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tification, perhaps from offified arteries. Mr. Bell of Wigton found the caprum ammoniacale of use in an obftinate intermitting cough; and Mr. Willifon defcribes two cafes of compound fracture treated fuccefsfully by excluding the air. The wound, he tells us, in one cafe was healed by the first intention ; but we believe it is a fingular inftance in the records of furgery, for a lacerated wound to be healed in that way. Dr. Clark gives an account of the good effect of opening abfceffes of the liver when they point outwards, though this is certainly no new difcovery: his cafe of a fcirrhous liver in confequence of a blow, is curious from the apparent flightness of the caufe, and the rapidity of the progrefs of the complaint. Mr. MilJer's history of a girl who lost her way on a barren heath, and fubfifted eighteen days on water alone, though of fome importance, is not fingular; there have been inftances of fafting nearly as long without water. Mr. May defcribes the influenza as it appeared in the artillery-companies in 1788 at Plymouth. The other corps who were exempted from duty, and the people of the town, were not affected: the complaint was undoubtedly not general, and though evidently infectious, was not very different from the ufual forms of influenza. Dr. Duncan, in the laft effay, defcribes the good effects refulting from the use of vitriolic acid in hiccup. He was led to employ it from having obferved the utility of vinegar, and it fucceeded almost instantly.
The medical news is more interefting. The obfervations on the irritability of vegetables, from a paper read before the natural history fociety in Edinburgh, contain much of what we had formerly occafion to point out, with many other facts of importance on the fame fubject. This author's principle is, that irritability may depend on peculiar organization, independent of nervous power; and indeed we may allow that ve getables are irritable, without having a fyftem of nerves; but in the prefent ftate of our knowledge on the fubject, we think it unfair to employ this argument to prove that irritability in animals is independent of nerves. Indeed to fay that vegetables have nerves, is an abfurdity only in words, for vegetable fibres, from a fimilar organization, or the united influence of a fimilar fluid, may poffefs the fame functions. This opinion, however, is carried farther, and illuftrated more fully in M. Coulon's Inaugural Differtation lately published at Leyden. Some diffections of perfons who died of confumption are recorded, in which it appears that the degree and fatality of the disease is not in proportion to the number of tubercles and vomica or degree of injury done to the lungs. In one inftance, the lungs were wholly deftroyed. Much mifcellaneous information occurs, which we cannot and ought not to abridge; among these
are accounts of a flux bark from the Mosquito fhore, and the terra ponderofa falita, by Dr. Crawford. The prospectus of different focieties follows, different accounts of deaths, promotions, publications, &c. are fubjoined.
The meteorological remarks thow us, that Edinburgh is by no means a very cold fituation, though in a high latitude: even in the beginning of this year the thermometer was not lower than 12, and its range was from 78 to 12. The obfervations are kept from July to June; and though the thermometer feems to be affected by the fun, the different numbers appear to have been regularly obferved. The medium heat is 50.1, and the heat of April 49. The range of the barometer was from 28.09 to 29.61 and the rain (it must be remembered that the year 1788 was remarkably dry) only 20.11 inches. At fort Albany, the winter of 1788-9 feems to have been remarkably mild. The mean heat of December 1788 was +10; of the January following -9; of February-11; and of March +4-The new publications, as ufual, conclude the volume, in which we find much to commend; and though we could wifh to praise without referve, we must add, that many parts of it are unequal to what we have reason to expect from Dr. Duncan's abilities and fituation.
A Hiftory of Chrift, for the Ufe of the Unlearned: with fhort explanatory Notes, and practical Reflections. By W. Dalrymple, D. D. 8vo. 6s. Boards. Printed for the Author.'
THIS unaffectedly pious and
benevolent paftor, drawing near
the close of his ministry, leaves his hearers a valuable legacy. The Life of Chrift is drawn from the Evangelists; and their different relations are harmonized, fo far as they relate to the fame events, or connected when they respect different tranfactions. The preface of Luke is perhaps not happily prefixed, unless it be contended that he alludes to the Gospel of the Egyptians; for the introduction to the third narrative, if it relates to the two former, is an improper preface to the Hiftory founded on and compofed from the Four Gofpels. The introduction to the Gofpel of St. John follows, with great propriety; the genealogies next occur; and the different tranfactions are related in their order.
The narrative is that of the Evangelifts, with fhort explanatory claufes, diftinguished by a different type; but these are truly parenthetical, and we may read the text without their affiftance. To young and untutored minds, they will be probably, in general, useful; but they undoubtedly weaken the force of the Gofpel language. We have perceived fome inftances, in which we think they perplex the text, and, in one or two,
they have themfelves required an explanation, or led to doubts and difficulties. On the whole, however, if we except a little peculiar and profeffional language, the work deferves our commendation. The words, peculiar and profeffional' will not require an explanation, if the country, and the style of pulpite oquence in our author's country, be confidered. We fhall felect a fhort fpecimen of his manner:
Sect. 399. L, And he said unto them, when I fent you my apoftles, by way of effay to preach among the Jews, without money in your purfe, and scrip to hold victuals with other travelling accommodations in, and fhoes to fave your feet, lacked ye any thing neceffary for the fupport of life? And they faid, nothing did eve svant. Then faid he unto him, but I now, that ufage to be expect ed will be much worse, and might lead one to fay, he that hath a purfe, let him take it, and likewife his fcrip; and he that hath no fword, let him, as a man befet with cuemies, fell his very upper garment, and buy one. For I fay unto you, that this that is written by the prophet Efaias 2 muft yet be accomplished in me, and he was reckoned among the number of capital tranfgreffors; for indeed all the things predicted concerning me have an immediate end, And they, being under carnal apprehenfions, and taking his words literally, faid, Lord, behold here are 3 two fwords for our defence already. And he faid unto them, 4 it is enough to make you all fenfible of the extreme difficulties you have now to combat; and I meanț no more.3
The appearance of the text is much injured by the mode of placing the references, which we have preferved; and the fmall letters, which the reader will perceive, refer to reflections' published in a separate volume. Some obfervations, viz. a practical review of the life of Chrift; fome remarks on the probable order of the events on the first day of Chrift's refurrection, &c. are interfperfed. A few additional circumstances are alfo added from the Acts and the Epiftles. A fpecimen of the manner of examining the auditors, frequently practifed in Scotland, on the fubjects of the Gospel Hiftory, is fubjoined.
In the Appendix we find the teftimonies of the early Christian writers, relating to facts and circumftances in the life of Chrift, as well as a felect number of Jewish and Heathen teftimonies. Though the following obfervations are not wholly new, they
I States of danger and trouble among the Jews were often expreffed by outward figns. He meant to fignify, that diftrefs and danger approached, and that it behoved each of them to provide for their fubfiftence and fafety, in such a way as prudence directed. What were two fwords for literally arming eleven men."
2 Ch. liii. 12.
'3 Jofephus fays, that the Galileans were in ufe to wear two, owing to frequent robberies, and dangers from wild beasts; fee J. xviii. 10. 4 As if he had faid, thofe are not the weapons that I alluded to; thofe, therefore, are more than enough for any use that you will have of them.”
are very ingenious, and afford a favourable fpecimen of our author's abilities:
I would throw out a conjecture here, to be thought of by the learned, but without hazarding much upon it, if, in certain of their maxims, they have not even glanced at the overthrow of important gospel ones, whilst they would appear to be above naming what they combat: as when Seneca fays, the wife man will reftore a fon to a weeping mother; but he will do this with a ferene mind and unchanged countenance; De Clementia, 1. 2. c. 6. Compare with this L. vii. 11-13; and take along with you that just criticifm in the Difquifitions, what the Englih tranflation renders, he had compaion upon her, in the original language imports that mifericordia which Seneca calls vitium pufilli animi. Says the elder Pliny, the divinity itself cannot do all things: it can neither confer immortality upon mortals, nor recal the dead. To what purpofe, then, fhould he have mentioned Chriftianity? Here is a fhort, indeed, but pointed ridicule of the whole. Tacitus could have no knowledge of the fundamental Christian tenet of benevolence, though he might defign to raise abhorrence of its profeffors, by representing their religion as unfociable, when he fays baud perinde in crimine cendii, quam odio humani generis convicti funt; An. 15. 44. His own creed was, as for me, I cannot entirely determine whether the affairs of mankind be rolled on by fate, and invariable neceffity, or by chance; An. 6. 21. In another place, when, as the author of the Difquifitions well obferves, the subject might have inflamed even the cold heart of a fceptic, he thus addreffes the manes of his benefactor Agricola: If there be any place alloted for the pious dead, and if, as the fages hold, great fpirits are not extinguished with the body, peacefully mayeft thou rest. How could fuch an one judge of Chriftianity? The doctrine of life and immortality could not well fuffer more in a small compafs, and from fuch a pen. In the detail that the younger Pliny gives of the manners of the Chriftians, there is much faid to their commendation; neither does he, while cenfuring their fuperftition, fay aught to the prejudice of any individual among them: and what he declares as his fentiment, that, be the thing confeffed by them what it would, their frowardness and inflexible obftinacy, merited death, argues fuch indifference for truth, as was quite incompatible with ingenuous inquiry and true faith. His practice in religion was agreeable to his principle, who could impofe divine worship to the ftatues of an emperor, and punish the neglect of it with immediate execution. A froawardness and obftinacy here was glorious, when joined with his own beautiful delineation, in miniature, of their plain and fim. ple worship, ftrict morals, and inoffenfive fociability."
Our author proceeds farther in the fame path; but we have not room to transcribe the whole. The teftimony of Chubb, of Rouffeau, and of Hume, who each praife the innate dignity,
the fimplicity, and general excellence of the Chriftian difpenfation, are alfo preferved; and the volume concludes with a lift of references of each paffage in the Evangelifts, to that part of the prefent volume in which it is found.
One Hundred and Twenty Popular Sermons. By Philip Pyle, M. A. 4 Vols. 11. 45. Boards. Robinsons.
IF F, for the private inftruction of families, the use of indolent, or probably ignorant clergymen, the publication of collections of fermons be ufeful, they are at least unpleafing to the Reviewer. Condemned to engage in fubjects often examined, to fkim the furface, with a popular preacher, or to break off abruptly with one who fears to finish a difquifition, left he should treipafs on the patience of a polite audience, is a task which we own is difagreeable; and it has not often happened that we have arisen from works of this kind with a perfect good temper, or a complacency always confiflent with impartiality; fo that we have been obliged to return again to them, that the little difpleasure we felt from the form might not prevent our paying a due attention to the merits of an author, who may at least be deemed fuccefsful, if he has attained the end of his undertaking. In Popular' Sermons, it is certainly fufficient to explain the outlines of natural and revealed religion; to impress on the readers' minds the more important parts of their doctrines, and, above all, to connect them with practical and moral duties, or to derive thefe latter from the former. This is the best general account of Mr. Pyle's volumes; for he explains with great perfpicuity the doctrine of Chrift, and particularly expatiates on the moral duties or practical virtue. It is enough then to give a fpecimen of his merits in each line, fince it would be unfair to combat opinions, even though they should differ from our own, which the author could not, within the limits affigned, defend; and it would be little interefting to give a general account of discourses which, either in design or execution, feldom rife above mediocrity. Even an enumeration of the fubjects would extend our article, without adding to its value.
The first paffage we shall felect is on the divine omnipresence: and is indeed a fummary of a fermon on that fubject.
The fampleft, the most popular explanation, of the divine omniprefence, feems to be this :-That as God created all things, he cannot but be perfectly acquainted with their feveral natures, qualities, and mutual relations. And as they are all his own work, his own production; they must all be entirely dependent upon him, entirely fubject to his direction. This is the condition of every created thing, wherever it exifts. Confequently