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national institute, by whom it was Europe gave the means of exew now inhabited, formed a contrast cuting without violence or terror, with the pomp and luxury of its yielded certain resources. But, as late possessors. The inquisition, and almost every source of public other monuments of spiritual des- wealth was dried up from the lapotism, which had long survived vish prodigality of the former gothe spirit which gave them birth, vernment and the repeated and perished, of course, in the revolu- unjust exactions of the French, tion. One alone was preserved; and the country had been delivered not that it merited less the animad- up to that kind of legalised plunversion of the reformers, but be- der, known under the name of recause its abolition in the penurious quisitions, which the necessities or state of the Roman revenue would rapacity of the victorious armies led have been impolitic; and, as far as them to impose, as the churches it was connected with the fortunes had already been spoiled of a conof private individuals, unjust. The siderable part of their valuable office is that from which briefs, or ornaments, and the rich had been bulls, for benefices, were dispensed ; laid under heavy contributions ; and which brought annually intó as public credit, which was fast the Roman treasury a clear benefit hastening to decay, from the of from eighty to one hundred thou- shocks which it had endured under sand pounds sterling. These expe- the - foriner government, had reditions were continued with re- ceiver a fatal blow from the last spect to Spain, in the name of the occurrences; and the paper-curpope, agreeably to an arrangeinent rency of the state, which had himade by the Spanish minister with therto kept up the circulation, had The Rornan government; and the no other standard for its value than same steps were taken by other ca. the ararice of stock-jobbers; and, tholic powers for such objects: s ne- as the pressing wants of the state cessitated the interference of the (amongst which were wants that spiritual authority of the church. could not be adjourned, such as The tempcral establishments, par- the supply of subsistence for Rome, licularly two banks; one for private which had always been a primary loans or pledges, and the other for object of public attention) dediscounts, were preserved; but the manded new sacrifices, the governcredit of both, excellent in their ment was compelled to have reinstitution, had been nearly ruined course to arbitrary measures, such by the prodigality of the former as levying exorbitant taxes on the government
rich, who had been already exOf such disorders in the public hausted---measures eventuallyruinfinances, the revolution could only ous to the mass of the people, and increase the weight. Confiscation subversive of the spirit of liberty, of incorporate property, such as but which, they pleadeil, the exithe domains belonging to the apo- gencies of the moment forced them stolic chamber, and estates of reli- to adopt. gious communities, which it was With this accumulation of diffifound expedient to suppress, and culties, the Roman republic had to which the dispersion of the crowd struggle in the first moments of its of monks who had tlocked to birth; difficulties which the Frenciu Rome from various quarters of governinent might have consider
ably ably diminished, had not other potism, to the erection of a free reconsiderations, than those of esta- public, founded on the basis of blishing liberty, influenced the lead- public virtue, is an enterprise of ing members of its executive difficult execution. Unfortunately power. The overthrow of the pa- too the Roman government was pal government was a measure instituted under the patronage of loudly demanded, not only by the a directory equally unprincipled voice of reason, but by the rulers of and impolitic. It was therefore almost every catholic country in formed for ruin; and, in our sucEurope, to whom the papal yoke ceeding volume, we strall probably had becoine insupportable. But have to record its fall, and the parthe passage froin the ruins of that tial and tempory restoration of the corrupted inass of stuperstitious des- papal power.
Affulrs of Switzerland. Disputes with the French Directory. Insurrection
in the Pays-de-Vaud. Interference of the French March of General Menard. Revolution in the Pays-de-Vaud. Negotiations between the Goternment of Berne and the French Directory. Seditious Movements in ihe Bernese Territory. Insurgents of Arau dispersed. Fresh Negotiations. Seriss prepare for Defence. Castle of Dornach taken by the French. Soleure und Fribourg taken. Action between General d'Erlach and the French. D'Erlach completely defeated, and killed by his own People. Surrender of Berne. Submission of all Switzerland. Revolution there. Helvetic Republic founded. Pretended Preparations for the Invasion of England. Plan of founding 4 Colony in Egypt. Expedition of Buonaparte. Surrender of Malta to the French. Buonaparte arrives at Aleradria. That Place iaken by Storm. Rosettu, ic. taken. Cairo taken. Battle of the Pyramids. Battle of the Nile, and Defeut of the French Fleet by Admirai Nelson. Reflections on the Erpedition of Buonaparte. Proceedings of the French Legislature. Election of the new Third. Election of a New Director. Reflections on the present State of France.
IN a preceding chapter it will be monopolised by a few families, it
perceived, that the next victim must still be remembered that aumarked out by the ambition and thority was exercised with exemTapacity of the French Directoryplary moderation, the people were was the Helvetian confederacy. contented and happy; and if, on That the aristocracies of Switzer- certain occasions; the jealousy of aad had been wholly blameless, French principles, or the influence either in their conduct towards of a powerful neighbour, had intheir own people, or towards the duced the governors of some of French, is an assertion which an those republics to treat with less honest historian will scarcely ven- respect than ordinary the agents of Pure to make. But if the power of France, this was a proper subject be state, and its very moderate for negotiation, and not for war.
duents, were in some, or, per- The French directory, however, Laps, the majority of the cantons, had other views : the conduct
which they had pursued towards thought proper to interfere in this Venice, Genoa, and Rome, was domestic dispute, and demanded now matured into a system. With from the government of Berne them war, the last resort of hu- what they termed the restoration man resentment, the worst of hu- of the rights of that people, and man calamities, was become a the assembling of the states of the trade; and the unoccupied legions Pays-de-Vaud in their ancient of France were tolevy a subsistence form : this demand they immeon their defenceless neighbours. diately prepared to enforce by Among the obnoxious discussions arms; and general Menard was orwhich were agitated in the coun- dered to march, with a body of cils, previous to the revolution of 15,000 men, to support the claims the 4th of September, it will be of the petitioning party in the remembered, that this system of Pays-de-Vaud. The designs of aggression towards the neutral pow- the French were for the moment ers held a conspicuous place; such frustrated by the timidity or gea discussion, it is believed, more nerosity of the supreme council of than any other, heightened the ap- Berne. On the 5th of January, preliensions of the directory, and 1798, they issued a proclamation, even of Buonaparte himself, and enjoining the citizens of the Paysa hastened the event of that atrocious de-Vaud to assemble in arms, to day.
renew the oath of allegiance, to The directory, confirmed in pow. proceed inimediately to the reform er, and relieved from the controul of every abuse in the government, of a popular legislature*, hastened, and to assert and re-establish all towards the close of the year 1797, their ancient rights. A commission to put in force their project of sub- had been previously appointed at jugating the Swiss republics. The Lausanne, for determining on the first hostile movement on the part claims of the petitioners, and for of the French was to take pos- reinstating the country in its former session of the Helvetic part of the tranquillity. From what causes it . bishoprick of Basle, under some happened we have not as yet been frivolous pretence, and contrary correctly informed, but the proceedto an express treaty concluded with ings of the commission seemed inthe Swiss in the year 1792. Either volved altogether in embarrassment toe weak or too prudent to resent and delay. The people became this infraction of their rights, the impatient, and the insurrection at Helvetic body still tattered them- once broke out into actual hostia selves with an amicable termina- lity. The castle of Chillon was tion of their difference with France; seised by the insurgents; and the when an insurrection, which broke commotions which took place in out in the Pays-de-Vaud, probably the southern districts of the prethrough French instigation, or at vince appeared not less formidable. least through the influence of The government of Berne now deFrench principles, afforded a fuller termined to reduce the insurgents pretext for the overthrow of the by force; and a body of 20,000 government. In the month of troops, under the command of coDecember, the French directory lonel Weiss, was dispatched to dis
* M. Mallet du Pan asserts, that it was through the influence of Carnot and Borbe lemy that the blow meditated against Swilzerland had hitherto been ayerted.
positive orders to put his army in the French general insisted upon motion, and the council imme- the town receiving a French gar: diately made a decree to that effect. rison. In the mean time all was The plan of the campaign was now confusion, both in Berne and in arranged by M. d'Erlach, and no- the army; the left division of which tice had been given to the posts had mutinied, deserted their posts, that hostilities were to commence and put to death some of their of on the evening of the 1st of March; ficers. By desertion, the Swiss ar: when the movements of the Swiss my was now reduced to 14,000, to general were frustrated by the re- which might be added the undisci. peal of the decree which had been plined rabble, which the Lands. so hastily passed, and the negotia- thurm had called forth. “About tion was renewed with the French 8000 of the regular forces were stacommander,
tioned at Neweneg, and 6,100 held M. Mallet du Pan asserts, that the position of Frauenbrun, against the French general, Brune, had which general Schawenbourg adagreed to prolong the truce for thir- vanced from Soleure, at the head ty hours; but, on the 2d of March, of 18,000 men. On the morning the castle of Dornach, at the north- of the 5th of March, both posts ern extremity of the canton of So- were attacked by the French, and leure, was attacked and carried a momentary success seemed to by the French; and, at the same crown the valorous efforts of the time, 13,000 men were marched division which was stationed at under the walls of Soleure, which Neweneg; but the forces stationed capitulated to general Schawen, at Frauenbrun were, after a vigor-, bourg on the first summons. Fri- ous resistance, obliged to retreat ; bourg. was immediately after re- M. D'Erlach rallied his men at duced by general Brune, and the Uteren, where a second engage Swiss army was forced to retreat. ment took place, but with no bet
While disaffection and niutiny ter success on the part of the Swiss. pervaded the army of general At Grauholtz, a league and a half D'Erlach, the inhabitants of Berne from Berne, however, they again saw the rapid approach of the vic- made a stand; whence they were torious enemy. On the 3d of driven to the gates of the capital, March, the levy of the Landsthurm, where, after another severe conor, as the French would express it, flict, they were completely routed. the rising of the people in a mass, The Swiss, in this engagement, lost was proclaimed. The expedient 2,000 in killed and wounded; the did not succeed in favour of the loss of the French was about 1,800.. magistrates.---The people were no On the evening of the 5th, gesooner assembled in arms than they neral Brune eniered the city of of themselves dissolved the govern- Berne by capitulation. The diviment; 4 provisional regency was sions of the Swiss army, stationed elected for the occasion; the event at Neweneg and Gumigen retreatwas notified to general Brune; and to ed; the soldiers of this last COfacilitate a pacification, an order was lumn, in despair, put their officers issued to dismiss the army, on con- to death; and the unfortunate gedition that the French would keep peral D'Erlach, in flying from the the posts they at present occupied. field of battle, was murdered by
I nsatisfied with this concession, his countrymen and soldiers.