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Fig. 1. Convoluted portion of uriniferous tube with epithelium, from the cortical portion of the kidney.

a. Basement membrane.
b. Epithelium.

c. Part of tube from which the epithelium has been squeezed out, leaving only the basement membrane.

d. Capillary vessels containing transparent injection, showing their relation to the wall of the tube.

e. Separate cells of epithelium magnified 403 diameters.

Fig. 2. Straight portion of uriniferous tube from the -base of a pyramid.

a. Basement membrane.
b. Epithelium.

c. A tube from which the epithelium has been removed.

d. One of the large straight vessels found among the tubes in the pyramids.

e. Capillaries also present in this part of the kidney. f. Separate epithelial cells magnified 403 diameters.

Fig. 3. Epithelium from the pelvis of the kidney, in part tessellated (a) and in part columnar.

Fig. 4. Epithelium scraped from the surface of a pyramid.

Fig. 5. Epithelium from the ureter, entirely columnar.
Fig. 6. Columnar epithelium from the urethra.


The specimens from which all these drawings were copied, were taken from the organs removed from the body of a man, aged 40, who died of pneumonia, otherwise healthy.

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Path Lab. 1858

Under this head it is intended to give illustrations of all those crystalline constituents which are to be obtained from Urine, but which exist in solution in that fluid. The most important of these are uric acid and urates (of which illustrations will be found in Part I.), urea, creatine, creatinine, hippuric acid, lactates, ammoniacal salts, and several inorganic salts.

It is also proposed to give drawings of many of the crystalline substances derived from these, such as nitrate and oxalate of urea, murexide, alloxan, alloxantine, parabanic acid, lactates, &c.

On concentrating Urine.--In concentrating Urine and other organic fluids for the purpose of obtaining crystals of certain of their organic constituents, it is necessary to employ the heat of warm water instead of the direct heat of a lamp. If the evaporation is conducted by the heat of a naked flame, decomposition of some of the compounds invariably takes place. In some instances even a temperature several degrees below the boiling point produces chemical changes, in which case the evaporation must be conducted in vacuo over sulphuric acid.

A preparation such as that represented in fig. 1 is made by concentrating the Urine carefully to the consistence of a syrup. While warm, a drop is placed upon a glass slide, carefully covered with thin glass, and allowed to stand for some hours, so that crystals may form.

On incinerating the solid residue of Urine.—When we wish to examine the inorganic salts, the organic matter must be destroyed by a red heat. This is effected by placing some of the dry solid residue of Urine or other organic substance in a platinum capsule, or shallow dish, which, supported on a triangular piece of wire, is exposed to the heat of a spirit lamp, or gas lamp. As very



Fig. 1. Crystalline residue of healthy Urine, obtained by concentrating the liquid over a water bath.

a. Spherical masses, consisting of aggregations of crystals of urate of soda. Many of these are seen deposited upon a film, consisting of phosphate of lime and ammoniaco-magnesian phosphate.

b. Cubical crystals of chloride of sodium.

c. Octohedral crystals of chloride of sodium, which crystallizes in this form in the presence of urea.

d. Large crystals of common phosphate of soda. 2NaO,HO,PO3 +26Aq.

e. Sulphates.

Fig. 2. Crystals of inorganic salts of healthy Urine, obtained by incinerating the dry residue, decarbonizing it, and extracting it with water. The solution being concentrated to the proper degree, readily crystallized.

a. Crystals of common salt, obtained by evaporating the solution nearly to dryness.

6. Crystals of common salt, formed in a concentrated solution.

c. Crosslets of common salt, obtained by evaporating the solution very rapidly to dryness.

d. Crystals of phosphate of soda.
e. Crystals of sulphates.

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