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In the Anurous Batrachians there are lachrymal glands, I a laterally compressed tail and external branchiæ; their end the lunica conjunctiva is so pierced as to permit the small mouth is furnished with horny hooks or teeth for the tears to run into the cavite of the mouth.

separation of vegetables, and they have a small tube on the Reproduction. The male organs of generation in the lower lip by which they attach themselves to aquatic plants, Anurous Batrachians consist of true testicles situated in &c. The external branchiæ next disappear, and become the cavity of the abdomen below the kidneys, and the covered with a membrane, being placed in a sort of sac deferent canals terminate in the cloaca, there being no ex- under the throat; and the animal then, as we have observed ternal male organ. The ovaries in the females correspond when treating of its respiration, breathes after the manner in situation with that of the testicles of the males, and are of fishes. The head, which is furnished with eyes and of considerable volume. Their free extremity forms a sort nostrils, is confounded with the large globular trunk disof trumpet-shaped opening, and the oviduct terminates in tended with the great extent of the digestive canal, and it the cloaca, whence the eggs are excluded. Blumenbach has a large tail for swimming. In this state it is called in describes the frogs of his country as having a large uterus English a tadpole, and in French têtard, from the great divided by an internal partition into two cavities, from apparent volume of the head. Soon the posterior limbs are which two long convoluted oviducts arise, and terminate by gradually put forth near the origin of the tail, and are deopen orifices at the sides of the heart. The ovaria, he says, veloped first; the anterior feet then begin to show them lie under the liver, so that it is difficult to conceive how the selves; the tail gradually becomes less and less, shortens, eggs get into the above-mentioned openings. The uterus, shrinks, and seems at last to be absorbed; the mouth he adds, opens into the cloaca. The toads, according to him, widens, and looses its horny processes or jaws; the eyes are have not the large uterus; but their oviducts terminate by guarded by eye-lids; the belly lengthens and diminishes in, a common tube in the cloaca.

comparative size; the intestines become short; the true At the season of reproduction, besides the vocal mani- lungs are developed, and the internal branchiæ are oblitefestations, there are others which visibly distinguish the rated; the circulation undergoes an entire change; and the male in many of the Anurous Batrachians. At each croak, animal, hitherto entirely aquatic and herbivorous, becomes the male green frogs project from the commissure of the carnivorous, and for the most part terrestrial. mouth two globular bladders into which the air is intro- Mr. Thomas Wharton Jones (Zool. Proc., March, 1837) duced and the throat swells and becomes coloured. In the observes, that when the right gill of the tadpole disappears, males of the red frog the thumbs of the anterior feet become it is not, as is usually supposed, by the closure of the fissure considerably swollen and covered by a black and rugose through which it protrudes, but by the extension of the skin at this period. The usual mode of union of the male opercular fold on the right side towards that of the left, and female, which generally takes place in the water, is forming but a single fissure, common to the two branchial too well known to require description; the former excites cavities, through which the left gill still protrudes. He the latter to exclude the eggs, and fecundates them as they also remarks, that conditions analogous to those which are protruded. These eggs are enveloped in a sort of occur during several stages of this process exist in the delicate, mucous, permeable membrane; they are, when branchial fissures of the anguilliform genera, Sphagebranexcluded, most frequently agglomerated either in glutinous chus, Monopterus, and Synbranchus. masses or chaplets, and increase considerably after they are In the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons there plunged in the water. There are however some curious are numerous instructive preparations illustrative of the modifications of the disposition of the eggs in certain species reproductive function in the Anurous Batrachians; they of the Anurous Batrachians. The accoucheur toad (Bufo are at present unnumbered, but their numbers will be soon Obstetricans of Laurenti), for instance, assists the female in attached, and their descriptions published in the fourth excluding the chaplets of eggs, and disposes them round volume of the 'Physiological Series' (Gallery). In this inhis thighs, something in the form of a figure of 8. He is teresting collection will be found the male organs in Rana, then said to carry them about till the eyes of the embryo Bufo, and Pipa (Asterodactylus of Wagler), and the female become visible. At the proper period for hatching, he organs in the same genera, both in the unexcited and proconveys his progeny to some stagnant piece of water, and creative state. There is a very complete series of the deposits them, when the eggs break and the tadpole comes metamorphic stages of Rana paradoxa, with dissections forth and swims about. The male Pipa, or Surinam toad, demonstrative of the internal branchiæ, the convoluted inas soon as the eggs are laid, places them on the back of the testine, and the rudimental extremities. We would partifemale, and fecundates them. The female (see the cuts at cularly draw the student's attention to a female Pipa with the end of this article) then takes to the water, and the skin the cells fully developed, containing the tadpoles in difof her back swells, and forms cellules, in which the eggs are ferent stages, and a section showing that the cells are only hatched, and where the young pass their tadpole state, for skin deep, and that the cutis is separated from the subthey do not quit their domicile till after the loss of their jacent muscles by large lymphatic reservoirs. Another tail and the development of their legs; at this period the female specimen shows the cells in progress to disappeamother leaves the water, and returns to dry land.

ance after their function has been performed. Swammerdam gives the number of eggs in a female frog Particular Excretions.—The alleged venom of the comas 1400, and M. de Montbeillard counted 1300. In these mon toad, so long a subject of popular belief, had been eggs there is a greenish albumen which is not easily rejected by many modern naturalists, among whom Cuvier coagulable. The yolk or vitellus is absorbed by the em- may be particularly mentioned. Dr. Davy however found bryo, and an abdominal cicatrice indicates the umbilicus in the venomous matter to be contained in follicles, chiefly in young individuals. It is not rare to meet with double the true skin and about the head and shoulders, but also germs in a single egg, but most of these prove abortive, distributed generally over the body and on the extremities. ihough some give birth to monsters with two heads, six Pressure causes this fluid to exude or even spirt out to a legs, and two tails, as well as to hermaphrodites. The act considerable distance, and a sufficient quantity may be thus of copulation is of considerable duration, both in the Che collected for examination. Dr. Davy found it extremely lonians and Anurous Batrachians; and is recorded as being acrid when applied to the tongue, resembling the extract of prolonged from a period of eighteen days to thirty-one and aconite in this respect; and it even acts upon the hands. upwards before the male quits the female. There seems to With a small residuum it is soluble in water and in alcoho!: be a preponderance of males over females; and to this most acetate of lead and corrosive sublimate do not affect the probably may be ascribed the frequent occurrence of frogs solutions. It remains acrid on solution in ammonia; and and toads sticking on the heads of fishes, such as carp and when dissolved in nitric acid, it imparts a purple colour to tench. In our climates, the early part of the spring is the it. Combined with potash or soda, it becomes less acrid, season of reproduction, when the frogs and toads of both apparently in consequence of partial decomposition. It is sexes quit the localities of their late hybernation and their highly inflammable as left by evaporation of its aqueous or ordinary haunts, and move instinctively to those stagnant alcoholic solutions; and the residuum which appears to waters which are proper for their purpose, and where they give it consistence seems to be albumen. More acrid than are then collected in swarms.

the poison of the most venomous serpents, it produces no The young Anurous Batrachian enters life under an ill effect when introduced into the circulation. A chicken entirely different form from that which it is afterwards to inoculated with it was not affected. Dr. Davy conjectures assume; and undergoes, like the insects, a series of metamor- that this 'sweltered venom' is a defence to the toad from phoses or transformations till it arrives at its perfect state. carnivorous animals; and we have seen a dog, when urged In their first stage, the voung have an elongated body, 'to attack one without hesitation, drop the animal from

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'ts mouth in a manner that left no doubt that he had felt and he appears to have been misled into the second by the the effects of this excretion, which Dr. Davy thinks may be assertions of Dr. Garden. In the last edition of the Sysauxiliary in decarbonizing the blood.

tema Naturæ (the 12th) he places the great genus Rana The toads are also said to possess, besides, two glandular between the genera Testudo and Draco, making it the masses (parotids), which. when pressed, exude through second genus of his first order, Reptilia, of his third class, small holes a yellowish thick humour of a musky odour. Amphibia. The Reptilia he shortly characterizes as The other odours also which many species of toads produce, pedati, spirantes ore,' and admits into it the genus Lacerta it does not seem yet ascertained from what source, are very in addition to the genera above stated. The · Amplubia remarkable. Roesel, author of the beautiful work on Frogs, Serpentes' and `Amphibia Nantes' form the other two compares some of these to the smell of garlick or of vola- orders. tilized sulphur of arsenic, or even ignited gunpowder; Passing by Klein (1751) we come to the work published others again, he says, produce an effect on the nose like the with the name of Dr. Laurenti,* which has done so much vapour of horseradish, mustard, or the leaves of monk's- for this branch of zoology. The class' Reptilia' compre hood rubbed between the fingers. In one instance only he hends, in this book (1768), three orders only, viz. the Sustates it to be probable that this emanation comes from the lientia, Gradientia, and Serpentia. The Salientia comcloaca; and such seems to be the opinion of M. Duméril, prise the Anurous Batrachians, consisting of the following who states that he has been assured that, in certain in- genera: the Pipas (Pipa), the Toads (Bufo), the Frugs stances, the water in which some of these animals had been (Rana), and the Tree-Frogs (Hyla). The author adds the placed and there purposely irritated or excited, had become genus Proteus, founded on the larva of Rana paradoxa. so acrid that the tadpoles of frogs and salamanders intro- Before the appearance however of the ' Specimen Meduced therein hardly survived the immersion.

dicum' of Laurenti, Roesel published his magnificent work Geographical Distribution and Habits.- Warm and tem on the Frogs of his country (Nuremberg, 1758). He is perate but moist climates are the localities most favourable justly noticed by Cuvier as one of the most ingenious obto the Anurous Batrachians. Extreme cold is fatal to servers and elegant designers of subjects of natural history. them, and so is extreme dry heat. They are unable to Scopoli (1777) varies so little in arrangement from sustain violent and sudden changes of temperature. In Linnæus, though the characters are differently but not moderately warm climates, and those where there is a con- better worded, that he need not detain us from the work of siderable degree of cold during a part of the year, they Lacépède, published (1788, 1790) as a continuation of bury themselves, in winter, either under the earth or in the Buffon, under the title of • Histoire Naturelle des Quadmud at the bottom of the water, and there pass the season rupèdes Ovipares et des Serpens. Under the second class of hybernation without taking food or air, till the spring of his oviparous quadrupeds he ranges the Frog tribe in calls them forth; when the same frog which had passed so three genera, Les Grenouilles, Les Raines, et Les Crapauds, many months without respiration would expire in a few and these genera comprise 33 species. minutes if prevented from shutting its mouth and so sup- M. Alex. Brongniart (1799, 1800, 1803) divides his plying itself with air by deglutition. The general habits of class Reptiles into four orders, viz. Chelonians, Saurians, the tribe may be collected from the different sections of this Ophidiuns, and Batrachians : in this fourth order he admits article, and from the descriptions of those forms in it which the genera Grenouille, Crapaud, Raine, and Salamandre. may be noticed in the course of this work.

Latreille (1801, 1825) makes the Amphibia a class, which

he divides into two orders, the Caducibranchiata and PerenNATURAL HISTORY AND SYSTEMATIC ARRANGEMENT. nibranchiata. The Caducibranchiate Amphibia he sub

divides into the Anurous or tailless, and the tailed (Urodeles). Aristotle appears to have been well acquainted with such The first subdivision comprises the genera Pipa, Bufu of the Anurous Batrachians as fell within the scope of his Rana, and Hyla. observation. He separates the marsh-frogs from the toads Daudin, in his ' Traité Général' (1802, 1803), adopts the and tree-frogs, and gives a good account of their organiza- method of Brongniart, and seems to have bestowed much tion, habits, and reproduction, excepting that he seems research on the Anurons Batrachians, of which he has ler to have been of opinion (Hist. lib. v. c. 3) that there was

an ‘Histoire Particulière,' in one vol. 4to. with 38 plates intromission on the part of the male. (Hist. lib. i. c. 1; representing 54 species. lib. ii. c. 1, 15; lib. iii. c. 1, 12; lib. iv. c. 5, 9, 11; lib. vi. c. 14; Cuvier (1798, 1817, 1829) admits the following genera fib. viii. c. 2, 28, &c.) Pliny, whose Natural History is among the Anurous Batrachians in his last edition of the little better than a collection of ill-digested notes,* and · Règne Animal :'-Rana, Ceratophrys, Dactylethra, Huis who borrowed most largely from Aristotle, treats of the (Calamita of Schneider and Merrem), Bufo, Bombinuts Reptiles in book xi,, and describes with sufficient accuracy (Rhinella of Fitzinger, Oxyrhynchus of Spix), the Otilopher the tongue and voice of frogs (c. 65, 112).

(Cuv.), Breviceps of Merrem (Engystoma of Fitzinger in Bélon, Rondelet, Salviani, and Gesner, are the first part), and Pipa. authors who claim our attention after the long dark period M. Duméril, who states that he has made Reptiles his which began to brighten about the commencement of the particular study, and who succeeded to the chair of M. sixteenth century. The latter, who devoted thirty-four folio Lacépède, has published much on the subject, and promises pages to the natural history of frogs, accumulated a vast at the end of the last volume on the · Reptiles (Sute a mass of facts, and deserves the praise lavished upon him by Buffon) to present a complete table of arrangement. This such men as Boerhaave and Tournefort. Aldrovandi work has not yet advanced to the Batrachians. followed towards the close of the same period, and, at his Oppel, besides his two memoirs in the 19th vol. of the death, in 1605, left materials for fourteen volumes, in folio, • Annales du Muséum de Paris,' one of which was upon the which were afterwards published. A considerable portion Batrachians, published in 1811 his “Prodromus,' in 410. His of his first book on digitated oviparous quadrupeds is third order of • Naked Reptiles or Batrachians' is divided occupied by his history and commentaries on the frog tribe. into the Apoda (Cecilia), the Ecaudata or Anurous BatraJonston notices them, but comprises his compiled history chians (Frogs), and the Caudata, Urodèles or Tailed Batrawithin the compass of two not very long articles.

chians. Bufo, Pipa, Rana, and Hyla, are the genera ut Our countryman Ray appears at the head of the syste- the Anurous Batrachians. matic writers on the subject, and though his ‘Synopsis' Merrem (1790, 1820, 1821) makes his second class, tte cannot be considered as much more than a sketch, it deserves Batrachians, consist of three orders, viz.: 1, Apoda (Cecilia), attention as an attempt at natural classification.

2, Salientia ; and 3, Gradientia. Among the Salientia, Lingus, at first, made his · Amphibia' consist of animals which are the Anurous Batrachians, are comprised the whose body was either naked or scaly, whose teeth were pointed and which had no grinders, and no radiated fins. Pipa, and Bufo.

genera Hyla or Calamita, Rana. Breviceps, Bombinator. He afterwards added the Diodon, and the greater part of M. de Blainville (1816, 1828) divides the Reptiles into two the cartilaginous fishes, under the designation of ' Amphi- classes, the second of which, Ichthyoid Amphibians or Nsbia Nantes.'

dipellifermus (naked-skinned) Reptiles, has for the first on The first classification was the result of his own views, its four orders the Batrachians, which consist of the fuc

Un auteur sans critique, qui, après avoir passé beaucoup de temps à faire leading generic forms of Anurous Batrachians, and are des extraits, les a rangés dans certains chapitres, en y joignant des reflexions qui ne se rapportent pas à la science proprement dite; mais qui offrent alter. • There are those who attribute this leading work to Winterl, a chemin nativement les croyances les plus superstitienses unies aux declamations d'une and the companion of Laurenti's studies. philosophie chagrine.' (Cuvier.)

+ Type, Rana Margaritiforn.

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separated into two suborders according to their habits, the

No metamorphosis ·

Generally a distinct metafirst being the Aquiparous, and the second the Dorsigerous

morphosis. (Pipa).

Distinct branchiæ, with Mr. Gray (1825, 1831) considers the Amphibia a separate No branchiæ

either persistent or nonclass, and, like Fitzinger (1826), divides them into those

permanent holes. which undergo a metamorphosis and those which do not. Skin scaly, escutcheoned,

Skin scaly, escutcheoned,} Naked. He subdivides the Ranide into the genera Rana, Cerato- or cuirassed phrys, Hyla, Bufo, Rhinella, Dactylethra, Bombinator, Strombus, Breviceps, and Asterodactylus (Wagler), or the Schinz (Naturgeschicte und Abbildungen der Reptilien, Pipas. In 1835 he introduced to the Zoological Society a Leipzig, 1833) follows for the most part the classification of toad (Bombinator Australis) from Swan River, observing Wagler. There are numerous plates

, collected from the that the form had not been previously met with out of best authorities, and it may be considered a good classEurope.

book. The zoological divisions of MM. Carus and Ficinus The following cuts will convey to the reader an idea of appeared about the same time, and they adopt

, with regard some of the leading forms among the Anurous Batrachians to the Reptiles, very nearly the classification of Merrem and in their adult state. the views of Oken, whose works were published in 1809, 1816, and 1821.

Dr. Harlan, in 1825, published his account of the Ame. rican Reptiles, which he divides into Batrachians, Ophidians, Saurians, and Chelonians. Several species of the Caudated Batrachians are enumerated, and they are followed by the Tailless Batrachians, as Rana, Bufo, Hyla.

Mr. Haworth, in his dichotomous or binary method (1825), divides the Batrachia into Apoda and Pedata : the latter he subdivides into Salientia, as Pipa, Hyla, Bufo, Bombinator, Breviceps, Rana; and Gradientia, which he subdivides into the Mutabilia (those which undergo a metamorphosis, Salamandre for instance) and the Immutabilia (those which do not, Proteus and the Sirens).

Fitzinger (1826) separates the Reptiles into the Monopnoa and Dipnoa, and the latter he subdivides into-1, the Mutabilia; 2, the Immutabilia. In the first subdivision are found the Ranoïds, the Bufonoids, the Bombinatoroïds, thc Pipoids, and the Salamandroïds. The four first embrace the whole of the Anurous Batrachians. The Pipoids

Rana palustris (two thirds nat, size). are characterized as having no tongue, an organ which

Europe. exists in the three other families. In the Bombinatoroïds the tympanum is bidden, whilst it is perceptible in the Bufonoäds, which have no teeth, and are thus distinguished from the Ranoids, where the teeth are distinct.

Ritgen (1828) divides the Anurous Batrachians or Pygomolgi into the Tree-Frogs, Bdallipodobatrachians; the Frogs, Phyllopodobatrachiane ; and the Toads, Diadactylobatrachians.

The system of Wagler (1830) takes organization as the basis of its arrangement, and he makes the class Amphibia consist of eight orders, viz. : the Tortoises, the Crocodilians, the Lizards, the Serpents, the Orvets, the Cecilias, the Frogs, and the Ichthyodes.

He then characterizes the seventh order, that of the Frogs (Ranæ), as having no penis, and undergoing a metamorphosis; and divides them into two families, the first consisting of those without a tongue (Aglossæ), and the second of those which possess a tongue (Phaneroglossæ). The first of these consists of but one genus, Asterodactylus (Pipa); the rest of the genera of the Anurous Batrachians belong to the second. Such are Xenopus (Wagler), Microps

Ceratophrys granosa (two-thirds nat, size). (Wagler), Calamita (Fitzinger), Hypsiboas (Wagler), Aule

America. tris (Wagler), Hyas (Wagler), Phyllomedusa (Wagler), Scinar (Wagler), Dendrobates (Wagler), Phyllodytes (Wagler), Enydrobius (Wagler), Cystignathus (Wagler), Rana (Linnæus), Pseudis (Wagler), Ceratophrys (Boïé), Megalophrys (Kuhl), Hemiphractus (Wagler), Systoma {Wagler), Chaunus (Wagler), Paludicola (Wagler), Pelobates (Wagler), Alytes (Wagler), Bombinator (Merrem), Bufo (Linnæus), Brachycephalus (Fitzinger).

Müller (1832) divides the Amphibia into two great orders, the Scaly and the Naked. The Anurous Batrachians belong of course to the latter. He thus places the characters of the two orders in opposition to each other. Scaly.

Naked. Occipital condyle simple

True ribs

None or mere rudiments.
Auricle of the heart double Simple.*
Internal ear with

"Ovalis and rotundlenestræ} Fenestra ovalis only. Cochlea (limaçon of the None.

. French), distinct Penis, simple or double None.

Bufo vulgaris (half nat, size). Dr. Davy and MM. Saint Ange and Webert have, as we before stated, as

Europe, certained that the auricle, which is apparently simple, is in reality separated into two divisions by a complete partition

With an under view of the foot

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Hyla bicolor (half nat. size).

South America.

Fossil FROGS. Fossil frogs have been found in the coal-formation of the Rhine (Papier-kohl) in company with the fishes Leuciscus macrurus and L. papyraceus. Two species have been described, and there are many examples in the museum at Bonn. In this country specimens are to be found in the collections of Lord Cole and Sir Philip Egerton, bart.

FROGSBIT, the common name of a wild water-plant, called Hydrocharis Morsus Ranæ.

FROISSART (JEAN, or JOHN), was born at Valenciennes about 1337. He was the son, as is conjectured

from a passage in his poems, of Thomas Froissart, a heraldEngystoma marmoratum

painter, no inconsiderable profession in the days of chivalry. The youth of Froissart, from twelve years upwards, as he himself informs us, was spent in every species of elegant indulgence. In the midst of his dissipation however, he early discovered the ardent and inquisitive spirit to which we owe so much; and even at the age of twenty, at the command of his dear lord and master, Sir Robert cf Namur, lord of Beaufort,' he began to write the history of the French wars. The period from 1326 to 1356 was chietly filled up from the chronicles of Jean le Bel, canor of Liège, a confident of John of Hainault, and celebratec by Froissart for his diligence and accuracy. It is to believe that this work was interrupted during : journey to England in the train of Philippa of Hainault. the heroic wife of Edward III., and mother of the Black Prince. Froissart was for three or four years secretary, '' clerk of her chamber, a situation which he would probably have retained but for a deep-rooted passion for a lady of Flanders, which induced him to return to that country; a circumstance equally favourable to the history of the Con tinent, and unfortunate for that of Britain. During his residence in England he visited the Scottish mountains, which he traversed on a palfrey, carrying his own portmanteau, and attended only by a greyhound. His character of historian and poet introduced him to the court of David II., and to the hardly less honourable distinction of fifteen days' abode at the castle of Dalkeith with William, ear! of Douglas, where he learned personally to know the race of heroes whose deeds he has repeatedly celebrated. He was in France at Melun-sur-Seine about April 20th, 1366 ; perhaps private reasons might have induced him to take that road to Bordeaux, where he was on All Saints' day of that year, when the princess of Wales was brought to bed of a son, who was afterwards Richard II. The prince of Wales setting out a few days afterwards for the war in Spain against Henry the Bastard, Froissart accompanied him to Dax, where the prince resided some time. He bad expected to attend him during the continuance of this great expedition, but the prince would not permit bim to go farther; and shortly after his arrival sent him back to the queen his mother. Froissart could not have made any long stay in England, since in the following year, 1368, he was at different Italian courts. It was this same year that Lionel, duke of Clarence, son of the king of England, espoused Joland, daughter of Galeas II., duke of Milan. Froissart, who probably was in his suite, was present at the magnificent reception which Amadeus, count of Savoy, surnamed the Count Verd, gave him on his return: be describes the feasts on this occasion, and does not forget to

tell us that they danced a virelay of his composition. From Pipa monstrosa, Laurenti (Asterodactylus of Wagler), Surinam Toad, female, the court of Savoy he returned to Milan, where the same reduced. The upper figure shows the disposition of the cells, and their situation in the skin, which is turned back, and the muscle seen below. The small sepa-count Amadeus gave him a good cotardie, a sort of cost, inte figures are tadpoles, in different stages of developments

with twenty tlorins of rold; from thence he went to Bologna

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and Ferrara, where he received forty ducats from the king | nobles. He finally settled at his benefice of Chimay, and of Cyprus, and ther.ce to Rome. Instead of the modest equi- employed as usual the hours of his leisure in arranging and page he travelled with into Scotland, he was now like a detailing the information collected in his travels. Four man of importance, travelling on a handsome borse, at- years brought him to 1399, when the melancholy fate of his tended by a hackney. It was about this time that Frois- benefactor Richard II. became the subject of his latest sart experienced a loss which nothing could recompense- labours. It is uncertain how long Froissart survived the the death of queen Philippa, which took place in 1369. He death of Richard and the conclusion of his 'Chronicle;' he composed a lay on this melancholy event, of which, how- was then about sixty years old, and died shortly after at ever, he was not a witness; for he says, in another place, Chimay, according to an entry in the obituary of the that in 1395 it was twenty-seven years since he had seen chapter. England. According to Vossius and Bullart, he wrote the The period of history embraced in Froissart's Chronicle' life of queen Philippa; but this assertion is not founded on is from 1326 to 1400.' The best of the old editions of the any proofs.

original is that of Lyon, in four volumes, in folio, 1559. The Îndependently of the employment of clerk of the cham- latest is that in the Collection des Chroniques Nationales ber to the queen of England, which Froissart had held, he Françaises, avec Notes et Eclaircissements, par J. A. had been also of the household of Edward III., and even of Buchon,' in fifteen volumes, 8vo., Paris, 1824-1826. Froisthat of John king of France. Having however lost his pa- sart's • Chronicle' seems to have been first printed at Paris troness, he did not return to England, but went into his by Ant. Verard, without date, 4 vols. in folio, and was own country, where he obtained the living of Lestines. Of reprinted by Guill. Eustace, Par. 1514. There are two all that he performed during the time he exercised this English translations; one by Bourchier lord Berners, made ministry, he tells us nothing more than that the tavern. at the high commandment' of king Henry VIII., fol. keepers of Lestines had five hundred francs of his money Lond., Pinson, 1525-6; reprinted in two volumes, 4to., in the short space of time he was their rector. It is men- Lond. 1812, under the editorial care of E. V. Utterson, Esq., tioned in a manuscript journal of the bishop of Chartres, the other, ' with additions from many celebrated MSS., chancellor to the duke of Anjou, that, according to letters translated by Thomas Johnes, Esq., appeared from the sealed December 12, 1381, this prince caused to be seized Hafod press,' in four volumes, 4to., 1803-1805. fifty-six quires of the Chronicle' of Froissart, rector of the The principal particulars of Froissart's life have been parish of Lestines, which the histortan had sent to be illu- here condensed from that by St. Palaye, translated and minated, and then to be forwarded to the king of England, edited by Mr. Johnes, 8vo., Lond., 1801, and revised and the enemy of France. Froissart attached himself after re-published in 4to., Hafod, 1810. wards to Wenceslaus of Luxembourg, duke of Brabant, l'here are several splendidly illuminated manuscripts of perhaps in quality of secretary. This prince, who had a taste Froissart’s ‘ Chronicle, quite or nearly contemporary, prefor poetry, commissioned Froissart to make a collection of served in the British Museum: one a complete copy, belonghis songs, rondeaus, and virelays; and Froissart, adding ing to the old royal library of the kings of England, 14 D. some of his own pieces to those of the prince, formed a sort ii.-vi. ; another consisting of the second and fourth books in of romance, under the title of 'Meliador; or, the Knight the same collection, 18 E. i. and ii.; a third in the Harleian of the Sun; but the duke did not live to see the completion Library, MSS. 4379 and 4380, containing the fourth book of the work, for he died in 1384.

only; the fourth copy is in the Arundel collection lately Immediately after this event, Froissart found another transferred from the library of the Royal Society, No. 97, patron in Guy count de Blois, who made him clerk of his containing the first, seconds and third books; but this MS. chapel, for which Froissart testified his gratitude by a pas- is mutilated, and has lost many of its illuminations. toral and epithalamium on a marriage in the family. He FROME, a town in the parish of Frome Selwood and passed the years 1385, 1386, and 1387 sometimes in the hundred of Frome, and in the county of Somerset, 105 Blaisois, sometimes in Touraine; but the count de Blois | miles west-by-south from London. It is agreeably situated having engaged him to continue his history, which he left on the river Frome, a branch of the Ayon, and on the unfinished, he determined in 1388 to take advantage of the north-east declivity of several hills contiguous to the forest peace which was just concluded to visit the court of Gaston of Selwood, whence the town is frequently called FromePhæbus count de Foix, in order to gain full information of Selwood. It is lighted with gas, but irregularly built, and whatever related to foreign countries and the more distant the streets are narrow and ill-paved. The borough of provinces of the kingdom. His journey to Ortez, the chief Frome was not represented before the passing of the Reform residence of the count de Foix, in company with Sir Espaing Act; it now returns one member. It is not incorporated. du Lyon, is one of the most interesting parts of Froissart's It was formerly governed by a bailiff, but is now under the

Chronicle.' The count de Foix (of whom we have already superintendence of the county magistrates. Frome is in spoken in a former article) received and admitted him as a the diocese of Bath and Wells. The parish church, member of his household. Here Froissart used to entertain dedicated to St. John Baptist, is a handsome structure, Gaston after supper by reading to him the romance of surmounted by a quadrangular tower with a neat stone • Meliador,' which he had brought with him. Afier a long spire. The average net income of the vicarage is 7201.; sojourn at the court of Ortez he returned to Flanders by patron, the marquis of Bath. The town is said to be the route of Avignon. We learn from a poem referred to prospering, and contains several extensive manufactures of by Monsieur de St. Palaye, that on this occasion the his woollen cloth, mills for rolling iron, and some considerable torian, always in quest of adventures, met a personal one breweries. According to the census taken in 1831, its with which he could have dispensed, being robbed of all the population was 11,240. There is a grammar-school of ready money which his travels had left him. After a series ihe foundation of Edward VI., besides several other instiof journeys into different countries for the sake of obtaining tutions, among which is a good charity-school. The marinformation, we find him in 1390 in his own country, solely ket-day is Wednesday. The catile-fairs are held 24th occupied in the completion of his history, at least until 1393, February, 22nd July, 14th September, and 251h November. when he was again at Paris. From the year 1378 he had (Carlisle's Top. Dict.; Collinson's Hist. and Ant. of the obtained from pope Clement VII. the reversion of a canonry County of Somerset, Bath, 1791; Beauties of England ana at Lille, and in the collection of his poetry, which was com- Wales ; Parliamentary Papers, &c.) pleted in 1393, and elsewhere, he calls himself canon of FROME, river. [SOMERSETSHIRE.) Lille; but pope Clement dying in 1394, he gave up his FROND, a botanical term intended to express such expectations of the reversion, and began to qualify himself organs as are composed of a stem and a leaf combined; the as canon and treasurer of the collegiate church of Chimay, leaves of ferns and palms were thought to be of this which he probably owed to the friendship of the count de nature; but as it is now known that the leaves of such Blois

plants are in no important respect different from those of In 1395 Froissart revisited England, where he was re-other plants, the term frond has ceased to have any precise ceived with marks of high favour and affection by Richard meaning, and is disused by the best botanists. II. and the royal family. Here he went on collecting for FRONDE, the name of a political faction in Frar.ce his history, and had the honour to present his . Meliador' to during the minority of Louis XIV., which was hostile ti the king, who was much delighted with it, ' for he could the prime minister, Cardinal Mazarin, and to the queen speak and read French very well.'. After a residence of regent, who supported bim. In consequence of some disthree months Froissart left England, and at his departure putes between the parliament of Paris and the court, on the received from the king a silver goblet containing a hundred l occasion of some new taxes levied by the minister, the car. P C., No. 657.

VOL. X.-3S

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