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every arrangement must be concerted. Your lordship in particular, and all persons acting immediately under you, cannot be too strongly impressed with the necessity of an unreserved and habitual communication with those to whom the direction of that power is entrusted in the district; and I can assure
your lordship, that, on their part, they have his majesty's most positive orders to be equally unreserved and frequent in their communications with your lordship and your deputy lieutenants, and in all doubtful occurrences connected with the civil power, where time will admit of it, to recur to your or their advice, and to neglect no means of cultivating and maintaining with you a perfect harmony, concert, and good understanding. Should the emergency actually exist, from that moment, of course, every description of armed force, and every association formed with a view to annoy or impede the enemy, or to support and assist our own forces, would come under the immediate orders of the military commander, and, as far as consistent with their conditions of service, taking the station assigned to each respectively in his general arrangement for the defence of bis district, continue to serve in it under such orders as may be issued by those whom, in such a moment, it will be their first duty and their best interest to obey.
I have the honour to be,
your lordship's most obedient
(Signed) Henry Duxdas.
A plan for driving the live Stock of such Parti of the Country as may become exposed to the inroads of the Enemy in Case of an Invasion ; as
also for saving other Descriptions
of Property, as much as possible f
and for rendering the Body of the
People instrumental in the General
If an enemy should land upon' our shores, every possible exertion should be made immediately to deprive him of the means of subsistence.
The navy will soon cut off his communication with the sea; the army will confine him on shore in such a way, as to make it impossible for him to draw any supplies from the adjacent country. In this situation he will be forced to lay down his arms, or to give battle on such disadvantageous terms, as can leave no doubt of his being defeated.
But if unforeseen and improbable circumstances should enable him to make some progress at first, a steady perseverance in the same system will increase his difficulties at every step; sooner or later he must inevitably pay the forfeit of his temerity.
How much the accomplishment of this object will be facilitated by driving away the live stock, and consuming, or, in case of absolute necessity, destroying all other means of subsistence, in those parts of the country which may be in imminent danger of falling into his possession, is too evident to need any discus-, sion.
The only question is, how to efi feet this purpose with the greatest celerity and order, and with the least possible injury to individuals. To this end a well digested plan is obviously indispensable.
In clearing the country likely to be in this situation, the first principle is an indemnification from the community at large to the individuals for the value of all stock which may be removed in consequence of inv asio invasion, if not restored to the respective owners, as also for whatever moveable property may be destroyed by our own arms, to prevent its falling into the hands of the enemy, provided the proprietor comes forward and enters into such arrangements as may be proposed to preserve it, either by personal attendance at the time, or otherwise in some mode of-service, at the moment of invasion. It must at the same time be very clearly understood, that no indemnification whatever can be allowed for any property destroyed either by our own arms, or by the enemy, if it should appear that no previous preparation or exertion had been made use of to remove it; and that all property left in this state is to be destroyed, if necessary, to prevent its falling into the enemy's hands. Upon these grounds, the following preparatory arrangements are proposed for immediate consideration. First, The inhabitants of every parish, hundred, or other division of the county, of convenient size, should forthwith agree among themselves upon proper places of rendezvous, at which their cattle, waggons, and carts might be collected, in case of an order to drive the country being received from the general commanding in the district, or any competent person authorised by him to give such an order, or in rase of any signal he or they may have appointed for this, purpose being made; proper march routes should be fixed upon for driving them away to certain places of security in the interior part of the t country, taking care to choose byeroads for that purpose, that the great turnpike roads may remain entirely free for the marching of troops and artillery; and where it maybe unavoidable to pass one or more of
the great roads, it should be done in such a manner, that they may only be crossed and occupied during the shortest space of time possible. If a column of troops, artillery, or army-supplies, should happen to be moving on the great road at the place of crossing, the stock may easily be stopt in its progress until the military shall have passed the same: every arrangement for these purposes must be concerted with the general com. manding in the district, or submitted to his approbation.
To avoid loss, confusion, and delay in this operation, it will be necessary that the inhabitants of each parish or other division should choose from among themselves a sufficient number of persons to drive and attend the cattle, under the direction of one or more leaders, to be chosen by the proprietors; which leaders should have authority and means given them by the proprietors to provide the necessary subsistence for the cattle, and persons attending them, upon the road, and at the places of security fixed upon, and to determine the places of halting and refreshment during their march, and other arrangements of detail after their arrival. Such places as afford good water and plenty of pasture should be preferred and pointed out by the civil authority of the county, for the depots, in concert with the general commanding the forces in the district who is instructed to give every assistance and accommodation in 'his power for the protection and subsistence of the cattle, and of the persons attending the same.
It will further be advisable that it should be concerted with the general commanding in the district, that some proper person of the commissariat
missariat staff under him should depriving bim of all means of subattend at each place of depot, with sistence, it should be recommended instructions to give receipts, if re- to them to appoint several discreet ■quired, for all the live aud dead trusty persons from among thematock that may be brought to the selves, to remain in the parish as depot, or to enter the same upon a long as the same shall not actually register to be opened for that pur- be in possession of the enemy, or
pose: but the persons who attend such stock should nevertheless remain in charge of the same, unless it should be disposed of by being appropriated to the consumption of the army. It is also to be understood, that the proprietor of
entirely cut off from the army. This arrangement will not only facilitate the means of supplying our own army with what must otherwise be destroyed, to prevent its falling into the hands of the enemy; but it will in many instances
any cattle or other produce that also diminish the chance of loss. Rearmy be removed in consequence of ceipts will be given by the troops
this arrangement, or such person or persons as muy be authorised by him yi this respect, will have the power to send such part of the said cattle or produce, as he or they may think proper, to be disposed of at any market or place in rear of the depot, on returning to the commissary his receipts, or noticing such disposal in the register abovementioned, as the case may be; provided always, that the commissary should have signified that he was in no danger of wanting such
for all articles which may be taken for their use, on the production of which receipts the proprietors will afterwards be entitled to payment, at fair and reasonable prices, according to regulations to be established for that purpose. The persons so named would point out the places where supplies are deposited, and take the receipts of the troops in trust for the absent proprietors.
Third. Care should be taken by the inhabitants of such parishes as
cattle or produce for the supply of may be in imminent danger of falling the army. into the hands of the enemy, that
It should also be recommended all mills aiid ovens be rendered useto the proprietors to mark their less to him, by carrying off or decattle not only with the initials of stroying some essential part of the their names, but also to add some machinery of the former, which
distinctive mark, common to the whole parish, that confusion may be avoided, if the stock of several parishes should come to join in one body.
Second. As it may be impossible afterwards be repaired at the small' for the inhabitants, in case of alarm, est expenc6
cannot easily be replaced, and by breaking the latter. In both cases, that mode of derapgement is the most eligible which, while it effectually .answers the purpose, may
immediately to remove the more bulky articles of property, such as grain, hay, and straw, which nevertheless cannot be suffered to fall into the hands of the enemy, con
Fourth. A corps of guides not exceeding on horseback
and on foot, consisting of those who are best acquainted with the roads, lanes, foot-paths, bridges,
sistently with the essential object of creeks, rivers, fording-places, and 1798. (P) other
other communications, in the several parts of the country, should be selected in the maritime eojntics, and their names and places of abode be communicated to the general commanding in the district to which such counties respectively belong.
Fifth. The unarmed inhabitants will have an opportunity of rendering services equally necessary and important, by forming themselves into companies of pioneers, under the direction of leaders to be appointed by the civil authority of the county. •
A numerous body of pioneers is 10 essential to the movements of an army, and to the obstruction of the progress of the enemy, that it is intended, in case of their being called into actual service, to make a competent daily allowance to all who mav offer to come forward in the capacity of pioneers.
In that case thest! pioneers should, if possible, come provided with tools of the following description, viz. six pic-axes, six spades, six shovels, three bill-hooks, and four felling axes, to every twenty-five men.
Nevertheless it is not meant to exclude any man who may not have it in his power to bring any of these tools; let him say what tool he can bring; and if he cannot bring any, his service in some way will be acceptable notwithstanding.
The duty of the pioneers will generally consist in repairing and ppening such roads, bridges, and communications, as rnav facilitate the movements of our own army, aud in breaking up or obstructing such as it may be necessary to render impassable to the1 enemy*
The allowances proposed ■ to be
made to pioneers from the day ou which they may be required to assemble, until their services may no longer bewanted, are as follow:
To every able-bodied man eighteen-pence per day:
To every leader of twenty-five men and upwards, two-pence per day for every man under his command.'
These leaders to be styled captains, their companies to consist of not less than twen|y-five, nor more than seventy-five men. To every twenty-five men, of which a company may consist, is to be allowed one overseer, to be appointed by the captain, aud removeable at his pleasure, at the daily allowance of three shillings from the day on which the pioneers may be ordered to assemble.
The duty of the leaders, or captains will consist in receiving such orders as may be given from lime to time, by authority of the general officers commanding, for the services to be done by the pioneers, and seeing thein- executed with punctuality and dispatch; in keeping correct lists of the pioneers under their command, and seeing that they are constantly provided with proper tools; in maintaining order and regularity among them, and in receiving and distributing the wages to be given to them; taking proper receipts, and rendering accounts of the nioney entrusted to them according to forms to be prescribed.
Each pioneer, leader, aud overseer, to be at liberty to draw one ration of bread consisting of one pound and a half, from the king's magazine, on paying for the same, at the rate of live pence for every four rations. The leaders or captains to give credit for the amount Hi their accounts; and their receipts tor the bread drawn by their companies to be deemed satisfactory proof of the delivery thereof. Sixth. To the. end that the several objects treated of in this plan may be completely attained, f>>r the general defence of the country, it is necessary that the result of thu proceedings of the inhabitants thereon should be well digested, reduced to writing in a uniform manner, and made known to the general officers commanding in the district where such proceedings may lake place, that they may be enabled to avail themselves thereof, and adopt corresponding measures.
A flan for- an Association of the Nobility, Gentry, and Yeomanry residing in tlie several Counties, to supply such number of Waggons, Carts, and Hoists, in aid of the Provisions made by the Mutiny Act, as mn\i be necessary for carrying on his Majesty's Service; as also to Cuiitribute to the Supply of his Majesty's Forces with Flour, Wheal, Oats, Hay, Straw, and Fuel, in Case of an Invasion.
The necessity of being prepared to repel an invasion, in the present state of public affairs, is too obvious to require discussion. The only question is, how to form all necessary arrangements at the least possible expence. The country abonnds in supplies of all kinds to a degree which renders the laying in of extensive magazines unnecessary. Small depots for a few days' consumption are sufficient, provided means can be found to bring forward the resources of the country at a short notice. Depots of this description have accordingly been formed at different places, pursuant Jo orders given by his royal high
ness field-marshal the dukeof York. The means of transporting them, and of obtaining and transporting such further quantities as may be necessary in cases of emergency, remain to be devised. The establishment of a waggon train of sufficient force to supply an army, would entail a very heavy expence upon the public, and take away a very considerable number of horses and men from ordinary pursuits of agriculture, lloth may be avoided by means equally simple- and certain. The spirit of the country will do it most effectually; nor need that spirit be wasted to the detriment of individuals; it need only be roused at the moment of actual danger, when all is at stake, when all must give way to the primary object of self-preservation.
Such of the nobility, gentry and yeomanry of the county, as may approve the measure, should be requested to subscribe a paper, expressing opposite to their names the number of waggons and carts protided with tills, and the number of horses, drivers and conductors, which ihey propose to furnish respectively.
The waggons, carts, &c. subscribed for, or such part as may be required from time to time, ought to march as soon as possible, and at latest on the next morning after notice received to that effect.
The waggons, carts, &c. marehiug in conformity to such notice, to continue at the disposal and under the orders of the king's officers, as the service may require.
The said waggons and carts to travel at the rate of five miles in every two hours; twenty-five miles when loaded, and thirty miles when empty, in every twenty-four hours. One or more discreet and intelligent persons, besides, the drivers, (P 2) shouia