior and sub-oval M. de Blainville remarks that he ought to observe that urhee.

M. Eschscholtz says that this genus, to which he unites the Example, Cucubalus cordiformis, the only species cited two following genera, possesses an anterior natatory organ of the genus established by MM. Quoy and Gaimard. with two cavities, and of these the natatory cavity projects Langth, two lines. Differs from the oiher Diphyda, first, in the form of a tube. M. de Blainville further observes 11 having the nucleus much less hidden and sunk in the that this genus does not differ from the Cuculli, except in anterior natatory body, which has moreover only one large the form of the natatory organs; in fact, the disposition of ravity in which it is plunged; secondly, in having the ovi- the nucleus in the bottom of the single cavity into which

• This (sass M. de Blainville) is the opinion of M. Eschscholtz, who gives • Mr. Broderip biad appropriated this name to a subgenus of Volut dæ. to this past the name of ductus nutritorius (nourishing canal), which, he says, See Sowerby's Genera of rient and fossil Shells,' No. 28, and Mr. B.'s *$31ko, or pe tined with a single sucker, in the first section, and complex Monograph in Mr. Sowerby's 'Sprries Concliyliorum.' € .tkel mith many suckers, in the se and

+ Navicula?

[ocr errors][merged small]

the anterior organ is hollowed, and the penetration of the posterior organ into this same cavity are absolutely the same as in the two preceding genera, as M. de Blainville has been able to satisfy himself from the examination of many individuals preserved in spirit.

Cuboides. Body nucleiform, provided with a large proboscidiform sucker, surrounded by an hepatic mass, having at its base an ovary, whence proceeds a filiform ovigerous production, contained in a large, single, hemispherical excavation of an anterior, cuboid, natatory organ, much larger than the posterior one, which is tetragonal, and nearly entirely hidden in the first.

Example, Cuboides vitreus (Quoy and Gaimard). Locality, Straits of Gibraltar.



[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Amphiroa alata.

1.1 a, Amphiroa alata; 1b, its nucleus extracted. 6

tion. Another species, he adds, Amphiroo, truncata, would
appear to approximate nearly to the Calpes of MM. Quoy
and Gaimard, by the great disproportion of the two parts.

Cuboides vitreus.

Diphydæ whose anterior part is furnished with two disa, bat, size; b, magnited.

tinct cavities. This again, according to M. de Blainville, is a genus

Calpe. scarcely distinguishable from the preceding genera, and Body nucleiform, without an exsertile proboscis, having only by the form and proportion of the natatory organs. a sort of aeriferous vesicle, and at its bese an ovary? pro* As, says M. de Blainville, I have had a considerable longed into a long cirrhigerous and oviferous production number of individuals at my disposal, I have been able to Anterior natatory organ short, cuböid, having a distinct satisfy myself as to the characteristic which I have given locomotive cavity; posterior natatory organ very long, of them.' I have in fact clearly recognized that the great truncated at the two extremities, not penetrating into the and single cavity of the anterior and cubic organ contained anterior organ, and provided with a round terminal apera considerable visceral nucleus, in which I have been able ture. to distinguish a sort of proboscidiform stomach, surrounded Example, Calpe pentagona (Quoy and Gaimard). Lo. at its base with an hepatic organ; and further backward, a cality, Straits of Gibraltar? granular ovary, contained in its proper membrane, and whence escaped a long ovigerous production. I have also been equally able to satisfy myself that the natatory posterior organ, of the same conformation, as far as the rest, as in the true Diphyes, was entirely hid in the excavation of the anterior organ with the visceral mass.

Enneagona. Body nucleiform, provided with a large exsertile sucker, having at its base an assemblage of ovaries, whence proceeds an oviferous production. Anterior natatory organ enneagonal, containing with the nucleus in a single? exca

16 vation the posterior organ, which is much smaller, with five

la points, and canaliculated below. Example, Enneagona hyalina (Quoy and Gaimard).

Calpe pentagona. 1, Calpe pentagona (profile); 1 a (under side); 1b, nucleus. M. de Blainville observes that this genus is really sufficiently distinct from the true Diphyes, with which it has

nevertheless many relations, not only by the great difference lc id ib

of the two locomotive organs, but because the posterior

organ is only applied against the anterior one, and does not Enneagona hyalina.

penetrate into the visceral cavity. He remarks that he has 1, 14, 16, Enneagona hyalina under different aspects; 1c, visceral part; 1 examined some individuals well preserved in spirit

, and has 1d, nucleus.

easily seen that the nucleus is composed of a sort of stomach Amphiroa. *

with a sessile mouth and with a small hepatic plate (plaque) Body nucleiform, of considerable volume, furnished with of a green colour applied against it, and besides of a sort a proboscidiform stomach, having at its base a bunch of of aeriferous bladder situated behind. At the lower root of ovaries, prolonged into a long filament, contained in an the stomachal swelling is the ovary, formed by a mass of anterior, polygonal, short, natatory organ, cut squarely, granules, and which seems to prolong itself backwards into with a single cavity in which the posterior organ, which is a long production charged with oviform bodies, and others equally short, polygonal, and truncated, is inserted. longer and more bell-shaped. This production proceeds

Example, Amphiroa alata (Lesueur). Locality, Seas of from the anterior natatory organ, and passes under the Bahama.

posterior one in following the gutter into which it is holM. de Blainville observes that this genus is only known lowed on its lower surface. Finally, this posterior organ, by the beautiful figures sent by M. Lesueur, and of which equally truncated at the two extremities, is hollowed one reached M. de Blainville more than ten years ago, but nearly throughout its length into a great cavity, from the without description, the want of which prevented him from bottom of which a vessel which is continued to the root of publishing it. Nevertheless it is evident, he remarks, on the ovary of the nucleus may be clearly seca to proceed. referring to these figures, that the Amphiroæ are Diphyda,

Abyla. but with natatory organs of a particular form and propor

Body nucleiform, inconsiderable, witli a very long cirrbi• The term Ampliroa is also employed by Lamouro'x aud others to distingerous and oviferous production. Anterior natatory body guish a genus of Corallines.

much shorter than the other, subcuboid, with a distinct

[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]



cavity for the reception of the anterior extremity of the is the most common and the most generally spread in all posterior natatory body, which is polygonal and very long. seas, is used in the work of MM. Quoy and Gaimard for

Example, Abyla trigona (Quoy and Gaimard). Locality, species which have the natatory organs nearly equal in Straits of Gibraltar.

form and size, the first whereof has two deep cavities, of 1

which the one receives a part only of the other which has

a long inferior ridge for the lodgment of the cirrhigerous 14

production. M. Lesueur, he adds, who has equally adopted this division of the Diphydæ, gives it the name of Dagysa adopted by Solander, and also by Gmelin; but M. de Biain

ville asks, is it certain that the animal seen by Solander la

was a Diphyes, and not a Biphore? He adds, that M Lesueur has figured five species belonging to this genus perhaps all new, and from the seas of South America.

7 (Abyla trigona.j

Doubtful species, or those with one part only. 1. Abyla frigona; 1 a, posterior parts 1 b, anterior or visceral part.

Pyramis. M. de Blainville observes that this genus does not really Body free, gelatinous, crystalline, rather solid, pyramidal, differ from the preceding, excepting in the form of the tetragonal

, with four unequal angles, pointed at the summit, Datatory organs, and above all in that the anterior part is truncated at its base, with a single rounded aperture compierced with a depression sufficiently considerable for the municating with a single deep cavity, towards the end of lodgment of a part of the other, which has a long inferior which is a granular corpuscle.

furrow (sillon) and a posterior terminal opening. To this Example, Pyramis tetragona (Otto). ! genus M. de Blainville refers a species of Diphydæ, found

by MM. Quoy and Gaimard in Bass's Strait, and of which they had provisionally formed the genus Bassia, which does not seem to M. de Blainville to be sufficiently characterized.

M. Eschscholtz, remarks M. de Blainville, rightly unites this genus with the preceding, as well as the genus Rosacea of Quoy and Gaimard, the latter perhaps erroneously.

[Pyramis tetragona.) Diphyes.

This genus was established by M. Otto, and M. de BlainBody nucleiform indistinct

, situated in the bottom of a ville admits that he knows no more of it than is to be coldeep cavity, whence proceeds a long tubular production, lected from M. Otto's description and figure. He seems to furnished throughout its extent with proboscidiform doubt, however, whether the genus may not have been suckers, having at their root granular corpuscles and a founded on the posterior natatory organ of a Diphyes, percirrhiferous filament. Natatory bodies nearly equal and haps of the division properly so called. similar; the anterior with two distinct cavities, the pos- M. Eschscholtz makes this organized body a species of terior with a single one, with a round aperture provided his genus Eudoxia, which comprehends Cucubalus and with teeth.

Cucullus of Quoy and Gaimard, admitting that the two Example, Diphyes Bory (Quoy and Gaimard); Diphyes natatory organs are intimately united so as to form, apps Campanulifera (Eschscholtz).

rently, but one.

Praia. 1

Body subgelatinous, rather soft, transparent, binary, depressed, obtuse, and truncated obliquely at the two extremities, hollowed into a cavity of little depth, with a round aperture nearly as largo as the cavity, and provided with a large canal or furrow above.

Example, Praia dubia (Quoy and Gaimard). la


[ocr errors]

(Praia dubia.] Id

M. de Blainville describes, from personal observation, this provisional genus of MM. Quoy and Gaimard as beirg subgelatinous, rather soft, and transparent. Its form, he remarks, is regularly symmetrical, and it seems to be divided into two equal parts by a great furrow which traverses it from one end to the other. It has a shallow cavity with a rounded aperture, without denticles or appendages at its circumference. In the tissue M. de Blainville perceived a mesial vessel, giving off two lateral branches, with very similar ramifications; and he is inclined to think that the form is only the natatory organ of some large species of Physsophora : the substance is too soft for a true Diphyes,

Tetragona. (Diphyes Bory.

Body ? gelatinous, transparent, rather solid, binary, of 1. The entire animal (profile); 1 a, anterior part of the same; 10, posterior an elongated, parallelopiped, tetragonal form canaliculated part; 1 c animal magnified; 1 d, posterior part of the same.

below, truncated obliquely anteriorly, pierced behind by a M. de Blainville observes that the denomination of gaping orifice furnished with symmetrical points, and leadDiphyes, employed by M. Cuvier for a single species, which \ing into a long blind cavity. P.C., No. 532.


« PreviousContinue »