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was written about the characters of the mucus corpuscle and the pus corpuscle, and the importance of distinguishing them from one another. The so-called mucus corpuscle, however, is nothing more than an epithelial cell, often somewhat altered, entangled in the viscid mucus, which is formed in greater or less quantity upon the surface of all mucous membranes. A small quantity of mucus derived from the genito-urinary mucous membrane entangling a few small cells of epithelium, is always found in healthy Urine. These cells, however, vary in size: they are more transparent than the pus corpuscle, and their granular character is less marked. Such cells, when acted upon by acetic acid, entirely disappear, or they become much more transparent. In some of them a single nucleus may be perceived. The pus corpuscle, on the other hand, when treated with this re-agent, swells up, becomes perfectly clear and transparent, while from one to four small highly refracting corpuscles come into view.

This change is shown in fig. 2, where some corpuscles will be observed containing only one of these bodies, others two, and some three or four. Half the figure is magnified 215, and the other half 403, diameters.

This change distinguishes pus from everything else.

It should, however, be borne in mind, that after pus has remained for some time in Urine, the corpuscles become softened, and their characters less distinct; but in such a case, should there be any doubt as to the nature of the deposit, we must resort to a chemical examination.

For the chemical characters of pus, see Tables for the Eramination of Urine.

Blood corpuscles are often much altered by remaining in Urine. In alkaline Urine the blood retains its red colour, but the normal acid of Urine renders the colouring matter brown, whence the smoky appearance of acid urine which contains blood.

The corpuscles are often found to be much smaller after they have lain for some time in Urine. The cor



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Fig. 1. Pus and blood corpuscles, with crystals of triple phosphate, in the Urine of a man suffering from fungus growths connected with the mucous membrane of the bladder.

Fig. 2. Spermatozoa and cells of vaginal epithelium removed from the vagina of a little girl, a few hours after

had been committed. Fig. 3. Crystals of triple phosphate, many of which closely resemble octohedra of oxalate of lime, with epithelial casts, and casts containing oil from the Urine of a case of chronic nephritis, with partial fatty degeneration.

Fig. 4. Deposit of phosphate of lime in an amorphous form, from the Urine of a man who was suffering from an attack of sick headache.

Fig. 5. Large crystals of uric acid, with a number of octohedra of oxalate of lime from the Urine of a boy, aged 18, suffering from diabetes. The crystals formed after the Urine had been allowed to stand for 8 or 10 hours.

Fig. 6. Penicilium glaucum and oxalate of lime, crystals of uric acid crystallized round a hair, from the Urine of a patient suffering from chronic bronchitis and emphysema, and habitually passing large quantities of uric acid.

Fig 2

Pig 4


Fig 1


x 215

rig 3

Pig 5

Fig 6

x 230



x 216.

Palh Led 1857

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puscles in a, b, c, fig. 4, were obtained from the living body, while those marked d, e, f, are copies of blood corpuscles taken from Urine. The corpuscles in e and f exhibit characters which are not uncommon.. Their outline is rough, many of them having a stellate character, while some are almost disintegrated.

Some small perfectly circular crystals, which are occasionally present in Urine, may be mistaken for blood corpuscles; but if they be examined carefully, their highly refracting power will be noticed. They are soluble in tolerably strong nitric or hydrochloric acids, which exert but little effect upon the blood corpuscles, further than causing them to shrink somewhat in size.

The point, however, can usually be at once decided by examining a few blood corpuscles, and comparing them with the doubtful bodies.

Vaginal epithelium is easily recognized by the large flattened cells which are often folded over at the sides. Each contains a distinct nucleus.

Bladder epithelium varies in character. Many of the cells are columnar, and upon the summits of these, large oval cells are often seen, the under surface of which is marked by numerous depressions, into which the extremities of the cells of columnar epithelium are received. Two or three of these are represented in fig. 6. The columnar epithelium is very abundant near the openings of the ureters.



Pus. Blood Triple Phosphate. The case from which the urinary deposit represented in fig. 1 was derived, was that of a man who had been suffering for many months. from obstinate hæmorrhage from the bladder, accompanied


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