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The confequence of his general remarks must neceffarily be, that this medal is fatirical, and from Julian's reprefenting Galienus, as a female, this was most likely the common fatirical allufion, and the medal may be later than the time of Galienus.
Art. VIII. Extract of a Letter from Col. Sydenham to Lord Macartney, dated St. Thomas' Mount, near Madras. O&t. 14, 1786. Communicated by Dr. Lort, V. P.-The coins of Roman emperors difcovered in the Nellour country might afford much speculation. The Romans never pushed their conquefts fo far; but those which are deføribed are gold; and we may suppose therefore the reft to have been of the fame metal. If this were the cafe, they were probably brought by Armenian merchants, as the most portable treasure which the West afforded. There were forty difcovered, of which eleven are defcribed.
Art. IX. Obfervations on fome Brafs Celts, and other Weapons discovered in Ireland, 1780; by the Rev. Mr. Pegge. In a Letter to the Rev. Michael Lort, D. D. V. P. A. S.In 1780 a celt and a pilum (at least we may be at first allowed to use the expreffion) were found in a bog in Ireland. This circumftance has drawn from our author a differtation on celts, in which he repeats much that has been faid before, with some other obfervations, which if new, are of little importance. If iron was known at the period when thefe miffile weapons were ufed, it is certain that the art of working it was not underftood. The celts were of brafs, though feldom of pure brass. They were certainly thrown, though generally retained by a thong, fo as to be again recovered. The other weapon appears alfo to have been a miffile one: it differs, in fome refpects, from the pilum, and probably was a kind of javelin thrown from the hand, with a contrivance to recover it. A plate is fubjoined; but we are furprised that the plates of this volume are not tinted in this way they alone form an accurate reprefentation of metals decayed, and partly destroyed by ruft. Mr. Pegge fuppofes the last weapon to resemble moft nearly the Roman verutum; yet that the Romans had a Celtic original, is a notion too wild and visionary to claim a moment's attention.
Art. X. Some Account of a Roman Road leading from Southampton by Chichester and Arundell, through Suffex and Surrey to London, so far as the fame is found in Surrey. By William Bray, Efq. F. A. S.-The courfe of Erming-street, the Roman road from fouth to north, we shall extract from our author.
I have already obferved that a Roman road has been traced from Southampton to Arundell. Between Arundell and the borders of Surrey, particularly about Billinghurst, it is found
in a farm called Monks. It proceeds into Surrey, and is found in a farm called Ruckmans; from whence it goes to Oakwoodhill, at the foot of which runs a ftream, which is very small, except after heavy rains. Croffing this, a part of it, now two miles in length, called Stane-ftreet Causeway, goes through the parish of Ockley, defcends the hill towards Dorking, leav ing the turnpike road on the right, and is found in the farms called Buckenhill, Bear, Morehurst, and Kitlands (its courfe hitherto from Arundell or near it being all deep clay), from whence it goes very near a camp called Anftie, on the edge of a high hill, and is found in the woods, called Swyre woods, and points towards Dorking. It seems to be agreed that it went through the prefent church-yard of that place. From thence it pointed to a paffage of the river Mole, where now ftands a bridge called Burford-bridge, but where there was always an eafy ford, except in time of floods; and which paffage, being amongst the swallows, is often in a dry fummer without any water. On the further fide of the river here the left hand bank was partly pecked down a few years ago to widen the road, when I well remember feeing a layer of ftones in it. From bence the course of it would lie over a hill called Juniper-hill, in Mickleham (now covered with a fine plantation of trees, formed by the late fir Cecil Bishop), and it would come out on Mickleham-downs. It is accordingly feen there in a ridge of confiderable extent, terminating at the entrance of a lane called Pebble-lane, which runs between Leatherhead on the left, and Hedley on the right. This lane feems to derive its name from the road. At the end of the lane, the right hand hedge stands on a bank which has much the appearance of a raifed ridge. The line directs you to the back of the late lord Baltimore's park in Epfom, called Woodcote, (which has fometimes been confounded with Woodcote near Croydon), out on Epfom downs, at the foot of the race-courfe. There a large layer of flints has been very lately dug up for mending the roads, which feemed to me, as I rode by it, to have run in a straight line, and may well be fuppofed to have been part of this road; but I am not fufficiently informed to fay this with certainty."
Mr. Manning observes,
That after croffing the race-ground, fome small tumuli are seen near the corner of the inclofures. Near to the line is the feat of Mr. Buckle in Banfted, called Burrough. Mr. Manning who has favoured me with a fight of his notes, obferves that this name implies a fort of some kind; that, after croffing the road from London to Ryegate, at fome tumuli, called Galley-hills, it paffes to Woodcote, the Noviomagus of the Itinerary; that N. W. of this is a place called Barrow-hedges; that in the neighbourhood of Woodcote, at Beddington, Carshalton, Wallington, and Woddens, a great number of remains of wells, buildings, &c. have been found; that, after leaving Bedding
ton on the west, this ftreet is fuppofed to have paffed through Old Croydon; that it is vifible on the weft fide of Broad Green, in a direct line northward to Stretham, which evidently takes its name from it; that from Stretham it went towards the N. E. and having been joined, according to Gale, at the distance of about two miles from London-bridge, by one branch from Kingston, through Wimbleton on the west, and another (probably the Watling ftreet) from the caft, took its courfe through Newington to London.
The paffage of the river fhould feem to have been at the old ferry over to Westminster; the name of Stane-gate-lane being fill preferved there in Lambeth parish.'
Various remains of antiquity have been found in this direction; but we do not perceive any that are of great importance.
Art. XI. Obfervations on the Origin and Progrefs of Gothic Architecture, and on the Corporation of Free Mafons, fuppofed to be the Establishers of it as a regular Order. In a Letter from Gov. Pownall, to the Rev. Dr. Lort, V. P.—Mr. Pownall thinks that the pointed Gothic arch was an imitation only of the wooden frame-work, first executed in ftone by Wilhelmus Senonenfis, who was followed by an English William. The first attempt of this kind is recorded in Gervafe's Chronicle, on the rebuilding the church of Canterbury. It was then styled a building, more teutonico. The buildings in Gothland have 'the round arch according to the Roman model, which we call, with fufficient accuracy, the Saxon; as the remains of the Saxon buildings in England are invariably fupported by the circular arch, which the Normans contracted to a fegment of a circle, making their windows very narrow. The change to the Teutonic mode of architecture occurs about the end of the twelfth century, and, at this period, our author fixes the establishment of the free mafons this he explains in the following manner. As, about this period, many of the churches were decayed, the pope fent to this kingdom feveral bodies of Roman architects, which he previously incorporated, and to which he gave peculiar powers and exclufive privileges. Among thefe was the power of fetting the prices of their work, independent of the municipal laws of the country; and it is faid that they were exclufively appropriated to rebuild the decayed churches, in imitation, perhaps, of Hiram, who fent architects in the fame way to rebuild the Temple (1 Kings v. 6.) Thefe were called free and accepted masons, and to ascertain as well as to preferve their privileges, they held chapters, in which they oppofed the common municipal laws. At last, in the third of Henry VI. 1424, a ftatute are enacted, by which their independence and obftinacy were afcertained; their chapters and congregations
congregations were forbidden, at the fame time punishments were appointed for those who should in future offend. The fociety, as artists, from that time was discontinued; but as a focial company, our author thinks, it exifted and continued to exift: as in their original incorporation Hiram might have been mentioned, it is probable, in Mr. Pownall's opinion, that their boasted antiquity is derived from it, as well as their peculiar technical language. He is not aware, that they trace it much higher. To thefe free mafons our author attributes the introduction of the Teutonic, or Gothic, as a regular order, though it was employed by Gulielmus Senonenfis, near a century before; and indeed he traces many of the pureft fpecimens of the Gothic to the end of the thirteenth century. We ought to add, that the librarian of the Vatican, and the head keeper of the archives at Rome, have examined the different repofitories, and find no traces of the commiffion: the pope has interested himself in the search, and directed the moft careful enquiries to be made without fuccefs.
Art. XII. A Letter from the Hon. Daines Barrington to the Rev. Dr. Lort, on the Origin of the Arms belonging to the two Honourable Societies of the Inner and Middle Temple; the Pegafus and the Holy Lamb.-A flight point has been the occafion of a long, and we think, curious differtation, though little of it particularly relates to the fubject. When Jerufalem was taken, a numerous crowd, from motives either of devotion, or of a more lucrative nature, reforted to the holy city; while the only port, in the poffeffion of the Christians, was at a great distance from it. This occafioned their falling fometimes into the hands of the Saracens; and when they arrived at Jerufalem, they were frequently without fupport. From these circumftances arofe the Knights Hospitallers (hofpites), who took care of them in the city, and the Knights Templars, who conducted them to it. At first, each fociety was poor, and the device of the Knights Templars was two men riding on one horfe. When their riches increased, the Templars had an eftablishment in London, and a patriarch to take care of their remitted treasures: they forgot their first device, and adopted the Holy Lamb encircled with a glory. Their territories were the prefent Temples, now occupied by the ftudents of law; and when the Templars were abolished, the focieties of the inner, middle, and outer Temple arofe from their ruins; for their wealth was given to the Hofpitallers, who leafed the Temple to the lawyers. What was formerly called the Temple was fituated in Holborn, from St. John's to Clerkenwell. The inner and middle Temple were for a time undivided; but the divifion afterwards, probably in confequence of their increased num
bers, took place; and, in the fifth of Elizabeth, from the fuggeftion of Gerard Leigh, a herald, the Inner Temple, which feems to be the largest, as well as the firft in rank, took their prefent arms. The Middle Temple, fifty years afterwards, at the inftigation of fir George Buc, affumed the fecond arms of the Knights Templars. This account, though not wholly new, we thought too curious to be overlooked.
Art. XIII. Account of a Roman Building and Camp lately discovered at Buxton, in the County of Derby. In a Letter from Major Rooke to the Bishop of Carlifle, V. P.-The Romans were undoubtedly acquainted with Buxton, and the virtues of its water. A Roman bath, or at leaft its remains, has been discovered near it; and the building, major Rooke with fome propriety guefies to have been a temple of Apollo. The Roman camp, called Caftle Dikes, is fituated on a high moor, diftinguished by the name of Combe's Mofs, about four miles from Buxton; but it is not eafy to convey any proper idea of it without the plate.
Art. XIV. Obfervations on Ancient Painting in England. In a Letter from Gov. Pownall, to the Rev. Michael Lort, D. D. V. P. A. S.--Governor Pownall thinks that painting was known in England previous to the time of Cimabué, in the thirteenth century. Certainly fome genius of the cloyfters may have given it existence in a form more perfe&t than the daubings of the age; though the character of St. Dunstan, in this refpect, is the high-wrought eulogium of ignorance and partiality. Our author mentions many accounts of decorations, where the painting is faid to be admirably executed, in the tenth and eleventh centuries; but the praises of an untutored mind, in a rude æra, afford little foundation for argument. The paintings were ufually executed on plaifter, which was connected with the pannel by means of leather or parchment, and covered with varnish or talc.
The very old painting in Weftminfler Abbey, which now (as a mere refufe bit of old board) forms the top of the cafe, wherein the wooden stuffed images of our ancient kings (vulgarly called the ragged regiment) are kept, is of this kind. Mr. Patoun (whofe name only to mention is fufficient when I am fpeaking of the fcience of colours) and myfelf examined this very ancient fpecimen. It is painted on a piece of pannelled wainscotting, in different compartments. The painting in fome of the compartments is covered with glafs or talc, in other compartments coloured glass is laid over a foil to carry the appearance of precious ftones, or at leaft of the fine marbles. The paintings that were fo covered we did not difturb, they appeared to be miniatures of too much merit to be fo destroyed. Thofe