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dinal ordered the arrest of the president and of one of the FRONTO, MARCUS CORNELIUS, born at Cirla, in councillors of the parliament in August, 1648, and this act Africa, of an Italian family, after studying in his own cours was the signal of a civil war. The party opposed to the court try, came to Rome in the reign of Hadrian, and acquired affected to declare themselves not against the queen’s great reputation as a rhetorician and grammarian. Antogovernment, but only against the cardinal, whom they at- ninus Pius appointed him preceptor to his two adopted sons, tacked by accusations and lampoons, from which they de- Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, whose confidence and rived the name of Frondeurs,' censurers,' or 'jeerers.' affection he gained, as is proved by their letters. After They had for leaders the duke of Beaufort, the duke of being consul, Fronto was appointed to a government Némours, the prince of Conti, the duke de Vendôme, the in Asia, which his bad health prevented him from filling, abbé de Retz (afterwards cardinal), marshal Turenne, and His learning and his instructive conversation are mentioned other men of the first rank, as well as ladies, among others with praise by Aulus Gellius, the historian Appian, and others the duchess de Longueville, who was a most conspicuous of his contemporaries. He died in the reign of Marcus and violent partisan. The people of Paris took part with Aurelius, at an advanced age. Until of late years we had the Frondeurs : they drew chains across the streets, at- nothing of his works, except fragments of his treatise De tacked the troops, and obliged the queen to liberate the Differentia Verborum,' being a vocabulary of the so-called two members of the parliament. This was called the day synonymes; but in 1815 Angelo Mai having discovered in the of the barricades.' A kind of truce took place, but the Ambrosian library at Milan a palimpsest MS. on which had parliament continued refractory, the court hostile, and the been originally written some letters of Fronto to his two people tumultuous; and the queen regent seeing herself pupils, deciphered the text wherever the writing was obliged, in January, 1649, to remove from Paris with her not entirely obliterated, and published it with notes. It son to St. Germain, charged the duke of Orleans and the happened, by singular good fortune, that Mai, being some prince of Condé with the task of reducing Paris by block- years after appointed librarian of the Vatican, discovered in ade. Louis XIV. was then little more than ten years of another palimpsest volume another part of Fronto's letters, age, but he never forgot the humiliation of being obliged with the answers of Marcus Aurelius and Verus. Both the to leave his capital, and this was the first cause of his sub- volumes came originally from the convent of St. Columbasequent hostility towards the parliament. That court, in the nus, at Bobbio, the monks having written them over with mean time, exercised sovereign power in the capital, levied the Acts of the 1st council of Calchedon. It happened that troops, and passed a resolution declaring cardinal Mazarin one of the volumes was transferred to Milan, and the other a public enemy, and outlawing him. ("Histoire du Parle- to Rome. Mai published the whole in a new edition: ‘M. ment de Paris,' Amsterdam, 1769.) After some fighting Cornelii Frontonis et M. Aurelii imperatoris epistula : L in the neighbourhood of Paris a truce was made, a general Veri et Antonini Pii et Appiani epistularum reliquiæ amnesty was granted by the queen, the parliament retained Fragmenta Frontonis et scripta grammatica, 8vo., Rome, full liberty to assemble, and the queen, king, and minister 1823. These letters are very valuable, as throwing addire-entered Paris in the month of August. The disturb- tional light on the age of the Antonines, confirming what ances, however, continued in the provinces, especially in we know of the excellent character of Marcus Aurelius, Provence and Guienne, where the local parliaments resisted and also showing his colleague Verus in a more favourable the authority of the respective royal governors. In 1650 light than he had been viewed in before. The affectionate the queen, hurt by the overbearing tone and high preten- manner in which both emperors continue to address their sions of the prince of Condé, made her peace with some of former preceptor is very touching. Two or three short epistles the Frondeur leaders, and caused the princes of Condé and of Antoninus Pius are also interesting. There are besides Conti to be arrested. Upon this the duchess of Longueville, many letters of Frunto to various friends, a few of which are marshal Turenne, and others, raised the standard of revolt in Greek. The work was translated into French, and pubin the provinces, and were joined by the Spaniards from lished with the text and notes, 2 vols. 8vo., Paris, 1830. Flanders. The war, which now assumed a more serious FROSINO'NE, DELEGAZIONE DI, a province of aspect, continued till 1653, when Turenne made his peace the Papal state, is bounded on the north and west by the with the court, and Mazarin returned in triumph to Paris.- Comarca or province of Rome, east by the Terra di Lavoro [CONDE', LOUIS DE.]
in the kingdom of Naples, and south by the Mediterranean. FRONDICULA RIA. [FORAMINIFERA.*]
Its greatest length from north to south, from the ridge FRONDI'PORA. (MILLEPORIDE.
north of Anagni, which divides the valley of the Sacco from FRONTIGNAN. (HERAULT.]
that of the Anio, which latter makes part of the province of FRONTI'NUS, SÈXTUS JULIUS, born of a pa- Rome, to Monte Circello, which is the most southern point trician family, was prætor of Rome, A.D. 70, and about five of the Papal state, is about 40 miles ; its greatest breadth years later was sent by Vespasian to Britain, where he is about 30 miles, and its area is reckoned to be 1360 square seems to have remained three years, during which he con- miles. (Neigebaur, Gemälde Italiens.) Its population in quered the Silures. (Tacitus, Agricola, 17.) About A.D. 78 1830 was 123,300. (Calindri, Saggio Statistico dello Stato he was succeeded by Agricola in the command of the troops Pontificio.) This province includes also in its jurisdiction in Britain. On his return to Rome he wrote, under the the small district of Ponte Corvo, which is in the valley of reign of Domitian, his work ‘Strategematica,' in four books, the Liris, within the territory of Naples, but belongs to the in which he gives short anecdotes of numerous Greek and pope. The province of Frosinone consists of four natural Roman generals, illustrative of the practice and resources
divisions : 1. The Valley of the Sacco, which is fertile : of war. Nerva entrusted him with the superintendence of 2. The mountains north of it, the Hernica Saxa, or Rocks of the supply of water to Rome, and while filling this office, the Hernici, which are mostly barren; 3. The Mounts Lewhich he retained under Trajan, he wrote his work on the pini, Volscorum Montes, south of the valley of the Sacco, aqueducts, which has been printed in the earlier editions which are partly cultivated ; and 4. The Pomptine Marshes, under the title of . De Aquis quæ in Urbem influunt,' but extending south of the Mounts Lepini to the sea-coast as is now generally known by the title De Aquæductibus.' far as Monte Circello and Terracina. The province conIt contains much valuable information on the mode in tains 7 towns and 45 terre, or villages, having a communal which antient Rome was supplied with water, and on council, and 24 hamlets. (Calindri.) Frosinone, built on a everything that concorned this important part of the economy hill above the junction of the river Cossa with the Sacco, is of that city. Frontinus died under Trajan, about A.D. 106. the capital of the province, and the residence of the delegate. Several other works have been attributed to him, such as An account of the principal towns of this province is giveu De Coloniis, De Limitibus,' : De Qualitate Agrorum,' under CAMPAGNA DI ROMA. but seemingly without foundation. See the Bipontine FROST. [FREEZING.] edition of his works, with a life of Frontinus, 8vo., 1788. FROST-BEARER, or Cryophorus, an instrument inHis work De Aquæductibus' was translated into French vented by Dr. Wollaston for exhibiting the freezing of and illustrated by engravings, 4to., Paris, 1830.
water in vacuo, and at a distance from the source of cold; FRONTISPIECE, the front or principal face of a build. his directions for making it and for its use are nearly thus ing; the front-view; anything seen in or at the front. given in the 'Philosophical Transactions' for 1813 :Johnson says, ' id quod in fronte conspicitur.' Hence, by Let a glass tube be taken, haring its internal diameter a figure, we call the engraved title of a book or the print about one-eighth of an inch, with a ball at each extremity which faces the title-page a frontispiece.
of about one inch in diameter, and let the tube be bent ta • In this article. Rahizopoda' is erroneously pripted for Rhizopoda,' in the
a right angle at the distance of half an inch from each ball. first column ; and stirate' for ' striated' in two places in the second.
One of these balls should contain a little water, but if it is
more than half full, it will be liable to be burst by the ex-than probable, was introduced by the Normans, especially pansion of the water in freezing; the remaining cavity of such as were suited for the manufacture of cider. should be as perfect a vacuum as can be readily obtained. Apples are usually divided into three principal sorts, One of the balls is made to terminate in a capillary tube, according as they are fitted for dessert, for kitchen use, or and when water adınitted into the other has been boiled for cider. For dessert, the following are early varieties over a lamp for a considerable time, till all the air is ex- Early Red Margaret, Early Harvest, Oslin, Kerry Pippin, pelled, the capillary extremity, through which the steam is and Summer Golden Pippin. In succession to these, the still issuing with violence, is held in the flame of the lamp Wormsley Pippin, King of the Pippins, Golden Reinette, till the force of the vapour is so far reduced, that the heat Ribston Pippin, Court of Wick, Pearson's Plate, a reof the flame has power to seal it hermetically.
markably handsome dessert apple, Golden Harvey, one of When an instrument of this description has been suc- the very highest excellence, Hughes's Golden Pippin, Hecessfully exhausted, if the ball that is empty be immersed refordshire Pearmain, Lamb Abbey Pearmain, Court-Pendu in a freezing mixture of salt and snow, the water in the plat, which blossoms late, thereby escaping the spring frosts, other ball, though at the distance of two or three feet, will Reinette du Canada, Old Nonpareil, and Scarlet Nonpareil. be frozen in the course of a very few minutes. The vapour For early kitchen use: Dutch Codlin, Keswick Codlin, contained in the empty ball is condensed by the common Hawthornden, Nonesuch, which last deserves particular operation of cold, and the vacuum produced by this con- notice on account of its beautiful transparency when made densation gives opportunity for a fresh quantity to arise into apple jelly, for which purpose it is the best sort known. from the water in the opposite ball, and with so great a re- For winter and spring use, from many excellent varieties, the duction of its temperature, that the water freezes.
following are selected : Blenheim Pippin, which may be According to the doctrine which does not admit of the also used at dessert, Dumelow's Seedling, Bedfordshire existence of positive cold, we should represent the heat of Foundling, Alfriston, Gloria Mundi, Royal Russet, Brabant the warmer ball to be the agent in this experiment, gene- Bellefleur, Northern Greening, Norfolk Beaufin, from which rating steam as long as there remains any excess of heat to the · Beaufins,' or 'Beefins,' so generally to be seen in the be conveyed. But if we should express the cause of its London shops, are prepared; and French Crab, which will abstraction, we must say that the cold mixture is the agent, keep above a year. For cider, Siberian Bitter-Sweet, Foxley, and may observe in this instance, that its power of freezing Red Streak, Fox Whelp, Golden Harvey, Coccagee, Hagloe is transferred to a distance by what may be termed the Crab, and Cooper's Red Streak, are amongst the most negative power of steam.
celebrated. FROZEN OCEAN, a term used to indicate the seas sur- Of the varieties of Pears, few, till lately, have originated rounding the Poles, in which great masses of ice swim about. in this country ; most of the kinds in former cultivation It is consequently synonymous with Icy Sea, and in some were from France, but they generally required the protecdegree also with what are called the Arctic and Antarctic tion of walls. The greater intercourse with the continent Seas or Oceans.
consequent upon the establishment of peace in 1815, led to FRUIT, in botanical language, signifies that part of a the introduction of a number of new and hardy varieties o plant in which the seed is lodged, whatever its size, colour, this fruit from Belgium, where its cultivation and improve or texture may be, so that the seed-like grain of a sage, the ment had been, and still are, attended to with great assiduity grain of corn, the nut of a chestnut, the dry capsule of a These new varieties, with some of equal merit, and even lilac bush, are as much fruits as those of a peach, an apple, superior hardiness, raised within the last few years at or a pine-apple. In the ordinary acceptation of the term Downton castle, in Herefordshire, now compose the prinhowever the word fruit is exclusively applied to seed cases cipal part of the most select lists, and are at the same time which are eatable, and generally to such as requ re no pre- rapidly excluding the old French varieties from cultivation. paration to render them fit for food.
Pears are divided into three classes, dessert, kitchen, and The eatable fruits known in this climate are of so much perry. The following are amongst the finest: for dessert, importance to the comfort as well as luxury of society, Citron des Carmes, Jargonelle, which requires a wall; that without entering much into details we shall here intro- Summer St. Germain, Ambrosia, Fondante d'Automne, duce some general observations, which will inform our White Doyenné, if grown as an open standard; Seckle, Louise readers what are the kinds most deserving of cultivation in Bonne (of Jersey), Marie Louise, Beurré Bosc, Gansel's select or confined gardens. In doing which we have the Bergamot, which also requires a wall; Duchesse d'Angouadvantage of producing in a condensed form the import- lême, Beurré Diel, Nelis d'Hiver, Althorp Crassane, ant results of the laborious and costly investigations con- Winter Crassane, Napoleon, Glout Morceau, Passe Colmar, ducted for so many years in the garden of the Horticultural Knight's Monarch, Neplus Meuris, Easter Beurré, Beurré Society of London at Turnham Green. These have Rance. These are enumerated in their order of becoming already been made known to the public in the second edi- fit for use. For kitchen use : Bezi d'Heri,which is excellent tion of the Catalogue of Fruits, cultivated in that esta- for stewing and very free from grittiness ; Bequêne Musqué, blishment; and our only task is to make a judicious selection Spanish Bon Chrétien, Double de Guerre, Catillac, Uvedale's from the thousands of varieties included in the Society's list. St. Germain. For perry: Oldfield, Barland, Longland,
The species of cultivated fruits are far from numerous; Teinton Squash. and most of those of the temperate regions have been in- The best varieties of Plums for the dessert are, the Green troduced, at one period or another, into Britain. The genera Gage, Washington, Reine Claude, Violette, Drap d'Or, from which these have sprung are comparatively few, and Kirke's, Coe's Golden Drop, Blue Imperatrice. For kitchen chiefly included in the natural orders Rosaceæ, Vitaceæ, Ur- use : Orleans, White Magnum Bonum, Shropshire Damson, ticaceæ, and Grossulaceæ. To the first of these are to be re- which last is excellent for preserving, as are also the ferred the genera producing the species called apples, pears, St. Catherine, Coe's Golden Drop, Green Gage, and plums, cherries, apricots, peaches, and nectarines, quinces, Quetsche; the latter is the sort of which the German Prunes medlars, raspberries, and strawberries; to the second, the of the shops are made, by slow and repeated drying in an vine; to the third, the fig and mulberry; and to the fourth, oven. the gooseberries and currants. Moreover there are chestnuts CHERRIES, it is said, were first cultivated in this country and Alberts belonging to Corylaceæ; walnuts to Juglanda- at Sittingbourn, in Kent, where they are supposed to have ceæ, and the melon and pine-apple respectively to Cucurbi- been introduced about the time of Henry VIII. That laceæ and Bromeliaceæ.
county is still famous for a sort called the Kentish cherry, In this place we shall briefly enumerate what may be identical with some of the varieties of the Montmorency considered the most valuable varieties of each as objects of cherries of the French. They are round, bright red, cultivation.
and acid, and much used for pies. They have also the APPLES are the most numerous class in cultivation. peculiar property of the stalk adharing so firmly to the It has been conjectured that they were brought to this stone that the latter may be drawn out without breaking country by the Romans; but it is doubtful whether the varie- the skin, excepting at the base. The fruit is then dried in ties then introduced would succeed in this olimate, presum- hair sieves in the sun, or otherwise placed in a gently ing on the fact that the Malo di Carlo, well known as being heated oven; the cherries will then keep for a year, and have so exceedingly beautiful and delicious in the North of Italy; the appearance of raisins. The best cherries for dessert are has, in one of our finest English summers, proved pale and the Elton, Downton,
May Duke, Royal Duke, Knight's insipid, and that the apples of the South of Europe are ge- Early Black, Early Purple Guigne, Bigarreau, Florence nerally worthless in England. A hardier breed, it is more For preserving, the Kentish and Morello are best.
Apricots in cultivation are of few varieties compared | let, which retains a fine colour, Downton, Elton, Old with any of the preceding kinds of fruits, and of those Pine, Prolific or Conical Hautbois, and the Large Flat do. the most useful are the following : Large Early, Breda, The alpine and wood strawberries require to be beca. Moorpark, Royal, and Turkey. The Breda is the best for sionally renewed from seeds; the best varieties are the Red standards, and when the season is favourable, the fruit on Alpine and the White Alpine. Keen's Seedling, Roseberry, such, although smaller than that grown against a wall, is, and Grove End Scarlet, are proper for forcing. notwithstanding, higher flavoured. A variety called the GRAPES are brought to high perfection in this country, Musch-Musch may be noticed, although not recommended by the aid of hothouses; in favourable situations some for cultivation in this climate. It is the sort grown in the kinds ripen pretty well, even on walls in good seasons: but oases in Upper Egypt, where it produces in great abun- open vineyard culture is not practised to any extent in dance, the fruit being dried, and in this state forming an England at the present time, nor is it likely ever to become article of commerce for exportation. The apricot blossoms profitable. Varieties of wine grapes therefore need not be earlier than any other fruit-tree cultivated in this country; noticed here, farther than by stating that they are very nuhence, most probably, it was called Precocia among the merous; many of them form small compact bunches like Romans, a corruption of which name is traceable in the mo- the Miller's Burgundy,' which is indeed one of them, and dern one of Apricot. In consequence of the tree blossoming is the sort of black cluster grape with woolly, mealy leaves, so early, its blossoms, particularly in the case of young trees, commonly seen on the walls of houses near London. The are extremely liable to drop off in setting. This is not to be following are suitable for a vinery :- Black Frontignan, wondered at, when it is considered that the ground is fre- Black Prince, Black Hamburg, West's St. Peter's, Black quently at the time (March) in as cold a state as at any Morocco, Red Frontignan, White do., Grizzly do., Royal period of the whole season, neither the sun's heat nor the Muscadine, Chasselas Musqué, White Muscat of Alexanwarm rains having reached so far below the surface as to dria; the last requires a strong heat. For walls, perhaps warm the soil in contact with the roots; and thus, whilst none fruits better, or forms a handsomer bunch than the the latter are in a medium perhaps a little above freezing, Royal Muscadine; it is preferable to the Sweetwater, which the tops, exposed to a bright sun against a wall, are at that generally forms a ragged bunch in consequence of a great period of the season occasionally in a temperature as high as number of the berries being small and abortive; the Black 90° or 100° Fahr. The injurious effects of this disparity Prince and Esperione will sometimes succeed; and the must be sufficiently obvious to every one, and the only Early Black July and Burgundy Black Cluster will ripen remedy to be adopted is to have a very complete drainage still better, but the bunches of the latter are very small. below the roots, and the whole soil of the border, not The only fruits still remaining to be noticed, the varieties retentive, but of a pervious nature. If it could also be of which are of any importance, are figs, gooseberries and kept perfectly dry previous to the commencement of vege- currants, and pine-apples. tation, and then only allowed to receive the rain when warm, In some parts of England the Fig bears in the open air ; avoiding the cooling effects of melting snow and hail, the tree but in order to ensure its doing so, a warm, or more stretly would thus be placed under circumstances comparatively speaking, a dry subsoil is absolutely necessary, whether it more natural.
be grown as a standard in the open ground or against a PEACHES and Nectarines require the aid of a wall to wall, or forced under glass. Wherever the soil is retentise bring them to perfection in this climate; and in the more of water, it will retain the coldness of winter till late in the northern counties of Britain the protection of glass is also spring. In fact, if the subsoil be very wet, its temperature requisite. They likewise rank among the kinds of fruits will approximate to that of spring water, which in Engwhich are considered of sufficient value to be forced. A land is little above 50° Fahr. throughout the whole year; selection of the best varieties of peaches is as follows:- an amount of cold which the roots of the fig are certainly Noblesse, Red Magdalen, Royal George, Grosse Mignonne, not accustomed to in summer in its native climate in Ass Bellegarde, Late Admirable. The two very best nectarines and Barbary, or even where it has been naturalised in the are the Elruge, which has little or no red at the stone; and South of Europe. Or, if the springs should fall so be the Violette Hâtive, the flesh of which is rayed with red during summer, as to leave the roots of the Fig tree unafnear the stone : this serves as a principal distinction be- fected by their presence, the temperature of the surface tween these two varieties. For the sake of variety, the Pit- will be suddenly raised by the first rain that falls. This maston Orange and the White Nectarine may also be in- often takes place towards the end of summer, and a supercluded. A selection of peaches for forcing may consist of abundant growth ensues, too late for being completed before the Bellegarde, Noblesse, Grosse Mignonne, Royal George, winter. figs succeed well in Sussex, where the subsei Royal Charlotte, and Barrington. Nectarines for the same is chalk, and the rain passes off as it falls; and in preparing purpose are the Elruge and the Violette Hâtive.
borders for it, the whole should be composed of such mateThe best variety of Quinces is the common one. The rials as are pervious to water. Some of the finest varieties Portugal Quince is distinct; but its fruit does not ripen so of figs for this climate are the Brown Turkey, Brunswirk, well in this climate as the
common quince. Its wood however White Marseilles, Nerii, Pregussata, White is bia, Brown swelis more in conformity with that of the pear, and it Ischia, Yellow Ischia. The Brown Turkey is well adapted for therefore is preferable as a stock for pears.
forcing, for which purpose the Pregussaia, White Marseilles, The principal varieties of the MEDLAR are the Large or and the White. Brown, and Yellow Ischias are also proper. Dutch, the Upright or Nottingham, and the Stoneless. GOOSEBERRIES are brought to greater perfection in Brt The first is esteemed for its size, and sometimes for the tain than in any other country. The varieties are numerous, form of the tree, on account of the rustic crooked appear- and many of them have been raised in Lancashire, ebiety ance which it assumes. The second is of better quality as by the manufacturing population, with a view to prizes. It regards flavour; and the third is small without stones or is to be regrerted that the latter have generally been awarded seeds, and keeps longer than the oiners.
solely with reference to weight; hence a number of large RASPBERRIES compared with many of the fruits men- but coarse sorts have been brought into culuvation. In tioned above, differ little in their character as cultivated making the following selection, tlavour and not size has varieties from that of the botanical species Rubus idæus, been kept in view. from which they have arisen: for instance, the difference Fruit, red: Red Champagne; Red Warrington ; Keen's between the wild sloe and the green gage is very great; Seedling Warrington; Rough Red, used for preservzng: whereas the wild raspberry growing in the woods differs only Red Turkey; Rob Roy: Ironmonger. Frat, yeitos: slightly in favour, and not widely in size and form from Yellow Champagne ; Early Sulphur; Rumbullion, sbach those cultivated in gardens. Good varieties are the Red is much used for bottling. Fruit, green: Early Green Antwerp. Yellow diito, Barnet, Cornish, and Red Globe. Hairy; Pitmaston Green Gage; Green Walnut ; Pæ
STRAWBERRIES are now considerably reduced in regard kinson's Laurel ; Massey's Heart of Oak; Edwards': to the number of varieties in cultivation. By the intro- Jolly Tar. Fruit, white : White Champagne; Early Wbife; duction of ‘Keen's Seedling,' the very coarse sorts have Woodward's Whitesmith ; Taylor's Bright Venus ; Cook's been mostly banished even from the streets of London; White Eagle; White Honey. this variety having proved the best of all for the market, The varieties of CURRANTS preferable for cultivation 2 combining very good' tlavour with the properties of being very few. Of black currants, the Black Naples and te of a large size and very prolific. Other varieties deserving Black Grape are the best. The White Dutch, Red Durs, cultivation are the Grove End Scarlet, Roseberry, American Knight's Sweet Red, and Knight's Large Red, are >> Scarles, and where wanted for confectionary, the Old Scar- best sorts of white, and red currants.
The PINE-APPLE is the only tropical fruit which is culti- | a slow conductor of caloric, the sudden changes of temperarated to any extent in this country. The test varieties are ture and their powerful effects in causing the decay of . the Queen, Moscow Queen, Black Jamaica, Brown Sugar-fruits are avoided. 7. In heaps in a dry airy loft, a slight loaf, and Black Antigua ; the Enville and White Providence covering of straw being given to protect them, from frost. are cultivated more for their size than flavour.
8. In baskets lined with straw. 9. In close cellars exFRUITS, PRESERVATION OF. The apple and pear, cluded from the light, which is in all cases injurious. 10. the two staple fruits of this country, are of so much im In dark but airy vaults. 11. On a small scale, under a portance to great numbers of persons, that we shall not dis- bell-glass cemented down air-tight; this must not be done miss this subject without giving some information concern on wood the least resinous, for even the white deal, which, ing the best means of preserving them during the autumn when made into open shelves, communicates none of its and winter ; for it is an object of no little moment to be able flavour to the fruit, yet when supporting a close bell-glass, to prolong the duration of the season of these fruits even for strongly taints whatever fruit is placed in it, by the cona single monih.
fined and accumulating exhalation. 12. Buried in a box A few early varieties may be eaten from the tree, or placed on four bricks, under another box inverted, in an when recently gathered; but the greater and by far the excavation so deep that the upper portion of the fruit may most valuable portion require to be kept for some time be 1 or 2 feet below the surface of the earth. 13. In until they acquire a proper degree of mellowness: thus, threshed grain, or in corn stacks. 14. Reposing on wheat most pears are extremely hard when gathered; some even straw, with or without a covering of the same. 15. In chaff remain so during the winter, and only become melting, or of wheat or oats. 16. In flax-seed chaff. 17. In powdered of a buttery consistency, in the spring. Apples, although it charcoal; this, if it cannot prevent, will in no degree conis their property to remain a long time nearly as crisp as tribute to decay, either internally or externally. It is the when gathered, yet are at first too acid for the dessert, and substance in which the imported Newtown pippins are frerequire to be stored up in the same manner as pears, until quently packed, and they would arrive much sounder than their juices acquire a rich sugary flavour. Many varieties they do were it not for the bruises they evidently appear indeed permanently retain their acidity, but such are only to have received previous to exportation.' 18. In dried fern proper for culinary purposes, for which indeed their brisk- leaves. ness renders them eligible.
Amongst so great a variety of modes, it is obviously With regard to the gathering and storing of apples or pears, of considerable importance to ascertain not only which are having in view their most perfect preservation, it is necessary the best, but which experience has proved to be the worst. that the gathering should be performed in all cases when the This inquiry is most advantageously pursued by settling in trees and fruit are perfectly dry. No precise time can be the first instance what the circumstances are that have been specified as to the period of ihe season when any particular universally found detrimental to the preservation of fruits. variety ought to be taken ; for this is intluenced variously As was remarked when mentioning the sixth mode, atmoby circumstances connected with soil, climate, and situation. spheric changes have very great, if not the most powerful The best general rule is, to gather when the fruit-stalk se- intluences: firstly, as regards their calorific effects, and parates easily from the spur, on the fruit being raised by the secondly, their hygrometrical. In the former respect, the hand from its natural or pendulous position. There are expansion and condensation occasioned by the rise and fall scarcely any exceptions to this rule, unless as regards a few of temperature must work a change in the state of the of the summer and early autumn varieties, in which the juices, doubtless often at variance with the gradual chemical flavour is improved by gathering a little earlier than is in- change which these juices naturally undergo; hence, those dicated by the above criterion.
fruits that are most exposed to vicissitudes of temperature The treatment of the fruit after gathering is by no means are found to be most apt to fail in attaining their full uniform ; some lay it directly on the shelves of the fruit- sugary mellow perfection. Again, when warm weather room, or wherever else it is intended to remain till fit for suddenly succeeds cold, the air in the room is of a higher use; others cause it to undergo a process of fermentation, temperature than the fruit, until such time as the latter called sweating, by throwing it in a heap, and covering it acquire from the former an equality of temperature; and with some dry substance, generally straw; in some instances until such time as this takes place, the fruit, from its coldeven blankets have been used for this purpose. After it has ness, acts as a condenser of the vapour existing in the perspired for ten days or a fortnight, it is spread out at a warmer atmosphere by which it is surrounded, and the surtime when the air is dry, in order to expedite the evapora- face consequently becomes covered with a great deposition tion of the moisture. All unsound specimens, or even such of moisture, as will be the case with a glass filled with water as are suspected of being so, are then separated. In the case colder than the atmosphere of a room into which it is of particularly valuable sorts, it has been recommended to brought. The more sniooth and glossy the variety of apple wipe off the moisture with flannel; but this proceeding, for or rear, the greater is the condensation on its surface. reasons hereafter to be explained, is not advisable.
Russeted apples and pears exhibit the least effects in this With regard to the final storing up, as it has been proved way, their rough dry coat being in less immediate contact by experience that certain methods successfully practised | with the cold juices of the fruit. by some, have turned out a failure when attempted by From the above it is sufficiently evident that variations in others, and as these fruits are extensively cultivated by per- the state of the atmosphere, as regards its temperature, have sons variously circumstanced, some of whom are compelled injurious effects by the expansion and condensation of the by necessity to practise perhaps not the very best mode, but juices, and by the deposition of moisture on the surface, the best they can command, it will be proper to detail the partly owing to atmospheric humidity, but chietly to the various methods that have hitherto been tried, in order that circumstance of the latter being condensed upon the fruit, such as are most deserving of recommendation may be as above explained. This deposition of moisture tends to pointed out, as well as those which ought to be avoided in decompose the skin and to render it less efficacious as a every possible case
protector. It therefore follows, that where fruit is not kept The following are the different modes in which apples and closely packed, it should be exposed to as little change of pears have been deposited for winter use :- 1. In single temperature as possible, and should also be preserved from layers on the bare shelves of a fruit-rvom. 2. In the same the full effects of an atmosphere saturated with moisture. manner, but covered with light canvass, which must be dried If a circulation of air could be secured of a uniform temoccasionally, as it absorbs the evaporation. 3. In close perature and dryness, or nearly so, there is no doubt as drawers; one layer, or several layers in depth. 4. In dry to the superiority of tlavour which the fruit would arcasks without any interposing material; a few weeks after quire. The watery particles would exhale, and at the same they are first put in they require to be carefully picked time shrivelling would not take place to any great extent over, the casks made perfectly dry and re-filled, the head for this chiefly occurs in consequence of expansion and closely fitted, and the fruit on no account disturbed till contraction, and alternate moisture and dryness of the surunpacked for use. 5 In boxes, casks, large garden pots, face, the results of irregularities in the state of the atmoor jars, with pure and dry sand interposed between the sphere. It may be here observed, that wiping the fruit is layers of fruit. 6. In jars in which no sand or other sub- injurious. The skins of fruits are more or less covered stance is allowed to come in contact with the fruit, the with a secretion, technically called the bloom, which every mouths of the jars being covered with a piece of slate, one will have observed on grapes and plums, on both of and the whole plunged in a quantity of dry sand, so as to be which it is very conspicuous, and although less so on apples several inches from the free atmosphere. The sand being I and pears, yet it does exist on them, and its use is to pro
rect, in a great measure, the skin from the effects of mois- j manner, in all their freshness and colour, and nearly a . ture. Some fruit-growers are so well aware of this that their flavour.
they will not even handle their most choice wall-pears in With regard to nuts and walnuts, the only precautiot. gathering, except by the stalk.
that it is necessary to take for their preservation is to mainLight is found to be injurious; all agree that fruit keeps tain the air in which they are placed in a constant state of best in total darkness. This arises from a specific stimulus moisture. Burying in the earth, placing in a damp cella:, being exercised upon the vegetable tissue by this agent. mixing with damp sand, and many such plans have teen If a leaf, a green branch, or such a green surface as that of recommended; but they are all objectionable, either because an apple or pear be exposed to light, even in the most dif- they keep the fruit too moist, or do not offer any impedifused state, evaporation takes place; but as soon as the ment to its becoming mouldy. We believe the best of all stimulus of light is withdrawn, evaporation ceases. Speak- plans is to pack them in glazed earthen jars, throwing ? ing of plants in general, evaporation from the green parts small quantity of salt on the last layer before the jar is takes place all day long and ceases at night.
closed. The preceding observations will explain the reason why Apples and pears dried in ovens may be preserved for a fruit-room is best in a dry situation, on the north side of a years. Bosc states that he has tried the latter, after three wall or other building where the sun's heat will not readily years' preservation, and found them still good; but they are disturb the temperature. The roof should be double, and best during the first year. They are placed in the over the walls hollow; the windows small. There should be a after the bread is drawn. The process is repeated a second full command of ventilation; but the room should also be third, or fourth time, according as the size or nature of the capable of being entirely shut up.
fruit may require. The heat must not be so great as i Ventilation should be used only when the air, owing to scorch, nor must the fruit be dried to hardness. When the exhalations from the fruit, is not perfectly sweet; when properly done, they are kept in a dry place. Another me this is not the case, air must be admitted in whatever con- thod, chiefly practised on the rousselets, and of these te dition it may happen to be ; but it would be most desirable rousselet de Rheims is the best for the purpose, is to gate to admit air copiously only when it is of an equal tem- the fruit a little before maturity; after being half boude perature with that of the interior of the room. The latter in a small quantity of water, they are peeled and drained should be in two or three compartments, order to keep
They are then placed in the oven, and heated si the late sorts entirely free from the contaminating effects of suitable degree, for twelve hours. They are then steeped exhalations of fruit in a fully ripe state.
in syrup, to which have been added brandy, cinname These being the conditions under which the ripening, and cloves. They are again returned to the oven, which is decay, and preservation of apples and pears always take place, heated to a less degree than at first : this operation is tance the reader will have no difficulty in judging of the relative repeated. advantages of the 18 methods already named. It is ob- The flattened dried apples, called beaufins, so aburiani vious that Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, are plans in which the in the London shops, are prepared in Norfolk, from a variety circumstances essential to the preservation of fruit are nearly of apple called the Norfolk beaufin: it has a thick skin, completely complied with. Nos. 8, 11, 14, 15, and 16, which resists, without bursting, the heavy pressure to which are bad, either because of the liability of the material in the apples are subjected in the oven, during the slow and which they are packed to decomposition, by which the fruit lengthened process of drying. acquires a tainted musty taste, or because they can only be FRUMENTIUS. [ABYSSINIAN CHRISTIANS; Asri applied on a very small scale. Nos. 9 and 12 are chiefly FRUSTUM, a portion cut off from any solid figure. TL objectionable because, owing to the almost total absence of term is most frequently applied in the case of the cone, ad evaporation, the fruit, although well preserved and plump, conoidal surfaces of revolution. By 'frustum of a cone's is apt to be watery and tasteless. No. 17 is a troublesome meant any part cut off from a cone which does not contas and dirty practice; Nos. 13 and 18 are excellent when op- the vertex. This distinction is drawn because any parts portunity occurs of practising them ; but No. 10, in dark a cone which contains the vertex is another cone. but airy vaults, is undoubtedly that which most completely FU'CINUS. CELANO.] complies with the conditions necessary for preservation, and
FUCOI'DEÆ. [PSEUDOZOARIA.] is much the best. We have known apples, that are usually FUCUS. (SEA WEED.] decayed in February, preserved till Midsummer in this FUEGO (MOZAMBIQUE.]
END OF VOLUME THE TINTH.
Friated by W. Clowes and Sons, Stamford