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embarkation. The proportion of the convicts fick in camp was not large in the whole there were forty-fix fick and twenty convalefcents. The total of the convicts who had died was eighty-one, and of these fifty-two were aged and infirm.
Defcriptions of the progress of the new fettlement are next given; and the governor appears to have paid every attention to its future falubrity and importance. The obfervatory, in this account, is faid to be in 32° 52′ 30′′ fouth iatitude, and 159° 19′ 30′′ eaft of Greenwich; a confiderable difference from that fixed by captain Tench. The air appears to be temperate on the whole, though frequently difturbed by thunder, which will probably be lefs frequent when ventilation is more free, The fcurvy feems to have been the worst disease, but the fruittrees are flourishing, and may in time be fufficiently fruitful to check it. The water is pure at a moderate depth. - We are surprised that no fteps have been taken to bring the bread-fruit tree from Otaheite to this fpot,
The natives occafionally eat roots, and one of thefe is fernroot; the other unknown. They eat also a kind of wild fig, and fometimes the feeds of a tree resembling a pine-apple, which are either kept a long time, or undergo a particular preparation, fince, when recent, they appear poisonous. Their implements are rude; though their nets, which appear to be composed of the fibres of the flax plant, are ingenioufly twifted and woven, without knots. Some ladies who have inspected thefe nets, déclare they are formed on the fame principle as the ground of point-lace, except that there is only one turn of the thread instead of two in every loop. But they avoid all intercourfe with us, and, probably, will fhiver in the ftorms rather than accept of any cloathing from us.-Directions for failing into Port Jackfon, by captain Hunter of the Sirius, are fubjoined.
The fpecimens of natural hiftory and botany fent home, fhow how much had been done by the former navigators in the short fpace of their stay, and how little the new fettlers, who appear to be deficient in these sciences, are likely to add to their disco veries. The quadrupeds are either squirrels or of the opoffum kind, distinguished by their pouches, and likely to produce some revolution in the construction of this genus: the birds have been chiefly described in Mr. Latham's Synopfis, and in the Supple ment. Those which do do not occur in that work, are the female fuperb warbler, the bronze-winged pigeon, the white fronted heron, the wattled bee-eater, and the pfittaceous hornbill. The account of the last affords fome remarks of importance.
The bird is about the fize of a crow: the total length two feet three inches: the bill is large, ftout at the base, much curved at the point, and channelled on the fides; the colour pale brown, inclining to yellow near the end: the noftrils are
quite at the base, and are furrounded with a red fkin, as is the eye alio, on the upper part: the head, neck, and under parts of the body are pale blue-grey; the upper parts of the body, wings, and tail, afli colour; and most of the feathers are tipt with dufky black, forming bars of that colour across the wings: the wings, when clofed, reach to near three-quaters of the length of the tail: the tail itself is long, and cuneiform, the two middle feathers meafuring eleven inches, and the outer one on each fide little more than feven; a bar of black crosses the whole near the end, and the tips of all the feathers are white: the legs are short and fealy, and the toes placed two forwards, and two backwards, as in thofe of the toucan or parrot genus: the colour of legs and claws black*.
• This bird was killed at Port Jackson, and we believe it to be hitherto non-defcript.'
Some papers relative to the fettlement follow; and in these we find two officers and three foldiers confent to remain another tour of three years: one wishes to fettle there. In the return of fick Sept. 27th 1788, ten convicts have died fince the last report; thirty belonging to the battalion are fick, and ninety-three convicts under medical treatment.
The feventeenth chapter contains nautical directions, &c. by lieut. Ball, concerning Rio Janeiro, Norfolk Island, Ball Pyramid, and Lord Howe Island. He obferves that the draught of the harbour of Rio Janeiro, in the East India Company's chart, appears to be true, the foundings right, and the bearings accurate. The approach to Norfolk Island appears to be safe. Ball's Pyramid appears to be a detached infulated rock, if the plate may be trufted, of a basaltic nature. Lord Howe's Inland is in 31° 36′′ fouth latitude, by moon and ftar, 159° 4′ east longitude-variation 10° east.
An account of lieut. Shortland, and his discoveries on his return, are fubjoined. In about lat. 10° 44' and E. longitude 161 he fell in with land which trended north-westerly. He coafted this land, diftinguifhing the principal points, and fometimes the lefs minute indentations, so as to ascertain it to be a vast island or a cluster of very numerous fmall ones, till he came to lat. 7° 25′ and long. 156. He met with a canoe of Indians, who offered
Mr. Latham, who has been kind enough to give his fentiments on this occafion, is of opinion that this bird does not ftrictly belong to any of the prefent established genera. The make indeed is altogether that of an Fornbill, and the edges of the mandible are fmooth, but the toes being placed two forwards and two backwards, feem to rank it with the parrots or toucans; and it has been unlucky that in the fpecimen from which the description was taken, the tongue was wanting, which might in a great measure have determined the point: but the inducement for placing it with the hornbills has had the greater weight, as not a single species of the toucan tribe has yet been met with in that part of the world,'
him that affistance which fome focial civilization could only have procured. At the fpot juft mentioned, the land trended northerly, and he paffed in that direction through straits where he once found only eight fathom of water: these ftraits are five leagues in length, and feven or eight miles broad. The western coast of thefe ftraits feems to have been fome iflands adjoining to New Ireland; and parts of this difcovered land will be found in Mr. Robert's map under the names of Port Surville and Bay Choifeul. Queen Charlotte's iflands are very near, and to the west of this land, which is termed New Georgia; and it affords an additional proof that this whole fea is ftudded with islands inhabited by a race which differs little in appearance, in customs, or in manners. The fcurvy then broke out with violence: the voyagers reached the Pelew Islands in great distress; but whether they met with the ifland against which a part of captain Wilfon's crew was fent as auxiliaries, or the Spaniards had fince given an unfavourable impreffion of the English, is not easily ascertained; they met with, however, but little aid. The difeafe continued, and we find all horrors which we meet with in former narratives renewed.
The Friendship, a ftore-fhip in company, was funk, because the united crews were fcarcely fufficient to work a single ship, and in this condition the voyagers reached Batavia: four of the original feamen could only return to England.
Lieut. Watts' narrative of the return of the Lady Penryn tranfport, follows. He goes firft to Lord Howe's Ifland, which he defcribes particularly. He fays it is in lat. 31° 30′ 49′′ S, and in longitude 159° 10' east of Greenwich. The mean state of the thermometer during their stay was 66°. They pursued a north-easterly direction, finding fome iflands in lat, 30° 11' S. and long. 180° 58′ 37′′ E. At last the old enemy of navigators appeared with great violence, and they were obliged to proceed to Otaheite, where they were received by these kind and affectionate iflanders with their ufual eagernefs and regard. They were there fupplied with refreshments, but found Omai and the New Zealand boys were dead. By the jealousy of Maheine, chief of Emeo, all the cattle except fome goats and one horse were destroyed; and the men of Uliatea had carried away the precious property of Omai. The manner of his death they could not difcover. The stock they procured in this place, together with the additions laid in at Saypan and Tinian, brought them in perfect health to China.
The voyage of the Scarborough is next related; and as captain Gilbert accompanied captain Marshall, we purpose to examine the two accounts, which contain nearly the fame facts, together; and if they are read together by others, fome benefit
will be derived from the chart prefixed to captain Marshall's narrative, as well as from the minute diftinctnefs and the accurate views of captain Gilbert. If the different tracks of all the tranfports be compared, it will appear that Mr. Shortland, after clearing Jackfon's Bay, proceeded northerly, between New Guinea and Queen Charlotte's islands: captain Marshall with his companion went farther eastward, between the New Hebrides and the Friendly Iflands: lieut. Watts went ftill farther to the eastward, in his voyage to Otaheite. The difcoveries of the first were made a little to the fouth, and of the fecond fomewhat to the north of the line. Each, foon after he croifed the equinoctial, fteered wefterly to the Ladrone Islands. Captain Gilbert, therefore, afferts without reason, that his was the most eafterly track, though it might have been true if he had added
in unknown feas.' Captains Gilbert and Marshall did not land on Norfolk Island, but from thence purfued a track nearly northerly, and the first object of great importance which they met with, was an island about 30' fouth of the equinoctial; and this was fucceeded by others forming a range to about 11° N. latitude. Their most eafterly courfe was nearly in long. 175°. and the centre of the range was about 170°. The two captains enumerate and name the islands differently; and we fuppofe that they often faw different ones; we could wish that the two accounts were reconciled by fome perfons skilled in the subject, who have more leifure-time than we can boast. They faw feveral canoes, which resembled those of Otaheite, and their crews were evidently a part of the fame race, which is fo profufely scattered in these feas. It is highly probable that convenient harbours may be found in the islands described to procure fresh provifions, fince this courfe feems likely to become a common one. The fcurvy in the voyage before us made violent attacks, though it is on the other hand probable, that the scorbutic tendency will be leffened in the inhabitants of Jackson's Bay, in confequence of their more alimentary diet; and that from this port, in future ages, fhips may be fitted out with better fupplies. Tinian they expected to find fertile in resources; but the flattering accounts of Anfon have already appeared to be a tranfitory fcene. Byron and Wallis found it an unwholesome and inconvenient spot to refit in; and captain Gilbert's accounts agree nearly with those of Wallis. The Charlotte was driven to fea and obliged to cut her cables, for her crew was too weak to weigh the anchor with fufficient expedition: the anchor was afterwards found by lieut. Watts. The ships, however, arrived at China in a tolerable state of health with little lofs: their fhort ftay at Tinian had greatly refreshed them.
A Supplement to the natural history is added: among the birds we may remark the red-fhouldered parrakeet, the New Holland caffowary, and the white gallinule, as non-defcripts, and probably new fpecies. Among the animals, the kanguroo rat, the black flying opoffum, analogous to the flying squirrel, the dog, and the laced lizard, is at least uncommon if not new. Some particulars relating to the dog we shall extract. It has nearly the shape of a fox-dog, is a little less than two feet high, and two feet and a half long, of a pale brown, growing lighter towards the belly; the feet white.
It has much of the manners of the dog, but is of a very favage nature, and not likely to change in this particular. It laps like other dogs, but neither barks nor growls if vexed and teized; instead of which, it erects the hairs of the whole body like brifles, and feems furious: it is very eage r after its prey, and is fond of rabbits or chickens, raw, but will not touch dreffed meat. From its fiercenefs and agility it has greatly the advantage of other animals much fuperior in fize; for a very fine French fox-dog being put to it, in a moment it feized him by the loins, and would have foon put an end to his existence, had not help been at hand. With the utmoft cafe it is able to leap over the back of an afs, and was very near worrying one to death, having faftened on it, fo that the creature was not able to difengage himfelt without affiance; it has been also known to run down both deer and fheep.-There are two now alive in England.'
Among the fish we perceive two fpecies of fharks.-The thermometer is ufually from 80° to 50°; it has been at 98° and 82° as well as down to 33°. No barometer seems to have been carried. In the Appendix the routes of different fhips, and the names of the convicts, are fubjoined.
We have carefully avoided faying any thing relating to the ornaments of this work: it is beautifully printed, and the charts are truly valuable. We could have withed, however, for a general map on which the different tracks were laid down, from the Cape of Good Hope to Otaheite, and from the fouthernmost point of New South Wales to the Ladrone Islands. The other plates are of very different merits. Thofe of the objects of natural history, and particularly the birds, are well executed. The heads, except that of lieut. King, which would difgrace the meanest magazine, deferve praife. Every thing which relates to the views is fo badly reprefented, that we cannot find words to reprehend it. The drawer or the engraver would represent Grecian figures if he had known what they were; at' present he has delineated a race which never inhabited any island of the Pacific or Indian ocean; and the objects are fo little difcrimi