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"lTie preamble' to this series consisted of various considerations, such as " the constant pursuit of the plan laid down in the instructions of the conspirator*, Brothier, Duvernedes Presles, and the other agents of the pretender, disseminated throughout the republic; whereby the primary and electoral assemblies had been directed and seduced in their choice; that, excepting in a few instances, where the energy of the republicans had neutralised their attempts, the late elections hail not only filled the departmental administrations, but also the lata third of the legislature, witli emigrants, with rebel-leaders, and confirmed royalists; that the constitution was attacked by a pail of those who were expressly called to defend it, and against which no precautions had been taken; that it was impossible to defend it, without recuurse to extraordinary measures; and that, to crush the existing conspiracy, .md prevent the general effusion of bloud, it was the duty of the council to examine the attempts brought against the constitution from the month of Praireal preceding, and to taLe such further measures as should secure the liberty and happiness of the people from further danger."

In couse<|iienceof these considerations, the council (ifsuch in its pre** sent state it ought to be called) decreed, amongst other articles, that the operations of the primary assemblies, "communal and electoral, of forty-nine departments *, were unlawful and void; that the persons named to public employments by the

primary, communal, or electoral assemblies of these departments, including the members of the legislative body, should forthwith cease their functions; that the directory should be empowered to fill up the vacancies in the tribunal; that those dispositions of the exclusive law of the third Brumaire, which had l>een repealed in favour of the relations of emigrants, should be revoked, and the law re-established against them till four years after the* peace; and that, during this space, they should not be permitted to vote in the primary assemblies, nor to be named electors.

Thus, in the first instance, the representatives of the people were outraged by an armed force, in direct violation of the constitution; and in the second, the people themselves were robbed of their rights and privileges by an act of tyranny, as gross and as illegal as any thing which was exclaimed against in the former government. Whatever be the political sentiments of any man, who reads this account, we must pronounce him no friend to liberty, who sanctions or approves so direct a violation of every thing which ought to be sacred in the eye* of those who profess themselves the votaries of freedom.' From this moment posterity will date the decline and fall of the French republic;,since the men, who thus in.sultcd every sound and virtuous principle, proved themselves afterwards as incapable in the exercise of power as they were daring in assuming it.

The 13th article contains the names * of those who were to be transported, to the number of sixtyfive; of whom fifty-three were members of the two councils; and the two directors, Barthelemy and Carnot; the place of their exile was to be determined by the directory, and their property to be sequestered ti'l authentic proof was received of their arrival at the place of banishment. It was further enacted, that the emigrants who had entered the republic to solicit their erasure from the list, and who were not definitively struck off, should leave the republic in a limited time; that those who were detained in prison, and who had forfeited their lives, should be banished; that the lav lately made, to recall the banished priests was repealed; that the directory was invested with the power of sending away, by decrees individually no against popular societies was repealed, as well as those respecting the organisation of the national guard, and the prohibition which had been laid on the dirccory of suspending the civil authority, or putting a commune in a state of siege.

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tified, such priests as disturbed the public peace; and that the oath: to be taken in future should be that of hatred to royalty and anarchy, and of attachment to the republic and the present constitution. Punishments were likewise decreed against any of the constituted authorities which should not punctually execute the laws in this respect. Various new regulations were made in the administration of justice. The remainder of the family of Bourbon were expelled, and their estates confiscated; the directory being charged to designate the place of their banishment, and allow them a revenue out of their estates. To evince the further regard for liberty in these despicable tyrants, the neuspupcis and other periodical publications were placed under the inspection of the police for the term of a year. The law

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These propositions being sent to the council of the anciclits, a discussion ensued respecting certain clauses, and chiefly on that article which contained the list of persons designated by the five hundred to banishment. The directory perceiving this hesitation, sent a message, or more properly, in the present state of things, an order to the council of five.hundred, representing the danger of delay, and exhorting them to imitate the conduct which they had observed; to let no metaphysical discussion re~ •peering principles interrupt the •pecdy course of national justice; that being placed irr the most singular of positions, they .could not apply the*ordinary rules of the constitution, unless they wished to deliver up the republic to its enemies. "If the friends of kings find friends amongst you, if slaves can meet protectors, if you delay an instant, despair of the salvation of France, shut up the hook of the constitution, and tell the patriots

that the knell of the republic ha* tolled." This message was ininiediately sent by the five hundred to the ancients, and the propositions passed into a law without further opposition.

Supposing the assertions of the directory to have been (what they were not) proved, still, if they bad had any regard to that justice which was upon their lips, but not in their conduct, surely some greater discrimination ought to have been made in the fate of those who were marked out as objects of punishment. Had the council of elders not been degraded to the lowest pitch", move proof would have hcen required than the mere list of names, which the council of five hundred sent up, to convince them that Troncon-Ducoudray, Simeon, and Portalis, were implicated in the same crimes with Broth ier, Duvernc des Presles, and Lavilleheumois, the avowed agents of Louis; or that Barthelemy the director, and Cochon the ex-minister of police, ought to share V.\\e punishment of Rovere and Miranda; the one' the chief actor in the murders of Avignon, and thv other an indefatigable but imprudent instrument in the conspiracies of every party.

CHAP. XII.

Messages of the Directory on the Mode of raising Supplies, and on the Filling up the Vacancies in the Director)/. Banishment of the Journalists. Nomina* tion to the Directory. Disorders in the South. Recall of the French iVe^otiators at Lisle. Mission of others. Departure of Lord Mahncslmry. Absurd Account of Lord Malmesbury's Mission published in the Officio I Papers of the French Government. Reflections on the forged Letter. Final Cioseof the Negotiation between the French Republic and England. Negotiation with the Emperor for definitive Treaty. Supposed Causes eyf tke Delay in the Negotiations during the Summer. Treaty of Peace concluded at Campo-Formio. Principal Conditions of the Treaty. Pacification uith the Empirereferred to a Congress. Surrender of Venice to the

iZntpcror. Emperor. Despair of the -Venetian Patriots. Portugal. Treaty of Peace_ negotiated by 1'oitugal with Francs during the Summerdissolved. Imprisonment of the Portuguese Embassador. Ambiguity of the Conduct of the Spanish Court. Disaffection and Inejjlcacy of the Allies of the French Republic. Affairs of Holland. Treaty of Alliance, offensive and defensive, with the King of Sardinia, Reflections on Clauses in the lute Treaties. Proclamations of the Directory against the English Government. Review made by the French Government of the- Conduct of the Neutral Potters during the liar. Of Switzerland. Dec. ee of the Directory demanding the Expulsion of the English Embassador t,> the Helvetic Confederacy. Departure of the English Embassador. Object of his Mission at Bertie said to be discovered in Pichegru's Correspondence. Deputies from the Senate of Berne to Paris ordered to leave the Republic. Deputies from the United States of America. Reflections on the Conduct of the American Government. Contemptuous Sentiments if the French Government towards the ncie President of the United States. Probable Failure of the pending Negotiation. Vote of Supplies for the earning Year. Report on further, restraining Laws respecting the former Nobles. Propositions of the Committeerejected with Indignation. State of the Church. Meeting of a National Ecclesiastical Couneil. Retrospect of Ecclesiastical Affairs during the last Year. Theophilanthropism. Report on the present State of the Catholic Religion in FranceIn CorsicaIn the French West-India Islands. Religious State of the freed NegroesNegro General, Toussuint I'OuvertureIn the French Colonics in South AmericaIn the MauritiusIn the East Indies--* In the LevantAt Constantinople. Sentiments of the Fathers of the Gallic-ait Church, with respect to the Pupal See. Support of the Papal Sec by Protestant Establishments. Probable Causes of this Support. The Sects in Germany. Dispositions of some Lutherans to enter the Bosom of the Catholic Church- State of Popery in other Parts of the World. Rtflections of the Bishop qfBlois on the approaching Regeneration of Mankind. Proceeding* of the Council. Plan and Conditions of the religious Pacification. Reflections en the Articles enjoined by the Council. Civil S(ate of the Colonies in the West Indies. Views of the French Government on the Colonisation of the Coast of Africa. Meet in; of the Congress at Radstadt. Affairs of the Cisalpine Republic. Letters of Buonaparte to the Cisalpine and Ligurian Republics. Departure of Buonaparte from Italy. Opening of jthe Cisalpine Legislature. Reflections on the State of Italy. Provisional Formation of Ancona into a Republic. Journey of Buonaparte throughSwitzerland t»nd Radstadt to Paris. Sketch of his Victories. Presentation of the Ratification of the Treaty by the Emperor of the Directory.

THE directory, afterhaving,with from their own profligacy, prodithe aid- of the councils, thus gality, and mismanagement. The disposed of its enemies, scut a mes- evil which required the speediest sage to solicit the legislature to re- remedy was the'state of finance, medy the evils which they pre- The specific remedies which the tended had taken place during the directory proposed were the imtime of the ascendency of the po- mediate regulation and provision pular party in the government; for the expences of the ensuing but which, in reality, had resulted year; an augmentation of taxes on

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collateral successions; farming the post, and suppressing franking; reestablishing the national lottery; erecting turnpikes; a further duty on stamps; a duty on paper; but chiefly the mobilisation of the national debt; reducing the real stock to one-third; payable in money, and the other two-thirds in bans, to be taken in payment for national lands.

Leaving these propositions to the reflection of the councils, the directory sent another message to engage them to fill up the vacancies which existed in their department by the exclusion of Carnot and Barthelemy. During their deliberation in the choice of individuals, the councils employed themselves in scrutinising the political morality of a class of citizens, whose influence in spreading the principles of the counter-revolution had been active and extensive. These were the editors of newspapers. Sixty-seven of these journalists were presented by the commission, instituted for that purpose, as worthy of the animadversion of the legislature. Of these, two were, on the plea of intention, excused; twenty-three were referred to the committee for further examination; and the remainder were ordered to be banished from the republic to whatever place should be pointed out by the directory, under nearly the same regulations as the late members of the councils. As a further measure to secure the power of the usurpers, the exclusion of ex-nobles from places of public trust and employment was proposed; but the measure being judged more revolutionary than the circumstances of the time required, the motion was sent to a commission, to undergo mature consideration, and to discover if the project were useful.

The vacant p'accs in the directory were filled up by Merlin, the minister of justice, and Francis de Neufchateau, the minister for homeaffairs. The former occupied the place of Barthelemy, who was elected for the space of five years; the other replaced Carnot, whose office, according to the constitution, was to be determined by lot. The places of the new directors in the ministry were filled up by two citizens but little known; one of whom was Letourneur, ex-commissary of the directory at Nantes, who was named minister for homeaffairs; and the other by LainbrechtSjthe commissary at Brussels, who was appointed minister of justice. The vacancies made in the councils by banishment, and the exclusion of the greater number of the newly elected third, were left open to the election* which, according to the constitution, were to take place in the ensuing month of Germinal,

The southern departments of the republic partook of the convulsion of Paris at the same period, but in an opposite manner. Lyons and Montauban had long been marked for their affection to royalty, or perhaps for their opposition to tyranny under the name of republicanism. The success of the antidirectorial party, in the councils, had invigorated their hopes; and it was asserted that serious preparations had been made for the restoration of the ancient order of things: preparations that were probably directed by individuals of that party, but with which there is no evidence that the majority oA" the proscribed members were even acquainted.

One of the first operations of the new directory was the recall of the French commissaries, Lctowrnewr, Maret, and Pekt-Pleville, From

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