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quarters, he contrived to give thesion of Augereau on the right with appearance of a much more consi- part of the moving column at Boderable army. While he was orga- logna, placed himself at Verona in nising his troops at Bologna, Al the centre of his line to wait the vinzi bad apparently marshalled his event, and prepare himself for the army for a general attack on the irruption of the Austrians at what. whole of the French line along the ever point they should make their Adige. The Austrians had suc-' attack. ceeded in repulsing the French from While Alvinzi led the French to the various positions they occupied believe, from the attacks he made on on the right of the river (the 7th of the right and centre of their line, January). They had previously that his intention was to pierce by been defeated at Bevilague by the those points to Mantua, he had Austrian column which marched drawn off the nain body of his from Padua, and had driven back forces towards their left on the their advanced guard on the Lower Upper Adige. Had he succeeded in Adige under general Augereau. get ing possession of the posts be

The divisions that marched from tiveen this part of the river and the Bassano had cleared the plains, and lake of Guarda, he would have compearly reached the gates of Verona, pelled the French to draw back when they were stopt by the divi- their troops from the line of the sion ander general Massena, who, Adige, abandoning Verona in their after a most obstinate conflict, in centre, and Porto Legnano on their which great numbers were killed, right, and therebywould have affordsucceeded in repelling the assail- ed the means of throwing succours ants. These attacks made by Al into Mantua, with the left division of vinzi on the right and centre of the his army under general Provera, who French line, though they were a was waiting the result of the attack prelude to some general engage- on the right, to put in execution ment, left the French in great un- this well-concerted plan. The atcertainty respecting the intentions tack made by the Austrian forces of the Austrian commander, who on the higher Adige was at first suchad so well concealed his move- cessful. General Joubert, who ments, that Buonaparte was igno- commanded in that quarter, was Tant whether the great mass of the compelled to fall back before so Imperial forces were assembled on immense a superiority of numbers : the Lower Adige below Porto Le- general Alvinzi, it has been already gaano, with the intention of pene- observed, having made this the printrating to Mantua on the right of cipal point of attack, had not only his army, or on that part of the river weakened the other parts of his line near Rivoli, at forty miles distance to augment this division, but had from the former, where the left of strengthened himself by consideratae French army kept possession of ble reinforcements brought up from the country between the Adige every quarter. and the lake of Guarda. In The important post of Corona, this uncertainty, Buonaparte, af- after an obstinate conflict, and reter leaving in the Cispadan pro- peated attacks, was taken by the visces the troops necessary for Austrians, and the French were their safety, visiting the blockade of compelled to fall back to their prinMantua, and reinforcing the divi- cipal post at Rivoli. The nature

of of this attack, and the numbers with the mode of attack, so that the which it was made, left no doubt in whole of his columns should act the mind of Buonaparte that this in concert; no doubt remained was the point by which Alvinzi from the firmness which his troops meant to penetrate. Leaving Ve had hitherto shown, that the enterrona, after giving his instructions prise would be crowned with sucfor the centre of his army, and also cess, and the victory be decisive. for the right of the line at Porto Buonaparte's arrival deranged his Legnano, and on the lower Adige, operations; for although the French where a continued and severe can- were still as disproportionate in nonade was, kept up by the Austrian number as when they retreated to Ridivision under general Provera, voli, since the general had come unBuonaparte put in motion a part attended with troops, yet in expecof the division of Massena, and drew tation that the detachments made off the troops which were posted from the divisions at Verona and behind him at Denzenzano, direct. Denzenzano would arrive in time ing their march in different columns to second the operations, Buonatowards Rivoli.


parte ordered the attack to be made On his arrival, having changed on the 4th of January. general Joubert's plan of defence General Joubert, who had hiinto an attack, be ordered the va- therto been repulsed by Alvinzi's rious posts before Rivoli, which had army, advanced at the head of a been evacuated, to be retaken. The part of his division at break of day, execution of this order, which be along the heights of St. Marco, gan with skirmishes, brought on the post of which had been retaken the decisive combat earlier than the during the night; another part of Austrian general bad intended, his division occupied the centre, who calculated neither on the pre- and the left was to be successively sence of Buonaparte, nor on the reinforced by the divisions drawn reinforcements which the French off from the centre of the main arwere about to receive in that quar- my, and from other posts. ter. Hitherto all had succeeded The general action which took agreeably to Alvinzi's wishes. The place was fought for a consideradivision of his army, which had ble length of time with desperate been selected for this enterprise, valour on both sides. The advanhaving, by forced marches, in which tages were long balanced, and the they had scaled mountains covered victory uncertain. The Frenchwere several feet deep with snow, and frequently repulsed in endeavouring traversed a country rendered almost to turn the Austrian divisions; for impracticable, had so far seconded although the situation of the counthe general's plan, that having dri- try favoured their attempts, the su. ven back the French to Rivoli, be periority of numbers enabled the ing in possession of the most favour. Austrians to render them fruitless, able position for the general attack and even to drive back the right the next day, by which he had the wing of the French. The left wing means of turning the left wing of was also thrown into disorder, and the French, and drawing back their lost ground. Alvinzi having been right ; having also, during the thus far successful in repulsing both night, taken every measure which wings of the French, bore down could insure success, by organising with the main body of his forces on


their centre, and gave his left wing pect to hear of a glorious victory :": the means of advancing with twelve which was followed immediately companies of infantry, and thirteen by another courier, pressing her battalions, to the position which fight from Berlin with the royal the French had occupied. The family and the archives ; so Alvinzi, sight wing of the French, thus re- equally confident of success, had pulsed by the left wing of the Aus-' dispatched a courier to Vienna, trians, fell back on their centre, with news of the approaching capwhere Buonaparte, with the division ture of Buonaparte and the French under Massena, which had at this army. The Austrians, from the moment arrived from Verona, met heights which theyoccupied around, the shock; and though he forced saluted the ears of the French with the assailants to retire, he could not insulting invitations to surrender; repair the disorder of the right wing, and were dividing, in their imaginawhich was compelled to, take its tion, the spoils. Buonaparte, without position behind kivoli ; and this was concealing from his officers the im. effected not without considerable minent danger to which they were loss from the command which the exposed from the bravery and Austrians had of the heights. numbers of the enemy, coolly

The head of the Austrian co- pointed out to each what he judged lumn having it now in their power to be the least hazarduous mode of to scale the entrenchments made on extricating themselves from their the road by the French, and even perilous position. to penetrate, with a part of their The Austrians, after a general cavalry, into the plains, there was discharge, rushed on to scale the no further obstacle to the re-union entrenchments at Rivoli, of which of the Austrian army in the rear, they were three times in possession, since the right division had also and were successively repulsed. A succeeded in turning the left die small battery of four field-pieces vision of the French.

We had been brought, in the mean The republican forces were there- time, to cannonade the right fore entirely surrounded, and their wing of the Austrians, through communication cut off with Ve- which Buonaparte, it seems, had rona and other parts of their army: meditated his escape; but which their situation was therefore highly projected flight he now hoped to perilous. Wherever they cast their turn into a victory. Two brigades, cres, they behid the enemy on in three columns, under the geneevery side. Buonaparte, who had rals Brune and Monnier, were ora fought the whole day in every di-. dered to attack this wing, and disrection, and was now driven to the lodge it from the commanding pocentre, called his field-officers around sition which it kept on the heights. him, and both armies seemed to This desperate service the soldiers wait in awful silence the event of effected, advancing, at first, in res the succeeding moments.

gular order, singing one of their As the king of Prussia, at the war-hymns; but they no sooner Lattle of Cunnersdorf, in circum- approached within gun-shot of the Etances nearly similar, wrote to the enemy, than they rushed on them queen at Berlin : “ Madam, we with desperation. The Austrians, lare beat the Russians from their overwhelmed and confounded by entrenchments; in two hours ex- the violence of the assailants, fled,


panic-struck, towards the lake of ollis, who commanded the post of Guarda, and, meeting with a strag. ' St. George, in the vicinity of Mangling party of light-infantry, who tua, to surrender. were trying to join the surrounded According to the orders of Buo. French army, and whom they sup- naparte, on leaving Rivoli, geneposed to be a more considerable ral Joubert made an attack the body, laid down their arms, to the following day (January 15) on the number of 3000 men.

centre and left of the division which The French army was now dis remained under Alvinzi, in the engaged; but night put an end to posts they had occupied the preany further conflict. Buonaparte, coding day. The action began two who had received information that hours before day-break. T'he cena very violent cannonade had taken tre division of the French attacked place on the Lower Adige, and the centre of the Austrians, at the hearing nothing from general Au- post of St. Martin, which had algereau, who commanded in that ready been disputed with so much quarter, concluded that the com- warmth the day before, and from munication between the right of the which they were now dislodged ; but main army, and the centre at Ve- their left wing, which had kept rona, was cut off. Having left possession of St. Marco, and of the orders with general Joubert in what heights rising from the Adige, remanner he should attack the Aus, pulsed the French at every attack, trians on the following day, he di and held, with great firmness, the rected the march of part of the commanding position which they troops, which he judged could be had taken. In the mean while, gespared, towards Verona and Castelo neral Joubert, who doubted, early novo.

in the day, of the success of this enDuring this dreadful and bloody terprise, had dispatched a column contest on the Upper Adige, a co- to turn this wing of the Austrians lumn of ten thousand men, under by Corona. The Austrian general, general Provera, had forced their apprised of his movements, sent passage across this river (13th of another column to prevent this opeJanuary) at Angiara, under the ration; but the French had first protection of a formidable train of reached their destination, and acartillery, and had compelled gene- complished the intention of the exral Guieux, who'guarded the pas- pedition. The Austrians, seeing sage, to retire to Ronco. Gene. this manœuvre, rell into disorder, ral Augereau had united all his and were on the point of retreating, forces, to fall on this column, be- when they were surrounded. Six tween Anguiari and Roverquiera; thousand men laid down their arms, but, as the grand object of Provera and the rest of the division fied towas to throw succours into Mantua,' wards the Tyrol. General Prohis passage was so rapid, that the vera, in the mean while, having rear only of his column was exe penetrated to the suburbs of Manposed to the attack. The result of tua, finding bis attack on the fort This combat was two thousand pri- of St. George without effect, and soners, and a few cannon ; but the hearing no news from general Alremainder of the column pushed vinzi, who was to have formed bis forward, with little further oppo, junction with him at this point, had sition, and summoned general Mi- now no alternative but that of join

ang his forces to those of general lence of a capital, to brave the Wurmser, in a sally which the dangers of the field, and the sword latter might make from the citadel, of an experienced enemy. The or of laying down his arms.

empress had consecrated this ardour, This attack was made (Jan. 16) by working, with her own hands, before day-break, on the lines of the colours which were to lead the blockade, by the post of St. them to victory. This Imperial Anthony, with the whole force of present, although it did not prove the garrison, and with great impe a palla dium to its possessors, was tuosity : the object of which was not destined to grace the triumph the possession of the post of the Faof the conquerors. The gallant vorita, which would have opened standard-bearer, rather than suffer the way for a junction with Pro- it to be taken, tore it with his own vera; but Buonaparte, who fore- hands, and committed the frage saw this movement, had rendered ments to the flames, when he found it useless, by reinforcing the gar. the surrender of the army who rison with 1500 men. General fought under its auspices was beWurmser, failing in this attempt, come inevitable. gained possession of the post of St. The event of this well-contested Anthony; but the French, who had battle, which lasted four days, in been driven from thence, having a space of sixty miles, was a de been so reinforced, the garrison cisive victory gained over the Auscould make no further progress. In trians, by the destruction of this the mean while, Buonaparte had fifth army of the emperor, during dispatched a division, under general the Italian war. The fruits of this Victor, to turn the Austrian co- victory were 23,000 prisoners, lumn, in which it succeeded, after among whom were three generals, a warm contest. The general who fourteen colonels, twenty pair of commanded at the post of St. colours, and sixty pieces of canGeorge's made a sortie at the same non. The killed and wounded or moment; and Provera, part of both sides were very numerous, and whose infantry and cavalry had al- probably equal. General Wurm ready laid down their arms, who ser remained shut up in Mantua, had hitherto conducted himself with the garrison of which was left to distinguished military address and experience all the horrors of fabravery, and whose division had mine, since the convoy which atseconded with no less courage the tended the march of Provera had efforts of their general, finding also fallen into the hands of the bimself completely hemmed in, was French.. obliged to surrender himself, with While the armies of France. his troops, prisoners of war. , were thus victorious, the interior,

This bigh-spirited armywas com- as usual, continued to be harassed posed chiefly of those volunteers of by contending parties. The diVienna, already mentioned, on rectory, at the close of the year, whose courage the greatest expec- had made known, by a message to tations had been founded. The the councils, the pressing distresses relief of Mantua had kindled the of the country, and painted the chivalrous feelings of the crusade state of misery to which every class in these young men, and had led employed in its service was rethem, from the luxury and indo. duced ; the despair of the creditors


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